On-farm treatment options for wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge with special reference to West Africa.
Keraita, B.; Drechsel, P.; Klutse, A.; Cofie, O. 2014. On-farm treatment options for wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge with special reference to West Africa. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). 32p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 1). [doi: 10.5337/2014.203]
Where conventional wastewater treatment is lacking, and water in streams and rivers used for crop irrigation is heavily polluted, alternative or additional options for health risk reduction are needed. The 2006 edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture support such a multiple-barrier approach. On-farm water treatment constitutes one of these barriers, and although it can hardly replace conventional treatment, it can contribute to risk reduction, especially if combined with other barriers such as safe irrigation practices and post-harvest crop washing. This report illustrates a selection of options for safer wastewater and greywater irrigation as well as excreta use, with particular reference to studies in West Africa.