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CA Research Published in Partner Publications

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Effective gender mainstreaming in water management for sustainable livelihoods: From guidelines to practice, BothEnds Working paper series, December 2006

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Stakeholder-oriented valuation to support water resources management processes Confronting concepts with Local Practices, 2006, by Leon Hermans & Daniel Renault (FAO), Lucy Emerton & Daniele Perrot-Maitre (IUCN), Sophie Nguyen Khoa (IWMI), Laurence Smith (Imperial College London), Rome 2006“. FAO water Report 30 (More details also in Research Report 7, 2005 –PDF).

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

Assessment of Supplemental Irrigation and Water Harvesting potential – Methodologies and Case Studies from Tunisia. Ben, Mechlia N, Oweis T, Masmoudi M, Khatteli H, Ouessar M, Sghaier N, Anane M and Sghaier M. 2009. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. Iv, 36p.

Integrating Expert Knowledge in GIS to Locale Biophysical Potential for Water Harvesting: Methodology and a Case Study for Syria. De Pauw E, T Oweis, J Youssef. 2008. [Insufficient resolution for printing]

Spatial Modeling of the Biophysical Potential for Supplemental Irrigation: A Case Study in Syria. De Pauw E, T Oweis, B Nseir, J Youssef. 2008. [Insufficient resolution for printing]

International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

Potentially Obtainable Yields in the Semi-Arid Tropics. Fischer G, H van Velthuizen, E Hizsnyik and D Wiberg. 2009. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 54.

Quantification of Yield Gaps in Rain-fed Rice, Wheat, Cotton and Mustard in India. Aggarwa PK, KB Hebbar, MV Venugopalan, S Rani, A Bala, A Biswal and SP Wani. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.43

Yield Gap Analysis of Sorghum and Pearl Millet in India using Simulation Modeling, Murty MVR, Piara Singh, SP Wani, IS Khairwal, K Srinivas. 2007. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.37

Yield Gap Analysis of Soybean, Groundnut, Pigeonpea and Chickpea in India Using Simulation Modeling. Bhatia VS, Piara Singh, SP Wani, AVR Kesava Rao and K Srinivas. 2006. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.31

Yield Gap Analysis of Major Rainfed Crops of Northern Vietnam Using Simulation Modeling. Chuc, NT, Piara Singh, K Srinivas, A Ramakrishna, NT Chinh, NV Thang, SP Wani and TD Long. 2006. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.26

On-site and Off-site Impact of Watershed Development: A Case Study of Rajasamadhiyala, Gujarat, India, Sreedevi, TK, SP Wani, R Sudi, Mahesh S Patel, Jayesh Talati, SN Singh and Tushar Shah. 2006. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.20

The Making of New Powerguda: Community Empowerment and New Technologies Transform a Problem Village in Andhra Pradesh, D’Silva E, SP Wani, B Nagnath. 2004. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.11

Adarsha Watershed in Kothapally Understanding the Drivers of Higher Impact, Sreedevi TK, B Shiferaw, SP Wani. 2004. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No.10

International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID)

PODIUMSIM, Amarasinghe, Upali A. Country Policy Support Programme (CPSP) Report 10, 2005.

Water Supply, Water Demand and Agricultural Water Scarcity in China: A Basin Approach, Amarasinghe, Upali A., Mark Giordano, Yongsong Liao, Zhongping Shu, Country Policy Support Programme (CPSP) Report 11, 2005.

WATERSIM, de Fraiture, Charlotte, Country Policy Support Programme (CPSP) Report 12, 2005.

International Water Management Institute (IWMI)

CA Publications in IWMI Research Report series

IWMI’s Research Reports are internationally peer-reviewed and follow a review process similar to that of recognized international scientific journals (anonymous peer review). The purpose of research reports is to highlight generic scientific tools and lessons that can be culled from IWMI research.


Irrigation and Water Policies in the Mekong Region Current Discourses and Practices, François Molle, IWMI Research Report 95, 2005

This report documents current irrigation and water policies in the Mekong countries. It successively reviews planning issues, water policies and legal frameworks, the setting up of water policy “apex bodies,” participatory policies, and IWRM/river basin management. Download [PDF 713kb]

Balancing Irrigation and Hydropower: A Case Study from Southern Sri Lanka,
Molle, François, Priyantha Jayakody, Ranjith Ariyaratne and H.S. Somatilake, IWMI Research Report 94, 2005

This report analyzes a case from southern Sri Lanka, where the Samanalawewa dam and the Kaltota Irrigation Scheme (KIS) compete for the water of the Walawe river. At the catchment level, it is shown that dam releases are well attuned to the needs of KIS and to the occurrences of natural runoff, and that little of the dam water is “lost” to the river.  Download [PDF 1.49mb]

Adoption and Impacts of Microirrigation Technologies Empirical Results from Selected Localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat States of India, Regassa E. Namara, Bhawana Upadhyay and R. K. Nagar, IWMI Research Report 93, 2005

This report analyzes the economics of alternative microirrigation technologies ranging from low-cost drip and sprinkler systems to the capital-intensive systems, the determinants of adoption of microirrigation technology, the poverty outreach of the different microirrigation systems, and the sustainability implications of microirrigation adoption. Download [PDF 671kb]

Economics and Politics of Water Resources Development: Uda Walawe Irrigation Project, Sri Lanka, François Molle, Mary Renwick, IWMI Research Report 87, 2005

The Uda Walawe Irrigation and Resettlement Project (UWIRP) located in the Southern dry zone of Sri Lanka was initiated in the early 1950s. The original plan for the UWIRP was a highly ambitious social, economic and physical engineering project aimed at creating a modern, profitable agriculture sector. This report examines the history of water resources development and investment decisions for the UWIRP over a period of 50 years and uncovers underlying processes that shaped the evolution of the project and highlights the limitation of viewing development as a mere set of technical and social engineering endeavors. Download [905kb]

Spatial Variation in Water Supply and Demand across River Basins of India, Amarasinghe, Upali A., Bharat R. Sharma, Noel Aloysius, Christopher Scott, Vladimir Smakhtin, Charlotte de Fraiture, A.K. Shukla, IWMI Research Report 83, 2005

India is a large country with regional differences in per-capita water supply and demand. Attempts to describe the water situation in India at a national level are often misleading due to the tremendous diversity in the water situation across the country. This Report analyzes the spatial variation of water supply and demand across river basins in India. The study identifies basins that are water-scarce because of inadequate water availability to meet the effective demand. It also identifies issues that are important for estimating the future water demand and for the formation of policy for future water-resources development and management. Download  [PDF 1.7Mb]

Robbing Yadullah's Water to Irrigate Saeid's Garden: Hydrology and Water Rights in a Village of Central Iran, François Molle, Alireza Mamanpoush and Mokhtar Miranzadeh, IWMI Research Report 80, 2004

This report provides a case study from the province of Esfahan, in central Iran, describing the struggle of a village to secure the water resources without which local agriculture, and altogether life in the village, would be impossible. It illustrates the endless ingenuity of farmers in their quest for water, how land and water rights have developed, how various legal repertoires may conflict with one another, and how the intervention of the state transformed the wider hydrological cycle of the valley and affected the delicate equilibrium between population and resources that had prevailed until then. The report estimates the costs of accessing one cubic meter from each of these different sources and shows how political interventions or drought mitigation policies elicit solutions that are extremely costly. Download [PDF 1,356kb]

Prospects for Adopting System of Rice Intensification in Sri Lanka: A Socioeconomic Assessment, Regassa E. Namara, Parakrama Weligamage and Randolph Barker, IWMI Research Report 75, 2003

Today, there is an increasing worldwide interest in assessing the potential for maintaining or increasing rice yields by reducing or eliminating the use of chemicals and by decreasing irrigation requirements. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) first developed in Madagascar and now being tested in many countries, is an example of such an approach. The system is based largely on organic farming principles and additional requirements for spacing and the transplanting of seedlings. Download [PDF 850kb]

A Method to Identify and Evaluate the Legal and Institutional Framework for the Management of Water and Land in Asia: The Outcome of a Study in Southeast Asia and the People’s Republic of China, Ian Hannam, IWMI Research Report 73, 2003

This report is based on an investigation into legal and institutional aspects of water- and land-use management in the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Republic of the Philippines and the People’s Republic of China. The report gives a methodology that can: determine the capacity of a legislative and institutional system to accomplish sustainable water and land management; be applied at various levels; be a comparative environmental law tool; and identify areas of strength and weakness within a legal and institutional system. Data from the comparative analysis of legal frameworks is applied to practical-based environmental management. Download [PDF 752kb]

Development Trajectories of River Basins: A Conceptual Framework, François Molle, IWMI Research Report 72, 2003

This report develops an alternative conceptual framework for basin development, analyzing historical transformations of landscape and society, and accounting for the evolution of a wide variety of river basins. Download [PDF 1,273kb]

Policies Drain the North China Plain: Agricultural Policy and Groundwater Depletion in Luancheng County, 1949-2000, Eloise Kendy, David J Molden, Tammo S Steenhuis, Changming Liu, IWMI Research Report 71, 2003

Despite improved irrigation efficiency, water-table declines continue unabated in Luancheng County. This report presents a quantitative framework for collaborative land-use planning and long-term, sustainable water management, but concludes some land must be withdrawn from irrigation to achieve sustainable water use. Download [PDF 1,993kb]

Water Productivity in the Syr-Darya River Basin, Murray-Rust, Hammond, Iskandar Abdullaev, Mehmood ul Hassan and Vilma Horinkova.  IWMI Research Report 67, 2003

This report analyses water productivity and water-saving initiatives in the Syr-Darya river basin in Central Asia and presents institutional and political aspects of water management in the basin. Download [1,797 kb]

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CA publications in IWMI Working Paper series

IWMI Working Papers document the work and thinking of IWMI researchers that fall outside the scope of the generic concepts presented in the Research Report series. Working Papers are reviewed internally.

Small Tank Cascade Systems in the Walawe River Basin. Somaratne, P.G., Priyantha Jayakody, François Molle and K. Jinapala, IWMI Working Paper 92, 2005

This report on small tank cascade systems is based on a study conducted on seven tank cascades of the Walawe river basin, one of the three main river basins in the Ruhuna benchmark basins selected by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) for its benchmark basin study. Download

Adaptive, Participatory and Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Irrigation on Fisheries Evaluation of the Approach in Sri Lanka, Nguyen-Khoa, Sophie, Laurence Smith and Kai Lorenzen, IWMI Working Paper 89, 2005

Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of water globally and its development can have significant impacts on inland fisheries. These impacts can be varied and complex, and range from biodiversity concerns to economic impacts and changes in the livelihood opportunities of rural households. There is a need to improve the knowledge of these impacts and integrate their assessment into project planning and implementation. This paper describes an approach designed to meet this challenge and the results of its pilot-testing in Sri Lanka. The approach derives from a literature review of planning and appraisal methodologies, interaction by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and evaluation of the test case. Download

Accounting of Agricultural and Nonagricultural Impacts of Irrigation and Drainage Systems. A Report of Research in Taiwan and Sri Lanka in 2003. IWMI Working Paper 68, 2004

This paper is a collaborative research between the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and the Agricultural Engineering Research Centre of Taiwan. This study contributes to IWMI’s program on the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. The research in 2003 consists of two components. First, research in Taiwan continues on estimating the positive and negative externalities of paddy-rice production. Second, research is being conducted in Sri Lanka to assess more broadly the impact of water resource development. In addition, two extensive literature reviews have been completed. Download

Biodiversity Associated with the Rice Field Agro-ecosystem in Asian Countries: A Brief Review, Bambaradeniya, C.N.B, and F.P. Amerasinghe,  IWMI Working Paper 63, 2003 

This review is intended to bring together the published information available on the biodiversity associated with the rice field agrosystem, in countries extending across Asia from Sri Lanka to Japan. Download

Anicut Systems of Sri Lanka: The case of the Upper Walawe River Basin, Molle, François, Priyantha Jayakody and Shyamalie de Silva, IWMI Working Paper 61, 2003

This exploratory study was designed to capture the main features of agrarian change in the upper part of the basin that depends mostly on anicuts. These anicuts amount to 59 percent of the total basin anicuts in terms of numbers, but to only 43 percent in terms of irrigated area. They are generally very old (the history of some of them goes back to 2000 years; see below) and obviously, many changes have occurred during this time. The study does not allow the reconstitution of all past transformations but offers some insight on recent changes: changes in population pressure over resources and changes in hydrology, crop choice, livelihoods and collective action. The analysis is based on exploratory surveys carried out by the authors and by students of the University of Sabaragamuwa and is not a detailed or in-depth investigation of agricultural systems in the Upper Walawe basin. However, it provides a useful outline of the situation in this part of the basin. Download

Yellow River Comprehensive Assessment: Basin Features and Issues, Zhongping Zhu, Mark Giordano, Ximing Cai, David Molden (IWMI); Hong Shangchi, Zhang Huiyan, Lian Yu, Li Huain, Zhang Xuecheng, Zhang Xinghai, Xue Yunpeng (Yellow River Conservancy Commission), IWMI Working Paper 57, 2003

This report, assessing the state of China’s Yellow River, could offer hope in providing much needed answers to the critical water management problems facing the country’s second longest river. The findings are stark. They highlight the four major challenges currently facing the river as being increased water scarcity, degraded environment, massive soil conservation needs and constant flood threats. Download

Innovative Approaches to Agricultural Water Use for Improving Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa, A Inonencio, H. Sally and DJ Merrey, IWMI Working Paper 55, 2003

This paper provides an overview of innovative options for developing and using water for food production in sub-Saharan Africa in light of the growing scarcity and competition for water resources. These options include rainwater harvesting, selective development of wetlands for agriculture, exploitation of shallow groundwater, and recycling urban waste. The options are largely based on low-cost individualized technologies, which lend themselves to private-sector promotion. Water-demand management approaches are also discussed. Download

Accounting of Agricultural and Nonagricultural Impacts of Irrigation and Drainage Systems: A study of multifunctionality in rice, Y Matsuno, HS Ko, CH Tan, R Barker, and G Levine, IWMI Working Paper 43, 2002

This paper summarizes results to date (2001) of a collaborative program between the Agricultural Engineering Research Center and IWMI. It examines non-commodity functions of rice irrigation, particularly as they relate to society, human health and the environment. It attempts to quantify the non-commodity positive contributions of rice irrigation to the economy of Taiwan, and their implications for the future of rice culture in Taiwan. Download

Global Irrigated Area Mapping: Overview and recommendations, Peter Droogers, IWMI Working Paper 36, 2002

This working paper gives an overview of available global datasets on irrigated areas and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. From this analysis, an outline is presented on how to develop a global irrigated area map based on a generic methodology. Examples are given for the area covering India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This paper should be considered as a first attempt to develop such a generic methodology, rather than a presentation of actual results on the extent of irrigated areas. Download

Water for Rural Development: Background paper on water for rural development prepared for the World Bank, David Molden, Upali Amarasinghe and Intizar Hussain, IWMI Working Paper 32, 2001

This paper is divided into two parts. The first part outlines the most important issues on water for rural development from IWMI’s point of view, with a focus on developing countries. The second part provides analyses of present and future water resources in the World Bank’s defined regions, looking at global water resources, past development and trends, water and food supply and demand scenarios 1995-2025 (using IWMI’s PODIUM model), and the important of water for rural development. Download

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