Waste management has become a pivotal public health and environmental question, particularly in developing nations, due to rapid industrialization, population growth, and inadequate policy. To foster a long-term pattern of progress, global trends are encouraging governments, policymakers, and international organizations to explore pathways for transitioning from linear to circular economy business models. Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR) offers viable pathways with multiple value propositions beyond environmental benefits. However, the decision-making processes involved in the shaping and selection of business models often require weighing costs and benefits and making trade-offs among alternatives and competing priorities. Some costs and benefits are clearly identifiable and can be numerically expressed, yet many others cannot be readily determined. This technical report presents the conceptual framework underlying a multi-criteria-based decision support tool tailored to enable decisionmakers and practitioners to select appropriate and sustainable CE business models in the RRR context with positive social, economic, and environmental outcomes.
Public health / Frameworks / Socioeconomic aspects / Environmental impact / Financing / Market segmentation / Cost benefit analysis / Decision making / Reuse / Resource recovery / Waste management / Decision support systems / Business models / Circular economy Record No:H052400
Water management in Egypt presents unique challenges. Being waterscarce, the country needs to use its limited freshwater reserves efficiently and effectively, particularly for irrigation, which accounts for over 70% of the total freshwater availability. Egypt has a network of irrigation canals and water-reuse drains that were built since the introduction of cotton cultivation in the colonial era to enable agricultural drainage and the reuse of water for irrigation. This facilitated expansion of the cultivated area with a view to improving food security and income. However, the design of efficient water reuse for irrigation does not come without attendant challenges. With more and more farmers coming to rely on polluted drainage water for irrigation, an alarming inconsistency in the quality of treated drainage water is now evident (Ashour et al. 2021). The focus of our study, which was funded by the CGIAR GENDER Impact Platform, was to understand the gendered implications of these changes and challenges. Adopting a feminist political ecology approach, we analyze the gendered power dynamics within productive, irrigated agriculture, focusing on the everyday lived experiences of diverse groups of women, farmers and irrigators.
Tenant farmers / Water user associations / Water pollution / Water governance / Freshwater / Irrigated farming / Irrigation water / Water reuse / Wastewater / Water management / Women / Gender / Value chains / Agrifood sector / Water use / Drainage canals / Drainage water Record No:H052304
Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) has for years been touted as a suitable alternative for balancing the mismatch between demand and supply of electricity. As the world transits from a fossil fuel-based electricity sector to a renewable energy-based one, PHES is also continuously being used to resolve challenges regarding variable or intermittent sources of energy. This chapter presents lessons from countless literature and studies on the global development and market environment of PHES. The study reveals that critical factors such as investing in public-private research, development and deployment, instituting regulatory frameworks that stimulate innovative operation of PHES, increasing digital operation of PHES systems, and retrofitting PHES facilities could foster the uptake and revolutionize the development of PHES.
Trends / Financing / Infrastructure / Markets / Electricity / Climate change / Socioeconomic aspects / Public-private partnerships / Decision making / Pumping / Storage / Renewable energy / Hydroelectric power Record No:H051549
This chapter provides a survey of pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) in terms of the factors considered in the site selection process: geographic, social, economic, and environmental. Due to the number and complexity of factors considered for this purpose, a multicriteria decision-making model is often used during the selection process. From our study, it is observed that the implementation of a PHES project may come with several environmental concerns, that is land and water requirements, impacts on the fishery industry, aquatic habitat, cultural, historical as well as natural. However, we also observed that many of these concerns are being addressed with improvement in PHES technology.
Models / Water requirements / Aquatic habitats / Environmental impact / Environmental factors / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Pumping / Reservoirs / Technological changes / Storage / Renewable energy / Energy demand / Hydroelectric power Record No:H051548
Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in the last century and enabled the prevention of bacterial infections that were previously deemed untreatable. However, in parallel, bacteria have increasingly developed resistance to antibiotics through various mechanisms. When resistant bacteria find their way into terrestrial and aquatic environments, animal and human exposures increase, e.g., via polluted soil, food, and water, and health risks multiply. Understanding the fate and transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and the transfer mechanisms of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments is critical for evaluating and mitigating the risks of resistant-induced infections. The conceptual understanding of sources and pathways of antibiotics, ARB, and ARGs from society to the water environments is essential for setting the scene and developing an appropriate framework for modelling. Various factors and processes associated with hydrology, ecology, and climate change can significantly affect the fate and transport of ARB and ARGs in natural environments. This article reviews current knowledge, research gaps, and priorities for developing water quality models to assess the fate and transport of ARB and ARGs. The paper also provides inputs on future research needs, especially the need for new predictive models to guide risk assessment on AR transmission and spread in aquatic environments.
Climate change / Risk assessment / Bacteria / Microbial communities / Wastewater treatment plants / Groundwater / Sediment / Health hazards / Environmental factors / Modelling / Water quality / Gene transfer / Aquatic environment / Antibiotic resistance Record No:H052253
This study assessed the effects of COVID-19 on Ghana’s WASH system. It focused on low-income households and WASH sector stakeholders using Ayawaso East Municipality as a case study to document lessons from the pandemic’s impact on the WASH sector. We used the water and sanitation system approach to understand the effects of COVID-19 mitigation measures on the WASH system. Data were collected through surveys, stakeholder engagements, and document analysis. We found that the government’s WASH response increased hygiene practices, solid and liquid waste generation, and water consumption. Sanitation service providers experienced reduced demands for their services, lost clients, and increased operational expenditure. The pandemic’s impact is gendered, with women and girls experiencing a greater burden. We argue that responses to the pandemic highlight the need and opportunities for sustainable management of sanitation waste through integrated, circular economy business models, turning waste into valuable resources. Responses to COVID-19 in the WASH system are multisectoral because of its interconnected nature, highlighting the need to integrate sectors beyond water and sanitation. This requires improved institutional structures, policies, investment, and professionalising service providers.
Case studies / Sustainability / Risk / Households / Stakeholders / Institutions / Policies / Business models / Circular economy / Investment / Private sector / Women / Social inclusion / Gender / State intervention / Municipal governments / Pandemics / Resilience / Water management / Waste management / Wastewater / Water, sanitation and hygiene / COVID-19 Record No:H052250
The enactment of a new Constitution in 2015 in Nepal marked a shift to a representative system of federal governance. Earlier in 2002, the country’s Tenth Five Year Plan had committed to a core focus on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in national policies and governance. How do these two strategic shifts in policy align in the case of WASH projects in rural Nepal? Applying a feminist political lens, we review the implementation of WASH initiatives in two rural districts to show that deep-rooted intersectional complexities of caste, class, and gender prevent inclusive WASH outcomes. Our findings show that the policy framing for gender equitable and socially inclusive outcomes have not impacted the WASH sector, where interventions continue as essentially technical interventions. While there has been significant increase in the number of women representatives in local governance structures since 2017, systemic, informal power relationship by caste, ethnicity and gender entrenched across institutional structures and cultures persist and continue to shape unequal gender-power dynamics. This is yet another example that shows that transformative change requires more than just affirmative policies.
Rural areas / Decision making / Governance / Policies / Local government / Institutions / Federalism / Political aspects / Ethnicity / Caste systems / Women / Social inclusion / Gender equality / Water, sanitation and hygiene Record No:H052237
Mitigation / Health hazards / Wastewater irrigation / Salinity / Water quality / Irrigation water / Behavioural changes / Farmers / Environmental factors / Financing / Policies / Risk reduction / Regulations / Economic environment / Cultural factors / Water reuse / Marginal quality water Record No:H052246
Amoah, Philip; Drechsel, Pay. 2023. Water quality and aquaculture. In Drechsel, Pay; Marjani Zadeh, S.; Salcedo, F. P. (Eds.). Water quality in agriculture: risks and risk mitigation. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.77-92. More... | Fulltext (3.21 MB)
Guidelines / Farmers / Environmental impact assessment / Water pollution / Risk reduction / Health hazards / Human health / Shrimp culture / Pangasius / Fish culture / Aquatic plant cultivation / Wastewater aquaculture / Aquaculture / Water quality Record No:H052243
Guidelines / Microbiological risk assessment / Pathogens / Waterborne diseases / Health hazards / Human health / Mitigation / Risk reduction / Risk analysis / Irrigation water / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H052241
Zadeh, S. M.; Drechsel, Pay; Salcedo, F. P. 2023. Water quality and the Sustainable Development Goals. In Drechsel, Pay; Marjani Zadeh, S.; Salcedo, F. P. (Eds.). Water quality in agriculture: risks and risk mitigation. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.5-16. More... | Fulltext (3.63 MB)
Sanitation / Human health / Wastewater / Monitoring / Agricultural pollution / Water pollution / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water quality Record No:H052240
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3 of the UN 2030 Agenda calls for halving per capita global food waste (FW) from retail to households. Food waste (FW) prevention and reduction play a major role in ensuring the sustainability of food systems as well as effective Solid Waste Management (SWM). A coherent, coordinated, and complementary approach to quantification causes identification, and scaling up feasible solutions is necessary. Awareness-raising and capacity development for food supply chain actors, the public sector, and civil society organizations is required for successful interventions.; The Project Innovative approaches to reduce, recycle and reuse FW in urban Sri Lanka was implemented under the oversight of the Ministry of Urban Development, and Housing in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) from June 2019 to August 2021.; The project produced a series of reports and papers including FAO and IWMI (2021a), FAO and IWMI (2021b), FAO and IWMI (2021c), and FAO and IWMI (2021d) that were used in the awareness creation and capacity development programmes. The major output of the Project was to facilitate knowledge development for and drafting of the Urban Roadmap on FW Prevention, Reduction, Management in Sri Lanka, that includes a comprehensive Action Plan with Monitoring and Evaluation criteria.; The objective of this report is to summarize the proceedings of the consultations and sensitization sessions conducted from June 2019 to June 2021.
Households / Recycling / Solid wastes / Reuse / Goal 12 Responsible production and consumption / Sustainable Development Goals / Government agencies / Institutions / Stakeholders / Periurban areas / Wholesale markets / Retail markets / Food service / Food supply chains / Regulations / Policies / Awareness-raising / Waste management / Training / Capacity development / Waste reduction / Food waste Record No:H052230
This publication, Water Quality in Agriculture: Risks and Risk Mitigation, emphasizes technical solutions and good agricultural practices, including risk mitigation measures suitable for the contexts of differently resourced institutions working in rural as well as urban and peri-urban settings in low- and middle-income countries. With a focus on sustainability of the overall land use system, the guidelines also cover possible downstream impacts of farm-level decisions. As each country has a range of site-specific conditions related to climate, soil and water quality, crop type and variety, as well as management options, subnational adjustments to the presented guidelines are recommended.; Water Quality in Agriculture: Risks and Risk Mitigation, is intended for use by national and subnational governmental authorities, farm and project managers, extension officers, consultants and engineers to evaluate water quality data, and identify potential problems and solutions related to water quality. The presented guidelines will also be of value to the scientific research community and university students.
Case studies / Cultural factors / Environmental factors / Farmers / Citizen science / River basins / Ecology / Livestock / Aquaculture / Recycling / Wastewater treatment / Health hazards / Human health / Risk analysis / Risk management / Parameters / Heavy metals / Chemical contamination / Contaminants / Salinity / Crop production / Irrigation water / Irrigated farming / Good agricultural practices / Regulations / Standards / Water reuse / Monitoring / Pathogens / Microbiological risk assessment / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water pollution / Mitigation / Risk reduction / Agricultural water use / Water quality Record No:H052153
Lautze, Jonathan; Meelad, A.; Shah, Muhammad Azeem Ali. 2023. Conclusions and recommendations. In Shah, Muhammad Azeem Ali; Lautze, Jonathan; Meelad, A. (Eds.). Afghanistan–Pakistan shared waters: state of the basins. Wallingford, UK: CABI. pp.162-166. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (79.5 KB)
This chapter reviews some of the book’s overarching themes and main findings. Overarching themes include the recognition of persistent hardship and inequality, particularly in the Afghan portions of the basins and substantial knowledge gaps that need to be filled to address existing challenges. Key threads relate to trends in demography, climate, land and water use, and institutions that may accentuate challenges. The chapter concludes that more than incremental change will be needed to support the progress necessary to provide a basic level of human development. Key to such progress is transboundary co-operation between Afghanistan and Pakistan and re-engagement with the international community to create a context that attracts investment that catalyses desperately needed economic progress.
International cooperation / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / River basins / Transboundary waters Record No:H052175
The Kabul, Kurram, and Gomal river basins are home to approximately 43 million (authors’ own calculation) people who experience a diverse set of human and economic development realities. This chapter draws profiles of the basins in terms of demography and human and economic development. In doing so, the authors illustrate the human realities that overlie the hydrological units. This chapter presents basin-level data by combining and rescaling data for specific administrative units in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The authors find disparities between and within the two countries in terms of population size, migration dynamics, economic indicators and production of power. Despite these differences, people share similar challenges in achieving food security, poverty alleviation, and mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Improved, co-ordinated strategies and policies have the potential to strengthen the governance of these transboundary river basins and deliver better outcomes for people and resource sustainability.
Industry / Agriculture / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Energy / Education / Income / Population density / Migration / Employment / Food security / Health / Poverty / River basins / Transboundary waters / Economic growth / Socioeconomic development / Demography Record No:H052169
Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an emerging, nature-based, economically viable wastewater treatment solution. Currently, most SAT experiments are done at the laboratory scale, which cannot generate the same conditions as natural field sites and limits the understanding of treatment efficiency. The current study carried out in situ SAT experiments in the Musi River basin in India, where wastewater irrigation is a common practice. SAT efficiency was determined using an integrated approach, including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys, soil investigations (grain size, permeability, and moisture measurements), and biochemical characterization of raw and SAT treated wastewater. The ERT scans of SAT column show lower order electrical resistivity 10-30 O-m with enhanced chargeability gt;5–6 mV/V attributed to the vadose zone, characterized by clay-rich soil and sandy soil up to 5–6 m depth. The increase in sand percentage (gt;70%) below 140–160 cm depth corroborates with the high moisture content (23.5%). The vadose zone permeability (K) 1.58 m/day and discharge (Q) 38.19 m3/day is used to determine the pollutants reduction efficiency of SAT column. Hydrogeological and biogeochemical observations reveal that the improved dissolved oxygen from lt;1.0 to 5–6 mg/L in the vadose zone catalyzes the oxidation of organic matter resulting in the reduction of BOD and COD up to 92% and 97%, respectively, and denitrification reducing NO3-- (0.55 kg/day). In addition, the precipitation and adsorption by kaolinite clay prompted the reduction of PO42- (0.26 kg/day). Furthermore, the oxic-vadose zone could not support the growth of coliforms and faecal coliforms, and the reduction observed was up to 99.99% in the SAT production well. Overall, the results indicated a positive outcome with SAT efficiency and framed the SAT sitting criteria for different geological environments.
Pollutants / Hydrogeology / River basins / Periurban areas / Wastewater irrigation / Groundwater / Aquifers / Soil moisture / Experimentation / Parameters / Water quality / Nature-based solutions / Wastewater treatment Record No:H052159
Processing biomass from different waste streams into marketable products such as organic fertilizer and bio-energy is increasingly realized through public-private partnerships (PPPs). In developing countries, the private sector can be expected to contribute technical skills, organizational capabilities and marketing expertise, and leverage capital inflow. In contrast, the public sector will provide the regulatory framework and help its enforcement, plan public investment, involve and educate stakeholders, and ensure waste supply.
This report reviews case studies that implemented PPPs in resource recovery and reuse (RRR) from waste streams with a particular focus on Asia and Africa, including those PPPs facilitated by the authors. Critical factors behind the success and failure of these cases are analyzed. The review indicates three key barriers to success: (i) waste-related bottlenecks, (ii) limited awareness about RRR products and their market(ing), and (iii) lack of proper institutional frameworks. Common shortfalls concern failure to meet commitments related to the quality and quantity of waste, missing understanding of the reuse market, etc. The report points out mitigation measures addressing possible challenges around appropriate technologies, finance and revenue streams, legal issues, as well as social and environmental concerns. It is required to establish close monitoring, appropriate procurement mechanisms and due diligence during the project preparation and pre-bid. If possible, such a PPP project should consider risk and commercial viability assessment as well as financial strategy planning (scaling).
Successful involvement of the private sector in the RRR market is critical to close the resource loop and safeguard human and environmental health, which is the overarching objective of sustainable waste management.
Currently, in Sri Lanka, strategies to address FW prevention and reduction are being considered by different state and non-state stakeholders. However, in the current scenario, solutions for FW are mostly addressing (bio-)waste management.
Quantifying FW is of paramount importance in understanding the magnitude and socio-economic as well as environmental impacts of the problem. A good understanding of the availability and quality of FW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW (Xue et al., 2019). FW quantification aims at creating a robust evidence base for developing strategies, action plans, and policies towards FW prevention, reduction, and management as well as guide prioritization of actions, evaluation of solutions, and monitoring progress (CEC, 2019).
Case studies / Sustainable Development Goals / Environmental impact / Social impact / Municipal governments / Local authorities / Feeds / Strategies / Policies / Recycling / Landfills / Waste collection / Solid wastes / Urban wastes / Waste reduction / Food losses / Food service / Waste management / Quantitative analysis / Households / Wholesale markets / Food waste Record No:H052087
Food waste (FW) is a key challenge on the sustainable development agenda of countries worldwide. The lack of FW data and insights from its analysis about quantities, causes, and characteristics is a significant obstacle in implementing adequate reduction and prevention interventions for different sectors. The primary purpose of the case studies was to review FW prevention, reduction, and management initiatives. Lessons and best practices that enable and facilitate solutions were identified.
Nine case studies were conducted targeting five sectors: food services (one restaurant and one hotel), wholesale markets (one fruits and vegetables wholesale market), retailers (one retail market, one retail shop, and one supermarket), caterers (one hospital), and households (five middle- and five high-income households). The case studies consisted of a FW audit that measured the amounts generated from various processes and identified drivers/causes and current best practices. Quantification involved physical separation, weighing, and categorizing the different food components. The separation classified quantities into edible and inedible portions. The study also focused on assessing the environmental and socio impacts, based on assessed and categorized FW quantities.
FW is a complex phenomenon where the amount, causes and consequences are contextually different. It is not easy to compare and contrast country-level data and the individual actors in the same country. Therefore, the case study approach has been used in many FW-related studies. Multiple case studies can be expensive and time-consuming to implement. Under this study, we analyzed nine case studies targeting five sectors: food services (four restaurants, a dessert shop and one hotel), wholesale markets (one fruit and vegetable market ), retail markets (one supermarket, one fruit and vegetable retailer, one Dedicated Economic Center), caterers/institutional canteens (one hospital) and households (five middle-income households and five low-income households). Entities were selected based on willingness to participate and an actual FW reduction need.
Awareness / Household wastes / Food service industry / Wholesale markets / Soil quality / Water footprint / Water scarcity / Carbon footprint / Financial analysis / Economic impact / Social impact assessment / Environmental impact / Best practices / Strategies / Case studies / Waste management / Waste reduction / Food waste Record No:H052086
This report explores and analyses the governance framework (i.e. policies, laws, and regulations) relevant to urban food waste (FW) prevention and reduction in the wholesale, retail, hospitality (restaurants, hotels), food services (schools, hospitals), and households in Sri Lanka. The project quot;Innovative approaches to reduce, recycle and reuse food waste in urban Sri Lankaquot; was implemented from June 2019 to August 2021 under the oversight of the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
The management of domestic wastewater and rainwater is a major concern for the population of Yopougon. The study presents the causes of wastewater discharge from dysfunctional sewers and their health impacts on the population. It also highlights the environmental and health risk associated with poor solid and liquid waste management. This was based on literature search, semi-participatory workshop, physicochemical and bacteriological characterization of wastewater and finally through a household survey. The field survey was conducted on 245 household heads obtained using the Canadian statistical guidelines. The results obtained indicated that all main pollution indicators were; total nitrogen (TN, 525 0.02 to 3077 0.3 mg/l), nitrates (NO3, 146 0.01 to 1347 0.12 mg/l), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, 278 195.16 to 645 391.74 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 940 650.54 to 4050.5 71.42 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (TDS, 151 9.9 to 766 237.59 mg/l) which were above the values recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Cote dapos;Ivoire national policy guidelines standards for the discharge of effluents into the environment. The analysis of the bacterial flora of the effluents revealed that the concentrations of Total Coliforms and fecal streptococci exceeded the values recommended by the WHO and national policy guidelines standards. This means that the populations of this area are prone to infectious diseases. Diseases such as malaria (84.53%), respiratory infections (61%), diarrhea (48.66%), intestinal diseases (44.5%), and typhoid fever (28.84%) were prevalent in the surveyed households.
In Cote d’Ivoire, the failure of urban sewage systems is a crucial problem for the drainage of wastewater and rainwater. This failure is due to many factors and therefore, calls for diagnostic studies. The present study aimed at analyzing these networks in order to identify the dierent factors that contribute to the operational and structural degradation in selected sewerage and drainage networks in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. The method used in the study involved semi-structured interviews, video camera inspection and socio-environmental field surveys (geographical survey and household survey), followed by descriptive statistics. The results revealed that many structural, environmental and behavioral practice contribute to the progressive degradation of urban sewage systems. These factors are essentially those that prevent the normal flow of wastewater in the pipes such as the illegal dumping of solid waste, the unauthorized connection of wastewater networks, unsustainable urban agricultural practices, as well as the high concentration of vegetation on both sides of the network and the dilapidated infrastructure of the wastewater and rainwater networks. It was found that these factors are at the origin of the clogging and degradation of the sewers since 85% of the residents used these sewers as a dumping ground for solid waste.
Infrastructure / Water supply / Local government / Communities / Capacity development / Risk / Policies / Social inclusion / Women / Gender equality / Extreme weather events / Vulnerability / Climate change / Water, sanitation and hygiene Record No:H051909
The failure of sewage and drainage systems in SubSaharan African cities is frequent and can be considered as a critical issue, both from an environmental standpoint and in terms of associated maintenance costs. This study analyzes the state of the sanitation systems, the elements behind the failures, the environmental concepts used to classify the problems, and the tools and methodological alternatives for ranking the various management solutions. This research illustrates the causes that contribute to the dysfunctions in the sewage systems of Abidjan as a typical example of sewerage systems management challenges in SubSaharan Africa’s large cities. Poor solid waste and wastewater management practices by residents, e.g., illegal dumping of solid waste into the sewers, unauthorized and defective connections to the network, structural dysfunctions related to the age of the network (cracked, denuded, or broken), urban agriculture in the vicinity of the channels, natural phenomena such as erosion, landslides in the undeveloped parts, and the high concentration of vegetation in the network, wholly contribute to the degradation of the network. A variety of decision support systems for the management of the assets of the urban sewage network were presented. The instruments have been categorized based on their capacity and functionality. The operating concept of each of these tools has been outlined, as well as their respective data needs. In addition, the study analyzes challenges related to the usage of existing decision support systems and provides an outlook on future research requirements in this area. This study offers a detailed analysis of the issues of sanitation management and could serve as a reference for other emerging nations in SubSaharan Africa.
Case studies / Institutions / Models / Decision support systems / Sanitation / Wastewater / Solid wastes / Cities / Urban areas / Management techniques / Policies / Drainage systems / Sewerage Record No:H051899
Multilateral development banks (MDBs) play a pivotal role in financing water and sanitation infrastructure projects and thus have a major impact on the development of basic services. Although information about the MDBs’ investments is publicly available, it is dispersed and not easily comparable. A comprehensive compilation of MDBs’ water and sanitation investments has long been lacking. To address this gap, we assess water and sanitation financing by the three MDBs most relevant to Africa and Asia between 1960 and 2020: the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. We compile a new dataset by drawing on 3,639 water and sanitation projects and assess territorial trends, technology choices, distribution of financial burdens, and reforms to institutional arrangements. We find that MDBs’ investments align with changing patterns of urbanization and increasingly finance sanitation infrastructures including non-sewered technologies. However, our results also suggest that institutional reforms have addressed utility efficiency through investment in equipment and skills rather than through increased commercialization and private sector participation. The leverage effect of MDB investment on private financing is negligible, whereas co-financing from local governments dominates.
Policies / Public-private partnerships / Institutional reform / Investment / Development banks / Multilateral organizations / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water supply Record No:H051889
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is suffering from severe water scarcity. Decision-makers in MENA are tackling this challenge by tapping the potential of reusing treated wastewater in agriculture so that large volumes of freshwater sources can be released for priority domestic needs. This aligns with the global efforts to make wastewater reuse mainstream in developing countries by overcoming the technological, infrastructural, health, and socio-cultural barriers that are limiting the expansion of wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this regard, this paper analyses the management modalities of wastewater reuse practices in agriculture in MENA by studying two case studies from Egypt and Jordan. The result of this analysis is a proposed decision-tree tool to help decision-makers in making optimal wastewater reuse decisions based on contextual factors including agricultural field demands, location, freshwater resources, sanitation coverage, and infrastructure, as well as regulations, policies, and restrictions for wastewater reuse. The decision-tree framework was operationalized and validated using the two case studies. The decision tree proved to be an effective framework in assisting decision-makers in making the optimum choice for wastewater reuse in agriculture. It aided the decision maker in evaluating potential reuse options and selecting between several courses of action.
Case studies / Institutions / Stakeholders / Wastewater treatment / Irrigation water / Agriculture / Wastewater irrigation / Decision making / Wastewater management / Water reuse Record No:H051840
Social aspects / Women / Gender-transformative approaches / Stakeholders / Business models / Cost recovery / Financing / Sustainability / Health hazards / Water quality standards / Agricultural water use / Irrigation water / Guidelines / Planning / Water governance / Water policies / Resource recovery / Municipal wastewater / Wastewater treatment / Water scarcity / Water availability / Water resources / Water reuse Record No:H051838
Jordan’s water scarcity prompted a national plan whereby treated wastewater is utilized to amend agricultural irrigation water so as to reallocate freshwater to urban/domestic uses. The policy, however, has engendered farmers’ resistance in the Northern Jordan Valley (NJV), causing a stalemate in putting new infrastructure into operation. This research investigated the socio-economic causes of farmer resistance and contestation, and examined the government’s institutional approach to overcome the challenges. We found that the perceived risks of wastewater reuse such as salinization and restrictions from international markets figure prominently in the farmers resistance. As yet, farmers have managed to avoid the shift to treated wastewater use by using the political agency of elite farmers who control the Water Users Associations. These same farmers have adopted informal water access practices to overcome freshwater shortages. At the same time, small producers who don’t have possibilities to access extra water and with less political clout seem more willing to irrigate with treated wastewater. We conclude that understanding the heterogeneous context in which the envisioned wastewater users operate is key to predicting and solving conflicts that arise in treated wastewater reuse projects.
Socioeconomic aspects / Farmers / Water user associations / Stakeholders / Water policies / Water scarcity / Urban areas / Water management / Infrastructure / Irrigation water / Freshwater / Water allocation / Water reuse / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H051830
Kjellen, M.; Wong, C.; van Koppen, Barbara; Uprety, Labisha; Mukuyu, Patience; Avidar, O.; Willaarts, B.; Tang, T.; Witmer, L.; Nagabhatla, N.; De Lombaerde, P.; Lindelien, M. C.; Dhot, N.; Saleh, A. 2023. Governance: a ‘whole-of-society’ approach. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2023: partnerships and cooperation for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.172-182. More... | Fulltext (14.7 MB)
Women / Strategies / Stakeholders / Policies / Climate change / Food security / Water security / Integrated water resources management / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Cooperation / Public-private partnerships / Civil society / Water governance Record No:H051827
Mukuyu, Patience; Lautze, Jonathan; Langan, Simon; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Ferreira, R.; Connor, R. 2023. Data, information and monitoring. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2023: partnerships and cooperation for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.148-155. More... | Fulltext (14.7 MB)
Transboundary waters / Cooperation / Partnerships / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Monitoring / Information exchange / Data management / Water resources Record No:H051826
Makarigakis, A.; Partey, S.; Nagabhatla, N.; De Lombaerde, P; Libert, B.; Trombitcaia, I.; Zerrath, E.; Guerrier, D.; Faloutsos, D.; Krol, D.; Virden, E.; Arushanyan, A.; Anakhasyan, E.; Matus, S. S.; Gil, M.; Llavona, A.; Botia, L. M.; Naranjo, L.; Sarmanto, N.; Le Doze, S.; Weinberger, K.; Lerios, R.; Bhandari, S.; Gaillard-Picher, D.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Kumar, U. D. S.; Khayat, Z.; Zaarour, T. 2023. Regional perspectives. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2023: partnerships and cooperation for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.115-140. More... | Fulltext (14.7 MB)
Case studies / Women / Policies / Groundwater / River basins / Multi-stakeholder processes / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water security / Public-private partnerships / Community involvement / Transboundary waters / International cooperation / Integrated water resources management Record No:H051825
This study developed the SEWAGE-TRACK model for disaggregating lumped national wastewater generation estimates using population datasets and quantifying rural and urban wastewater generation and fate. The model allocates wastewater into riparian, coastal, and inland components and summarizes the fate of wastewater into productive (direct and indirect reuse) and unproductive components for 19 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. As per the national estimates, 18.4 km3 of municipal wastewater generated in 2015, was disaggregated over the MENA region. Results from this study revealed urban and rural areas to contribute to 79 % and 21 % of municipal wastewater generation respectively. Within the rural context, inland areas generated 61 % of the total wastewater. The riparian and coastal regions produced 27 % and 12 %, respectively. Within the urban settings, riparian areas produced 48 %, while inland and coastal regions generated 34 % and 18 % of the total wastewater, respectively. Results indicate that 46 % of the wastewater is productively used (direct reuse and indirect use), while 54 % is lost unproductively. Of the total wastewater generated, the most direct use was observed in the coastal areas (7 %), the most indirect reuse in the riparian regions (31 %), and the most unproductive losses in inland areas (27 %). The potential of unproductive wastewater as a non-conventional freshwater source was also analyzed. Our results indicate that wastewater is an excellent alternative water source and has high potential to reduce pressure on non-renewable sources for some countries in the MENA region. The motivation of this study is to disaggregate wastewater generation and track wastewater fate using a simple but robust approach that is portable, scalable and repeatable. Similar analysis can be done for other regions to produce information on disaggregated wastewater and its fate. Such information is highly critical for efficient wastewater resource management.
Coastal areas / Groundwater recharge / Water availability / Water reuse / Models / Estimation / Water productivity / Datasets / Population / Rural areas / Municipal wastewater / Wastewater treatment Record No:H051814
Access to sufficient clean water is important for reducing the risks from COVID-19. It is unclear, however, what influence COVID-19 has had on water insecurities. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between COVID-19 control measures and household water insecurities. A survey of 1559 individuals living in vulnerable communities in five countries (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam) showed that increased needs for clean water to wash hands or facemasks made it more likely a person was water insecure along those dimensions. Water insecurities with respect to handwashing and drinking, in turn, made adoption of the corresponding good practices less likely, whereas in the case of washing facemasks there was no association. Water system infrastructure, environmental conditions such as foods and droughts, as well as gender norms and knowledge, were also important for water insecurities and the adoption of good practices. As domestic water insecurities and COVID-19 control measures are associated with each other, efforts should therefore be directed at identifying and assisting the water insecure at high risk when COVID-19 reaches their communities.
Socioeconomic environment / Risk reduction / Women / Gender / Water systems / Water quality / Drinking water / Good practices / Hand washing / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Communities / Vulnerability / Households / COVID-19 / Water insecurity Record No:H050959
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) describe a course of action to address poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all (https://sdgs.un.org/goals). More specifically, SDG 6 clarifies how water quality, quantity and access are crucial to human well-being, and yet human activities are compromising water resources through over-exploitation, pollution, as well as contributing to the spread of disease. Globally aquatic ecosystems are highly threatened and concerted efforts by governments and civil society to ‘turn the situation around’ are simply not working. Human-created problems require human-centred solutions and these require different ways of thinking and acting to those behaviour patterns that are contributing to the challenges. In this paper, we first consider causal approaches to attitude change and behaviour modification that are simply not working as intended. We then explore enabling responses such as citizen science and co-engaged action learning as more tenable alternatives. SDG 6 has a focus on clean water and sanitation for all. The SDGs further clarify how the extent to which this goal can be realized depends, to a large extent, on stakeholder engagements and education. Through stakeholder engagements and educational processes, people can contribute towards SDG 6 and the specific indicator and target in SDG 6.b – Stakeholder participation. Following a three-year research process, that investigated a wide range of participatory tools, this paper explores how the Stream Assessment Scoring System (miniSASS; www.minisass.org) can enable members of the public to engage in water quality monitoring at a local level. The paper continues to demonstrate how miniSASS can contribute to the monitoring of progress towards Sustainable Development Goal Target 6.3, by providing a mechanism for data collection indicator 6.3.2. miniSASS is proving popular in southern Africa as a methodology for engaging stakeholder participation in water quality monitoring and management. The technique costs very little to implement and can be applied by children and scientists alike. As a biomonitoring approach, it is based on families of macroinvertebrates that are present in most perennial rivers of the world. The paper concludes by describing how useful the miniSASS technique can be for addressing data gaps for SDG 6.3.2 reporting, and that it can be applied in most regions of the world.
Monitoring / Water quality / Stakeholders / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Citizen science / Innovation / Social change Record No:H050675
Motivation: COVID-19 has revived focus on improving equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and health services in developing countries. Most public programming tends to rely on economic indicators to identify and target vulnerable groups. Can expanded targeting criteria that include social status help to improve not only targeting, but also equity in access to WASH and health services?
Purpose: This paper assesses the role of social identity in mediating access to WASH and health services, controlling for economic disadvantages such as household wealth, income sources and assets.
Methods and approach: We use regression analysis applied to the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate the relationships between social identity and access to WASH and health services, controlling for wealth (using wealth index quantiles), and remittances (using indicator variables for domestic and international remittances).
Findings: We find that differences in access are mediated in large part by caste, and religious and ethnic identity, especially in rural areas; suggesting that the supply of such services is lower for historically disadvantaged communities. In addition, communities with lowest access are not necessarily the most economically disadvantaged, indicating that relying solely on traditional economic indicators to target programs and interventions may not be sufficient to improve equity in access to public health services.
Policy implications: The results make a case for broadening indicators beyond the economic criteria for improving targeting of public funds for more inclusive development.
Economic indicators / Households / Toilets / Health services / Public health / Hand washing / Drinking water / Inclusion / Social status / Water, sanitation and hygiene Record No:H050673
In 2014, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) introduced an affordable and portable sequencer called MinION. We reviewed emerging applications in water research and assessed progress made with this platform towards ubiquitous genetics. With gt;99% savings in upfront costs as compared to conventional platforms, the MinION put sequencing capacity into the hands of many researchers and enabled novel applications with diverse remits, including in countries without universal access to safe water and sanitation. However, to realize the MinION’s fabled portability, all the auxiliary equipment items for biomass concentration, genetic material extraction, cleanup, quantification, and sequencing library preparation also need to be lightweight and affordable. Only a few studies demonstrated fully portable workflows by using the MinION onboard a diving vessel, an oceanographic research ship, and at sewage treatment works. Lower nanopore sequencing read accuracy as compared to alternative platforms currently hinders MinION applications beyond research, and inclusion of positive and negative controls should become standard practice. ONT’s EPI2ME platform is a major step towards user-friendly bioinformatics. However, no consensus has yet emerged regarding the most appropriate bioinformatic pipeline, which hinders intercomparison of study results. Processing, storing, and interpreting large data sets remains a major challenge for ubiquitous genetics and democratizing sequencing applications.
Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Bioinformatics / Biomass / Research / Water Record No:H051555
In Dhaka city and its fringe peri-urban sprawls water for domestic use is an increasingly contested commodity. The location of our research, Gazipur district, bordering the growing city of Dhaka, is the heartland of Bangladesh’s Ready Made Garments (RMG) industry, which has spread unplanned in former wetlands and agrarian belts. However, unlike Dhaka, the almost fully industrialized peri-urban areas bordering the city, like many other such areas globally, function in an institutional vacuum. There are no formal institutional arrangements for water supply or sanitation. In the absence of regulations for mining groundwater for industrial use and weakly enforced norms for effluent discharge, the expansion of the RMG industry and other industries has had a disproportionate environmental impact. In this complex and challenging context, we apply a political economy lens to draw attention to the paradoxical situation of the increasingly “public” lives of poor Bangladeshi women working in large numbers in the RMG industry in situations of increasingly “private” and appropriated water sources in this institutionally liminal peri-urban space. Our findings show that poorly paid work for women in Bangladesh’s RMG industry does not translate to women’s empowerment because, among others, a persisting masculinity and the lack of reliable, appropriate and affordable WASH services make women’s domestic water work responsibilities obligatory and onerous.
Periurban areas / Poverty / Domestic water / Households / Social aspects / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Empowerment / Factory workers / Women / Gender equality / Water supply Record No:H050845
Globally, collection of tipping fees is being promoted as a solution to sustain the operation of fecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs). Currently, there are six large-scale FSTPs in Ghana, of which five were in operation in June 2017. In Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale, fecal sludge (FS) is co-treated with landfill leachate using waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). In Tema and Accra, FS is treated using WSPs and a mechanical dewatering system coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The focus of this study is FSTPs and to assess how, and if, the tipping fees set by the municipalities could enable cost recovery to sustain their long-term operation. Using a questionnaire survey to interview plant managers from the public and private sectors, and directors of waste management departments, we found that the overall average operation, maintenance and management (OMamp;M) costs per 1000 m3 of treated waste (FS or FS + leachate) in 2017 were USD89 in Kumasi, USD150 in Tamale, USD179 in Tema, USD244 in Sekondi-Takoradi and USD1,743 in Accra. There were important disparities between FSTPs due to their scale, age, and level of treatment and monitoring. Currently, most FSTPs charge tipping fees that range between USD310 and USD530/1000 m3 of FS, averaging USD421 98/1000 m3 of FS discharged at FSTPs. Our study also showed that the OMamp;M costs of large-scale intensive FSTPs cannot be sustained by relying solely on tipping fees. However, there could be potential to cover the routine expenditures associated with operating smaller FSTPs that relying on WSP technologies.
Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is widely distributed throughout the Global South. Despite urban population growth and diversifying food habits, UPA delivers an important part of urban food supply, as well as other types of services to cities, such as employment and waste reuse. Nevertheless, the extent and importance of UPA varies between different urban areas, while challenges like limited recognition, land conversion, and water pollution and competition threaten the potential of UPA to contribute to urban resilience. Key investment priorities for research and innovation for overcoming current challenges include incentivized peri-urban zoning, urban allocation of productive lands, and increasing capacities for controlled environment agriculture (CEA). Innovative repositioning of food marketing can help to strengthen supply of healthy food from UPA production, increase decent employment, and turn food markets into nutrition hubs. Priority innovations for contributing to the circular bioeconomy of cities include scaling the safe use of wastewater for irrigation through investments in the adoption of multiple risk-barrier approaches and scaling UPA-based ecosystem services for valorising solid waste and environmental management. Innovations in urban governance are required to support these processes by bringing food systems into urban planning through food mapping and the multisectoral platforms for dialogue and policy formulation across city regions and with vertical levels of government.
Equity in rural water supply systems has been a major concern of users, policymakers, and practitioners in Nepal. Communities continue to face persistent inequities in access to safe water amid the changing livelihood environment due to migration, the transition to federalism, and entrenched social hierarchies. In this situation, increasing competition for water, a resource that continues to diminish due to natural and anthropogenic causes, has aggravated disparities in access. It is usually the poor and marginalised groups who are disproportionately affected. The long-standing factors hindering equitable access to an adequate water supply amidst the COVID-19 pandemic when water is necessary for handwashing needs a sustainable resolution. Based on the learnings of a three-year research project that aimed to understand the role of gender and power dynamics in the functionality of community water systems, this paper provides insights into collective water management practices and equity amidst the pandemic. Evidence from the study shows deficiencies in community institutions created for inclusive and sustainable management of local water sources. The paper argues that achieving gender and social inclusion in community water management requires going beyond the implementation of prescribed quotas for women and under represented minority groups. Our learnings from the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the importance of equitable access to safe water and emphasise how low-income households are at higher risk of contracting the virus through shared water infrastructures. A household survey, together with a mix of qualitative methods, were the primary sources of data. Based on data from the case study sites—Ward No. 8, Gurans Rural Municipality, Dailekh district and Ward No. 6, Chandranagar Rural Municipality, Sarlahi district—we conclude that changing socio-economic contexts, prevailing social norms and practices, and premature and frequent infrastructure breakdown are barriers to fair and equitable access to water, and that local governments’ enhanced authority is a new opportunity.
Case studies / Households / Governance / Civil society organizations / Institutions / Water user groups / COVID-19 / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Women / Social inclusion / Gender equality / Water management / Equity / Water availability / Rural communities / Water supply Record No:H052327
Kolkata being a metropolitan city in India has its main municipal solid waste dumpsite situated at Dhapa just adjacent to the East Kolkata Wetlands (Ramsar site). The current prevalent situation at Dhapa is open dumping leading to various contaminations and hazards putting forth the need to look for alternative sites where the landfiilling operation can be shifted to using scientific methods. A user interface (UI)–based analytical hierarchy process (AHP) tool has been developed within the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform to find out the alternative dumping sites using geospatial layers. AHP function is not available as a native algorithm or developed by any researcher in GEE. The tool has three major functionalities, of which the first one handles the UI elements. The AHP procedure is within another function, and the last function integrates the AHP coefficients to the layers generating the final suitability layer. Users can also upload comparison matrix as GEE asset in the form of CSV file which gets automatically integrated into the AHP to calculate the coefficients and consistency ratio to generate the spatial suitability layers. This approach showcases a generalized AHP function within the GEE environment, which has been done for the first time. The tool is designed in the cloud platform which is dynamic, robust and suitable for use in various AHP-based suitability analysis in environmental monitoring and assessment.
Case studies / Datasets / Landfills / Solid wastes / Urban wastes Record No:H051499
Ensuring the long-term functionality of community-managed rural water supply systems has been a persistent development challenge. It is well established that the technicalities of keeping the systems going are impacted by complex political, social, financial, and institutional challenges. While the shift to federal, three-tiered governance allocates concurrent responsibility for drinking water management to the local government with federal and provincial governments, water and sanitation user groups continue to shoulder the management of local supply systems voluntarily. All three levels have jurisdiction over water-related services resulting in confusion of roles. This study focuses on the local level, where community management of water and sanitation decentralisation is the key approach in this complex tangle of diverse institutions with different actors managing and governing water. User Groups and their Committees in the Guras Rural Municipality of Dailekh district, Karnali province, in West Nepal, provided the case study, which was analysed using Ostromapos;s well-recognised Eight Principles for Sustainable Governance of Common-Pool Resources. The community-based model, established formally through the Water Resource Act 1992 (2049 BS), is critically analysed in light of the changing socioeconomic context through the intervening years. The results highlight the need for stronger collaboration between the rural municipality and users to achieve good water supplies and the risks of losing access and voice in water management for women and marginalised people when inactive user groups are replaced by private or group interests taking control of the water access.
Policies / Socioeconomic aspects / Drinking water / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Women / Social inclusion / Gender / Water user groups / Water management / Water resources / Rural communities / Collective action / Water supply Record No:H051437
Water scarcity and pollution are major threats for human development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and Lebanon is no exception. Wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture can contribute to addressing the increasing water crisis in the MENA region. However, what is the actual potential of water reuse as a solution for agriculture in Lebanon? This report addresses this question and provides the most comprehensive assessment of water reuse potential up to now. Using geographic information system (GIS) modelling and the best and most recent data available in the country, the report develops a detailed technical assessment of the quantities of treated water available for safe reuse in irrigation, and identifies the wastewater treatment plants that have the highest potential for that purpose.
The report also examines the governance barriers that need to be overcome for the water reuse potential to materialize in practice. These barriers include structural shortcomings in the wastewater sector combined with challenges of governance and the lack of a regulatory framework for reuse management. Once the current economic, financial and political crisis in Lebanon eases, addressing these barriers will be key to achieving more and safer water reuse in the country.
Case studies / Financial situation / Economic crises / Non-governmental organizations / Stakeholders / Water authorities / Irrigation systems / Agricultural land / Domestic water / Parameters / Regulations / Water quality / Wells / Water supply / Groundwater / Infrastructure / Irrigation requirements / Water shortage / Water use / Water availability / Water rights / Water governance / Water demand / Supply and demand / Water balance / Water budget / Water management / Water resources / Geographical information systems / Modelling / Databases / Municipal wastewater / Wastewater treatment plants / Analysis / Irrigation water / Water potential / Water reuse Record No:H051388
Solar-powered irrigation pumps are a vital tool for both climate change adaptation and mitigation. Since most developing countries cannot fully utilize large-scale global funds for climate finance due to limited institutional capacities, small-scale solar irrigation pumps (SIPs) can provide a climate-resilient technological solution. We study the case of a subsidized SIP program in Nepal to understand who likely benefits from a small-scale climate finance program in a developing country setting. We analyze government data on profiles of farmers applying for SIPs and in-depth interviews with different actors along the SIP service chain. We find that vulnerable farmers (women, ethnic minorities, and poor farmers) were less likely than wealthier and non-minority farmers to have access to climate finance subsidies. Even though the government agency gave preference to women and ethnic minority farmers during beneficiary selection, an unrepresentative pool of applicants resulting from social and institutional barriers that prevented them from applying to the program led to an inequitable distribution of subsidized SIPs. The lack of a clear policy framework for allocating climate finance subsidies was a significant constraint. Lack of periodic updating of SIP prices and poor provision of after-sale services were also responsible for the inequitable distribution of subsidized SIPs. We recommend the involvement of local governments in soliciting applications from a wider pool of farmers, periodic revision of SIP prices to reflect market price, replacement of the current fixed subsidy scheme with a variable subsidy scheme, and mandatory provisions of after-sales services.
Monitoring / Policies / Renewable energy / Pumps / Solar powered irrigation systems / Ethnic groups / Social inclusion / Gender / Women farmers / Smallholders / Equity / Subsidies / Finance / Climate change Record No:H051378
Cookey, P. E.; Cofie, Olufunke; Koottatep, T.; Polprasert, C. 2022. Sanitation biomass recovery and conversion. In Cookey, P. E.; Koottatep, T.; Gibson, W. T.; Polprasert, C. (Eds.). Integrated functional sanitation value chain: the role of the sanitation economy. London, UK: IWA Publishing. pp.125-180. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (5.63 MB)
Sustainable Development Goals / Business models / Composting / Feedstocks / Water reuse / Wastewater / Technology / Waste management / Faecal sludge / Sewage sludge / Bioeconomy / Circular economy / Value chains / Conversion / Resource recovery / Biomass / Sanitation Record No:H051381
As urbanization increases, meeting the challenges of urban food supply and food security requires coherent and holistic strategies. Attention too often focuses solely on best practices without addressing the required behavior change. This policy brief highlights the importance of minimizing food loss and waste, which accounts for some 30% of current global production, in order to link and achieve SDGs 2, 11 and 12. The strategy comprises four interrelated elements, namely adopting holistic and circular planning perspectives; facilitating urban and peri-urban farming; integrating innovative behavioral interventions; and providing enabling environments. The G20 has the capacity to act rapidly, without the need for major capital investment, thereby also providing leadership to the entire international community.
Living customary water tenure is the most accepted socio-legal system among the large majority of rural people in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on literature, this report seeks to develop a grounded understanding of the ways in which rural people meet their domestic and productive water needs on homesteads, distant fields or other sites of use, largely outside the ambits of the state. Taking the rural farming or pastoralist community as the unit of analysis, three components are distinguished. The first component deals with the fundamental perceptions of the links between humankind and naturally available water resources as a commons to be shared by all, partially linked to communities’ collective land rights. The second component deals with the sharing of these finite and contested naturally available water resources, especially during dry seasons and droughts. Customary arrangements shape both the ‘sharing in’ of water resources within communities and the ‘sharing out’ with other customary communities or powerful third parties. Since colonial times, communities have been vulnerable to those third parties grabbing water resources and overriding customary uses and governance. The third component deals with infrastructure to store and convey water resources. Since time immemorial, communities have invested in infrastructure for self supply, ranging from micro-scale soil moisture retention techniques to large-scale collective deep wells. As increasingly recognized in both the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and irrigation sectors, this component of self supply is rapidly expanding. In all three components, local diversity is high, with gender, class and other social hierarchies intertwining with social safety nets, neighborliness and moral economies.
The study derives two sets of implications for state and non-state policies, laws and interventions. First, state legislation about the sharing of water resources should recognize and protect living customary water tenure, especially through due process in ‘sharing out’ water with powerful third parties. Remarkably, water law, which is dominated by permit systems in sub-Saharan Africa, lags behind other legislation in recognizing customary water tenure (see IWMI Research Report 182). Second, by taking communities’ self supply for multiple uses as a starting point for further water infrastructure development, the WASH, irrigation and other sectors can follow the priorities of communities, including the most vulnerable; identify cost-effective multi-purpose infrastructure; develop local skills; and, hence, contribute more sustainably to achieving more United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDGs 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 13. Further historical and interdisciplinary research to achieve these benefits is recommended.
Nexus approaches / Water security / Land / Livestock / Pastoralists / Farmer-led irrigation / Domestic water / Drinking water / Living standards / Households / Right to food / Right to water / Women / Gender / Costs / Conflicts / Water permits / Water distribution / Water quality / Water governance / Legislation / Policies / Norms / water, sanitation and hygiene / Sustainable Development Goals / Water allocation / Rural communities / Multiple use water services / Water supply / Infrastructure / Water sharing / Water resources / Customary law / Water law / Water management / Water rights / Customary tenure / Water tenure Record No:H051372
Solar energy forecasting is considered an essential scientific aspect in supporting efforts to integrate solar energy into power grids. Moreover, solar energy forecasting plays an essential role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy for future use. This study conducted a bibliometric analysis to assess solar energy forecasting research studies evolution at the continental (Africa) and southern Africa levels. Key aspects of analysis included (i) scientific research trends, (ii) nature of collaboration networks, (iii) co-occurrence of keywords and (iv) emerging themes in solar energy forecasting over the last two decades, between the years 2000–2021. The results indicate that solar energy forecasting research has, on average, expanded by 6.4% and 3.3% in Africa and southern Africa, respectively. Based on the study context, solar energy forecasting research only gained momentum in 2015, peaking in 2019, but it is generally still subtle. The scientific mapping illustrated that only South Africa ranks among the leading countries that have produced high numbers of published documents and also leads in contributions to the research area in both Africa and southern Africa. Three emerging topics were identified from the thematic map analysis— namely, “solar irradiance”, “artificial intelligence” and “clear sky”, which implies that researchers are paying attention to solar irradiance, using modelling techniques that incorporate machine learning techniques. Overall, this study contributes to scientific information on the potential bankability of renewable energy projects that could assist power utilities, governments and policymakers in Africa to enforce the green economy through accelerated decarbonisation of the energy systems and building relationships with developed countries for support and better transitioning to solar energy. From a Water–Energy–Food nexus perspective, the results of this work could assist the scientific community in Africa to take advantage of the inherent interconnectedness of water, energy and food resources, whilst also advancing the use of integrated solutions to shape the focus of solar energy research into a more systems thinking and transdisciplinary approach involving the interconnected primary resources and stakeholders pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Models / Sustainable Development Goals / Collaboration / Nexus approaches / Foods / Renewable energy / Water / Climate change / Trends / Research / Bibliometric analysis / Forecasting / Solar energy Record No:H051306
This study investigated the potential of using locally available municipal solid wastes (MSW) (such as food wastes from restaurants, charcoal dust, coconut husk and shell, and sawdust) as feedstock to produce noncarbonized fuel briquettes. A low-cost briquetting machine sourced from Alfaster Industries in Kenya served to demonstrate the concept. Using decomposed food waste resulted in briquettes with higher bulk density (+4%), greater net calorific value (+18%) and lower burning rate (-24%), compared to the use of regular food waste. There was no significant difference in ash content from the two briquette types. The results also indicate that decomposing food waste and mixing it with tree-based raw materials such as coconut waste, charcoal waste or sawdust improves the quality of briquettes, and enhances the temperatures achieved during combustion. This recycling solution has the potential to serve multiple benefits in MSW management for sustainable cities while reducing rural land degradation and deforestation.
Case studies / Modelling / Spatial data / SADC countries / Capacity development / Farmers / Smallholders / Financing / Ecosystems / Environmental health / Public health / Catchment areas / Transboundary waters / Goal 7 Affordable and clean energy / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Sustainable Development Goals / Nexus / Food security / Energy resources / Water resources Record No:H051168
The United Nations Food Systems Summit aimed to chart a path toward transforming food systems toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the essentiality of water for food systems, however, the Summit has not sufficiently considered the role of water for food systems transformation. This focus is even more important due to rapidly worsening climate change and its pervasive impacts on food systems that are mediated through water. To avoid that water “breaks” food systems, key food systems actors should 1) Strengthen efforts to retain water-dependent ecosystems, their functions and services; 2) Improve agricultural water management; 3) Reduce water and food losses beyond the farmgate; 4) Coordinate water with nutrition and health interventions; 5) Increase the environmental sustainability of food systems; 6) Explicitly address social inequities; and 7) Improve data quality and monitoring for water-food system linkages.
Social aspects / Data quality / Monitoring / Diets / Public health / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Sustainable Development Goals / Climate change / Environmental sustainability / Ecosystems / Nutrition security / Food security / Water management / Water systems / Water security / Transformation / Food systems Record No:H051147
Fish inhabiting freshwater environments are susceptible to the ingestion of microplastics (MPs). Knowledge regarding MPs in freshwater fish in South Africa is very limited. In this study, the uptake of MPs by common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Vaal River in South Africa was assessed. MPs were detected in all of the twenty-six fish examined, 682 particles of MPs were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the fish with an average of 26.23 12.57 particles/fish, and an average abundance of 41.18 52.81 particles/kg. The examination of the physical properties of MPs revealed a predominance on fibers (69%), small-sized particles of less than 0.5 mm (48%), as well as prevelance of coloured MPs (94%), mostly green, blue, and black. Using Raman Spectroscopy, the following plastic polymers were identified: high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
To the best of our knowledge, this study, is the first to report MPs uptake by freshwater biota in the Vaal River using common carp as a target organism. It provided evidence of MP contamination in the Vaal.
The use of polluted water to irrigate is an increasing problem in the developing world. Lebanon is a case in point, with heavily polluted irrigation waters, particularly in the Litani River Basin. This study evaluated the potential health risks of irrigating vegetables (radishes, parsley, onions, and lettuce) using three water sources (groundwater, river water, and treated wastewater) and three irrigation methods (drip, sprinkler, and surface) over two growing seasons in 2019 and 2020. Water, crop, and soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters, pathogens, and metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Zn). In addition, the bioaccumulation factor, estimated dietary intakes, health risk index, and target hazard quotients were calculated to assess the health risk associated with metal contamination. The study showed that, for water with less than 2 log E. coli CFU/100 mL, no pathogens (Escherichia coli, salmonella, parasite eggs) were detected in irrigated vegetables, irrespective of the irrigation method. With over 2 log E. coli CFU/100 mL in the water, 8.33% of the sprinkler-and surface-irrigated vegetables, and 2.78% of the drip-irrigated root crops (radishes and onions), showed some degree of parasitic contamination. E. coli appeared only on root crops when irrigated with water having over 3 log CFU/100 mL. The concentrations of most metals were significantly lower than the safe limits of the FAO/WHO of the Food Standards Programme Codex, except for zinc and chromium. The trends in the bioaccumulation factor and the estimated dietary intakes of metals were in the order of Cu lt; Cd lt; Ni lt; Cr lt; Zn. The target hazard quotient values for all metals were lower than 1.0. Under trial conditions, the adoption of drip irrigation with water with less than 3 log E. coli CFU/100 mL proved to be safe, even for vegetables consumed raw, except for root crops such as onions and radishes that should not be irrigated with water having over 2 log E. coli CFU/100 mL. Treated wastewater had no adverse effect on vegetable quality compared to vegetables irrigated with other water sources. These results support efforts to update the Lebanese standards for water reuse in agriculture; standards proposed in 2011 by the FAO, and currently being reviewed by the Lebanese Institution of Standards. This research will inform a sustainable water management policy aimed at protecting the Litani River watershed by monitoring water quality.
Irrigation methods / Soil properties / Heavy metals / Pathogens / Microbiological analysis / Physicochemical properties / Bioaccumulation factor / Mineral content / Crop yield / Contamination / Water quality / River water / Groundwater / Reclaimed water / Water management / Water pollution / Risk assessment / Health hazards / Freshwater / Vegetable crops / Water reuse / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H051092
In Addis Ababa and its environs, most urban wastewater is discharged into rivers without treatment. This study related urban wastewater characteristics to the prevalence of faecal, antibiotic resistant, and potentially pathogenic bacteria in rivers of the Akaki catchment across six locations, for the dry and wet season. Spatiotemporal variation in bacterial hazards across the catchment was up to 6 log10 units. Cooccurrence of sewage pollution marker gene HF183 in all river samples testing positive for the Vibrio cholerae marker gene ompW, and high levels of these two genes in untreated wastewater, identified human sewage as the likely source of Vibrio cholerae hazards in the catchment. Levels of the marker genes rodA for E. coli, HF183 for human host associated Bacteroides, ciaB for Arcobacter, and ompW for Vibrio cholerae were all higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Marker gene gyrB for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in the samples. From the sequencing data, notable bacterial genera in the dry season included wastewater pollution indicators Arcobacter and Aeromonas, whereas soil erosion may explain the greater prominence of Legionella, Vicinamibacter, and Sphingomonas during the wet season. Except for the most upstream location, all faecal coliform (FC) counts exceeded WHO standards of 1000 CFU/100 mL for unrestricted irrigation. Concerningly, 0.6–20% of FC had ESBL producing antimicrobial resistance traits. In conclusion, multiple bacterial hazards were of concern for river water users in the Akaki catchment, and elevated in the dry season, when the river water is being used for irrigation of vegetable fields that supply the markets of Addis Ababa. This reflects inadequate treatment and limited dilution of urban wastewater by the natural river flows during periods of low rainfall.
Health hazards / Effluents / Irrigation / Catchment areas / Surface water / Real time PCR / Extended spectrum beta-lactamases / Microbiological risk assessment / Antimicrobial resistance / Water quality standards / Faecal coliforms / Faecal pollution / Bacteria / Biological contamination / River water / Water pollution / Municipal wastewater Record No:H051034
The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the importance of safe access to sufficient clean water in vulnerable communities, renewing interest in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs and related targets under Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6). The purpose of this study was to better understand the obstacles to water access in vulnerable communities and identify ways they might be addressed in five countries in the Mekong Region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam). To this end, qualitative interviews with 50 government officials and development or health experts were complimented with a quantitative survey of the experiences and views of individuals in 15 vulnerable communities. There were several key findings. First, difficulties in accessing sufficient clean water for drinking and hygiene persist in certain vulnerable communities, including informal urban settlements, remote minority villages, and migrant worker camps. Second, limited rights, high prices, and remote locations were common obstacles to household access to improved water sources. Third, seasonal differences in the availability of clean water, alongside other disruptions to supply such as restrictions on movement in COVID-19 responses, drove households towards lower quality sources. Fourth, there are multiple threats to water quality from source to consumption that should be addressed by monitoring, treatment, and watershed protection. Fifth, stakeholder groups differ from each other and residents of vulnerable communities regarding the significance of water access, supply and quality difficulties, and how they should be addressed. The paper ends with a set of program suggestions addressing these water-related difficulties.
Villages / Monitoring / Prices / Water rights / Water treatment / Water quality / Water shortage / Water supply / Drinking water / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Vulnerability / Communities / Stakeholders / COVID-19 / Households / Domestic water / Water availability Record No:H050976
Globally, the use of untreated, often diluted, or partly treated wastewater in agriculture covers about 30 million ha, far exceeding the area under the planned use of well-treated (reclaimed) wastewater which has been estimated in this paper at around 1.0 million ha. This gap has likely increased over the last decade despite significant investments in treatment capacities, due to the even larger increases in population, water consumption, and wastewater generation. To minimize the human health risks from unsafe wastewater irrigation, the WHO’s related 2006 guidelines suggest a broader concept than the previous (1989) edition by emphasizing, especially for low-income countries, the importance of risk-reducing practices from ‘farm to fork’. This shift from relying on technical solutions to facilitating and monitoring human behaviour change is, however, challenging. Another challenge concerns local capacities for quantitative risk assessment and the determination of a risk reduction target. Being aware of these challenges, the WHO has invested in a sanitation safety planning manual which has helped to operationalize the rather academic 2006 guidelines, but without addressing key questions, e.g., on how to trigger, support, and sustain the expected behaviour change, as training alone is unlikely to increase the adoption of health-related practices. This review summarizes the perceived challenges and suggests several considerations for further editions or national adaptations of the WHO guidelines.
Monitoring / Sanitation / Health hazards / Water quality / Treatment plants / Wastewater treatment / Social marketing / Food safety / Behavioural changes / Awareness / Risk reduction / Risk assessment / Guidelines / WHO / Water reuse / Agriculture / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H050975
Political aspects / Wastewater / Water rights / Cost recovery / Institutions / Regulations / Multi-stakeholder processes / Guidelines / Water governance / Planning / Agricultural water use / Water reuse Record No:H051744
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Drechsel, Pay. 2022. Guidelines to improve acceptance of water reuse. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Al-Hamdi, M.; AbuZeid, K. (Eds.). Water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: a sourcebook. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.142-155. More... | Fulltext (279 KB)
Risk / Cultural factors / Health hazards / Freshwater / Financing / Decision making / Public participation / Stakeholders / Guidelines / Water reuse Record No:H051743
Implementation / Risk / Cost recovery / Financing / Partnerships / Guidelines / Business models / Water reuse Record No:H051742
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier. 2022. Thematic guidelines - Section 2: introduction. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Al-Hamdi, M.; AbuZeid, K. (Eds.). Water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: a sourcebook. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.106-108. More... | Fulltext (128 KB)
Models / Gender mainstreaming / Governance / Projects / Guidelines / Water reuse Record No:H051741
Health hazards / Population / Water pollution / Water scarcity / Treatment plants / Pollutants / Effluents / Resource recovery / Composition / Municipal wastewater / Water reuse / Wastewater treatment Record No:H051737
Lahham, N.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Orabi, Mohamed O. M.; Brouziyne, Youssef. 2022. Context and drivers of water reuse in MENA. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Al-Hamdi, M.; AbuZeid, K. (Eds.). Water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: a sourcebook. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.3-14. More... | Fulltext (200 KB)
Wastewater treatment / Urbanization / Population growth / Intensification / Agriculture / Water stress / Water scarcity / Water reuse Record No:H051736
The COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented socio-economic changes, ushering in a “new (ab)normal” way of living and human interaction. The water sector was not spared from the effects of the pandemic, a period in which the sector had to adapt rapidly and continue providing innovative water and sanitation solutions. This study unpacks and interrogates approaches, products, and services adopted by the water sector in response to the unprecedented lockdowns, heralding novel terrains, and fundamental paradigm shifts, both at the community and the workplace. The study highlights the wider societal perspective regarding the water and sanitation challenges that grappled society before, during, after, and beyond the pandemic. The premise is to provide plausible transitional pathways towards a new (ab)normal in adopting new models, as evidenced by the dismantling of the normal way of conducting business at the workplace and human interaction in an era inundated with social media, virtual communication, and disruptive technologies, which have transitioned absolutely everything into a virtual way of life. As such, the novel approaches have fast-tracked a transition into the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR), with significant trade-offs to traditional business models and human interactions.
Case studies / Stakeholders / Research projects / Public health / Sanitation / Sustainability / Resilience / Pandemics / COVID-19 / Water security Record No:H050969
Wilkinson, J. L.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Kolpin, D. W.; Leung, K. M. Y.; Lai, R. W. S.; Galban-Malagon, C.; Adell, A. D.; Mondon, J.; Metian, M.; Marchant, R. A.; Bouzas-Monroy, A.; Cuni-Sanchez, A.; Coors, A.; Carriquiriborde, P.; Rojo, M.; Gordon, C.; Cara, M.; Moermond, M.; Luarte, T.; Petrosyan, V.; Perikhanyan, Y.; Mahon, C. S.; McGurk, C. J.; Hofmann, T.; Kormoker, T.; Iniguez, V.; Guzman-Otazo, J.; Tavares, J. L.; De Figueiredo, F. G.; Razzolini, M. T. P.; Dougnon, V.; Gbaguidi, G.; Traore, O.; Blais, J. M.; Kimpe, L. E.; Wong, M.; Wong, D.; Ntchantcho, R.; Pizarro, J.; Ying, G.-G.; Chen, C.-E.; Paez, M.; Martinez-Lara, J.; Otamonga, J.-P.; Pote, J.; Ifo, S. A.; Wilson, P.; Echeverria-Saenz, S.; Udikovic-Kolic, N.; Milakovic, M.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Belusova, V.; Vymazal, J.; Cardenas-Bustamante, M.; Kassa, B. A.; Garric, J.; Chaumot, A.; Gibba, P.; Kunchulia, I.; Seidensticker, S.; Lyberatos, G.; Halldorsson, H. P.; Melling, M.; Shashidhar, T.; Lamba, M.; Nastiti,. 2022. Pharmaceutical pollution of the world’s rivers.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(8):e2113947119. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (6.14 MB)
Environmental exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can have negative effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. While numerous studies have monitored APIs in rivers, these employ different analytical methods, measure different APIs, and have ignored many of the countries of the world. This makes it difficult to quantify the scale of the problem from a global perspective. Furthermore, comparison of the existing data, generated for different studies/regions/continents, is challenging due to the vast differences between the analytical methodologies employed. Here, we present a global-scale study of API pollution in 258 of the world’s rivers, representing the environmental influence of 471.4 million people across 137 geographic regions. Samples were obtained from 1,052 locations in 104 countries (representing all continents and 36 countries not previously studied for API contamination) and analyzed for 61 APIs. Highest cumulative API concentrations were observed in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and South America. The most contaminated sites were in low- to middle-income countries and were associated with areas with poor wastewater and waste management infrastructure and pharmaceutical manufacturing. The most frequently detected APIs were carbamazepine, metformin, and caffeine (a compound also arising from lifestyle use), which were detected at over half of the sites monitored. Concentrations of at least one API at 25.7% of the sampling sites were greater than concentrations considered safe for aquatic organisms, or which are of concern in terms of selection for antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, pharmaceutical pollution poses a global threat to environmental and human health, as well as to delivery of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Datasets / National income / Socioeconomic aspects / Wastewater / Environmental monitoring / Human health / Environmental health / Antimicrobials / Aquatic environment / Contamination / Water pollution / Rivers / Pharmaceutical pollution Record No:H050958
Petrik, L. F.; Ngo, H. H.; Varjani, S.; Osseweijer, P.; Xevgenos, D.; van Loosdrecht, M.; Smol, M.; Yang, X.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier. 2022. From wastewater to resource.One Earth, 5(2):122-125. [DOI] More...
Eighty percent of wastewater is left untreated or not reused, exacerbating the water quality challenge, especially in vulnerable communities. This Voices asks: how can we improve wastewater management and convert wastewater into a resource?
Urban areas / Phosphorus / Food production / Carbon / Water pollution / Technology / Water reuse / Circular economy / Waste management / Resource recovery / Wastewater treatment Record No:H050957
The impact of climate change on the availability of water affects all types of land use and sectors. This complexity calls for integrated water resources management and negotiations between sectors on the most important, cost-effective, and productive allocation of water where it is a limited resource. This reflection paper shows examples of adaptation efforts to water scarcity at a scale where gains in water productivity can be derived from intersectoral water reuse and wastewater–freshwater swaps, complementing other water scarcity coping strategies (water savings, long-distance transfer, and desalination). Wastewater treatment for reuse offers opportunities across scales as it allows, for example, donor regions to be compensated with reclaimed water for the release of freshwater for higher-value use, increasing overall economic water productivity in this way. In such water swaps, farmers are compensated with higher water volumes in exchange for higher quality. The reuse of water between sectors offers opportunities to (i) expand the traditional (agricultural) water productivity concept and (ii) significantly increase water productivity at the system level. While rural–urban water reallocation can help mitigate the impacts of climate change, compensating farmers with reclaimed water remains limited for the reasons discussed in the paper.
Farmers / Agriculture / Desalination / Water conservation / Water scarcity / Water allocation / Rural urban relations / Water transfer / Freshwater / Water productivity / Resilience / Climate change adaptation / Wastewater / Water reuse Record No:H050955
The Constitution of Nepal 2015 enshrines everyone’s right of access to clean water for drinking and the right to food. The common operationalization of the right to water for drinking is providing access to infrastructure that brings water for drinking and other basic domestic uses near and at homesteads. Challenges to achieving this goal in rural areas include: low functionality of water systems; expansion of informal self supply for multiple uses; widespread de facto productive uses of water systems designed for domestic uses; growing competition for finite water resources; and male elite capture in polycentric decision-making. This paper traces how the Nepali government and nongovernmental organizations in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), irrigation and other sectors have joined forces since the early 2000s to address these challenges by innovating community-led multiple use water services (MUS). The present literature review of these processes complemented by field research supported by the Water for Women Fund focuses on women in vulnerable households.
Overcoming sectoral silos, these organizations support what is often seen as the sole responsibility of the WASH sector: targeting infrastructure development to bring sufficient water near and at homesteads of those left behind. Women’s priorities for using this water are respected and supported, which often includes productive uses, also at basic volumes. In line with decentralized federalism, inclusive community-led MUS planning processes build on vulnerable households’ self supply, commonly for multiple uses, and follow their priorities for local incremental infrastructure improvements. Further, community-led MUS builds on community-based arrangements for ‘sharing in’ and ‘sharing out’ the finite water resources in and under communities’ social territories. This realizes the constitutional right to food in line with the Nepal Water Resources Act, 1992, which prioritizes core minimum volumes of water for everyone’s domestic uses and many households’ irrigation. Evidence shows how the alleviation of domestic chores, women’s stronger control over food production for nutrition and income, and more sustainable infrastructure mutually reinforce each other in virtuous circles out of gendered poverty. However, the main challenge remains the inclusion of women and vulnerable households in participatory processes.
Competition / Income / Financing / Benefit-cost ratio / Sustainability / Small scale systems / Irrigation / Infrastructure / Water systems / Rural areas / Nexus / Food security / Solar energy / Water sharing / Vulnerability / Livelihoods / Women / Households / Non-governmental organizations / Governmental organizations / Decision making / Participatory approaches / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Domestic water / Drinking water / Water availability / Right to water / Supply chains / Water supply / Water resources / Community involvement / Social inclusion / Gender equality / Multiple use water services Record No:H050908
Agricultural waste represents untapped resources that can be used to produce large value added products with many potential industrial applications. On-farm food waste comprises of harvest and post-harvest waste amounting to 1.2 billion tons per annum and measures up to USD 370 million. Production of food products and other outputs (like biofuel and compost) help in reduction of on-farm food waste and provide livelihood opportunities for the rural households. This reports highlights some innovative approaches across four countries which lead to reduction to food waste.
The report cover 6 cases located in Burkina Faso, India, Kenya and Vietnam. The two business models identified in Ouagadougou are – (i) Waka group, that repurpose mango residues in to sweet and bio-vinyl vinegar called MISSIM vinegar, and (ii) SOFAB-SA utilizes oilseeds (such as peanuts, cotton, and soybeans) with blue cheese bran or corn, salt, or any other micro-ingredient to produce feed for livestock. From India, two such case studies are included – (i) Sai Shubhada agro industries is located in Ahmednagar, (Maharashtra, India), and converts bagasse, [a pulpy and fibrous residue of the sugarcane processing] into organic jiggery, and (ii) Arogyasangini Oil Mill, Mill has embarked on the mission to reintroduce oil extracted from the safflower seeds. Nadanya Greens located in Mbale, (Vihiga, Kenya) is exploring the use of farm waste from livestock to produce feeds for fish reared through three fish ponds. Xuan Tien Agricultural Cooperative, located at Yen Chau (Son La province, Vietnam), converts mango which is otherwise wasted post-harvest.
Agricultural waste can be widely adopted to manufacture biogas or biofuel, which is obtained from biomass or agricultural wastes like molasses, bagasse slurries manure etc. Agricultural waste is mostly burned or left decomposing on the fields, where it has potential for polluting the environment and release greenhouse gases. Recovering energy helps to (i) reduce greenhouse emissions by reducing environmental pollution from unwanted biomasses otherwise being burnt in the field; (ii) improve energy efficiency in heating systems from renewable energy sources; (iii) introduce renewable energy by substituting carbon neutral biomass for hydro-carbons (coal, heavy oil and gas); and (iv) Recycle ash residues or slurry as a fertilizer.
The present report covers four case studies from Kenya and Burkina Faso related to recovering energy from agrowaste. Biogas International Limited (BIL) is a public private venture in Kenya involved in collection of market waste and recovering biogas, compost, liquid bio fertilizer. The Dunga Beach biogas plant in Kenya turns the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the shores of Lake Victoria to biogas energy, an alternative to charcoal burning for fish vendors at the beach. Keveye Girls is a boarding high school located in Vihiga County. Through consultations and interventions by the Department of Agriculture and Livestock at Vihiga County, Keveye Girls now converts cow dung into biogas, which is then used to power the school’s science laboratories and kitchen as an alternative to LPG gas and wood energy. Similar case studies exist in Burkina Faso. FasoBiogaz, an SME was founded by two Dutch entrepreneurs and supported by the Dutch government and is fully operated by a local team. FasoBiogaz operates the first industrial biogas plant connected to the SONABEL power grid and provides innovative resource recovery solutions producing 550 KW of power.
Case studies / Health hazards / Environmental impact / Financial analysis / Technology / Value chains / Markets / Public-private partnerships / Waste management / Resource recovery / Fertilizers / Biogas / Agricultural wastes / Energy recovery / Business models / Bioeconomy / Circular economy Record No:H051646
This study assessed the investment climate for circular bioeconomy in Kenya by reviewing the national policies, strategies and regulations, financing mechanisms, infrastructure and business environment. The study identified key gaps in these areas affecting waste management and entrepreneurship development in the circular bioeconomy sector. There are key developments at the policy level and some developments in entrepreneur promotion in resource recovery from different waste streams. The specific focus of the policies, strategies and regulations in the waste sector, lack of coordination of the relevant sectors in waste management, weak horizontal communication between sectors and implementation and compliance problems are main gaps in promoting circular bioeconomy. Absence of drastic changes in actual behaviour such as waste separation at source and lack of incentives in entrepreneurial development are also critical challenges. While addressing these gaps, the progresses identified need to be further scaled out to make waste management and circular bioeconomy in Kenya sustainable. Establishment of multiple stakeholder platforms involving key actors in the sector and enhancing awareness is important in promoting resource recovery and reuse. Promotion of incubator centres to enhance local capacity and foster uptake of resource recovery and reuse businesses is critical.
To tackle overexploitation of resources, pollution and related health issues, there has been an increase in policies, laws, and programmes that emphasize the importance of treatment, recycling, and reuse over the years. Various attempts have been made at various scales for resources recovery and reuse (RRR) interventions with varying degrees of completion and success. With limitations of the public sector, engagement of the private parties is believed to enhance circular economic approaches in future.
This report is an attempt to assess the existing institutional, policy, regulatory and financial environment in which the RRR businesses operate in India. It begins with a brief introduction of India’s take and position in terms of sustainability followed by an overview of the regulatory environment. The regulatory environment covers some of the important acts and rules concerning wastewater, energy and nutrients. The policies and programme section talks about some of the major policies that are being run by the central government in the country.
The subsequent section talks about the key institutions involved in the national level for the major sectors being covered in the report. This discussion is followed by description of the financial environment. The section describes the major government-run financial assistance and subsidies in the RRR domain. It also talks about the various monetary incentives offered by the government for the promotion of MSMEs in the country along with their general access to debt. The report also lists some of the key drivers that are involved in the RRR sectors differentiated by various parameters such as policy, regulatory and financials and others, followed by a conclusion.
Agricultural waste represents untapped resources that can be used to produce large value added products with many potential industrial applications. The use of agricultural wastes as raw materials for various industrial applications can help to reduce production cost and contribute to environmental conservation. The business cases described in this report highlight innovative approaches to convert the growing amount of agricultural waste into eco-efficient and bio-based products which are essential components of Nature-based solutions.
Mapedza, Everisto; Dessalegn, B.; Abdelali-Martini, M.; Al Hariry, H. 2022. Gender mainstreaming guidelines. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Al-Hamdi, M.; AbuZeid, K. (Eds.). Water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: a sourcebook. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.122-141. More... | Fulltext (418 KB)
Gender-transformative approaches / Gender equality / Projects / Sanitation / Water reuse / Women / Guidelines / Gender mainstreaming Record No:H051659
Plastic usage increases year by year, and the growing trend is projected to continue. However as of 2017, only 9% of the 9 billion tons of plastic ever produced had been recycled leaving large amounts of plastics to contaminate the environment, resulting in important negative health and economic impacts. Curbing this trend is a major challenge that requires urgent and multifaceted action. Based on scientific and gray literature mainly published during the last 10 years, this review summarizes key solutions currently in use globally that have the potential to address at scale the plastic and microplastic contaminations from source to sea. They include technologies to control plastics in solid wastes (i.e. mechanical and chemical plastic recycling or incineration), in-stream (i.e. booms and clean-up boats, trash racks, and sea bins), and microplastics (i.e. stormwater, municipal wastewater and drinking water treatment), as well as general policy measures (i.e. measures to support the informal sector, bans, enforcement of levies, voluntary measures, extended producer responsibility, measures to enhance recycling and guidelines, standards and protocols to guide activities and interventions) to reduce use, reuse, and recycle plastics and microplastics in support of the technological options. The review discusses the effectiveness, capital expenditure, and operation and maintenance costs of the different technologies, the cost of implementation of policy measures, and the suitability of each solution under various conditions. This guidance is expected to help policymakers and practitioners address, in a sustainable and cost-efficient way, the plastic and microplastic management problem using technologies and policy instruments suitable in their local context.
Policies / Drinking water treatment / Costs / Technology / Recycling / Treatment plants / Wastewater treatment / Waste management / Pollution control / Microplastic pollution Record No:H050901
The benefit of biochar as a soil fertility enhancer is well known and has been broadly investigated. Equally, many tropical and subtropical countries use wastewater for irrigation in urban agriculture. To assess the related health risks, we determined pathogen and heavy metal fate associated with biochar application and wastewater irrigation in the urban agriculture of northern Ghana. Rice (Oryza L.) husk biochar (20 t ha-1), N–P–K 15–15–15 fertilizer (212.5 kg ha-1), and their combinations were evaluated in a field-based experiment. Untreated wastewater and tap water served as irrigation water. Red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) was used as a test crop and was grown in wet (WS) and dry (DS) cropping seasons. Irrigation water, soil, and vegetables were analyzed for heavy metals, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, helminth eggs, and Salmonella spp. Unlike the pathogens, analyzed heavy metals from irrigation water and soil were below the FAO/WHO permissible standard for agricultural activities. Wastewater irrigation caused E. coli concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 0.6 (WS) and from 0.7 to 0.8 (DS) log10 colony forming units per gram fresh weight (CFU gFW-1) on vegetables and from 1.7 to 2.1 (WS) and from 0.6 to 1.0 (DS) log10CFU per gram dry weight (gDW-1) in soil. Average log10CFU gFW-1 rates of 6.19 and 3.44 fecal coliform were found on vegetables, whereas in soil, 4.26 and 4.58 log10CFU gDW-1 were observed in WS and DS, respectively. Helminth egg populations were high in wastewater and were transferred to the crops and soil. Biochar did not affect bacteria contamination. Pathogen contamination on vegetables and in soil were directly linked to the irrigation water, with minimal or no difference observed from biochar application.
Ringler, C.; Agbonlahor, M.; Baye, K.; Barron, J.; Hafeez, Mohsin; Lundqvist, J.; Meenakshi, J. V.; Mehta, L.; Mekonnen, D.; Rojas-Ortuste, F.; Tankibayeva, A.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan. 2021. Water for food systems and nutrition. Food Systems Summit Brief. In von Braun, J.; Afsana, K.; Fresco, L. O.; Hassan, M. (Eds.). Science and innovations for food systems transformation and summit actions: papers by the Scientific Group and its partners in support of the UN Food Systems Summit 2021. Bonn, Germany: University of Bonn. Center for Development Research (ZEF). pp.251-259. More... | Fulltext (29.4 MB)
Access to sufficient and clean freshwater is essential for all life. Water is also essential for food system functioning: as a key input into food production, but also in processing and preparation, and as a food itself. Water scarcity and pollution are growing, affecting poorer populations, particularly food producers. Malnutrition levels are also on the rise, and this is closely linked to water scarcity. The achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 and SDG 6 are co-dependent. Solutions to jointly improve food systems and water security outcomes that the United Nations Food Security Summit (UNFSS) should consider include: 1) strengthening efforts to retain water-based ecosystems and their functions; 2) improving agricultural water management for better diets for all; 3) reducing water and food losses beyond the farmgate; 4) coordinating water with nutrition and health interventions; 5) increasing the environmental sustainability of food systems; 6) explicitly addressing social inequities in water-nutrition linkages; and 7) improving data quality and monitoring for water-food system linkages, drawing on innovations in information and communications technology (ICT).
Ecosystems / Environmental sustainability / Climate change / Health / Malnutrition / Water pollution / Water scarcity / Irrigation / Water management / Agriculture / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Food security / Nutrition / Food systems / Water security Record No:H050672
The role of hydropower in the renewable energy mix for Africaapos;s green development is widely recognised and underpinned by respective government and development partner funded initiatives. However, the growing demand for energy must be balanced with considerations for resource protection and benefit sharing of water resource developments with vulnerable human communities. An international conference on water stewardship for sustainable hydropower brought together key stakeholders in Nairobi, Kenya. This paper aims to synthesise the key messages of experts who attended the conference, presents the emerging body of good practice policies, plans and action in developing sustainable hydropower in Sub-Saharan Africa, and provides recommendations for the way forward. Outcomes of the conference include considerations, planning for sustainable resource development, resource protection considerations, sharing of resource development benefits, and putting the promise into practice. This discussion describes the nature of our planning and management mistakes in the past, presents good practice options and how to implement sustainable hydropower in the future.
Dams / Environmental flows / Society / Sustainable development / Decision making / Multi-stakeholder processes / Resource management / Renewable energy / Hydropower / Planning / Water management / Water resources Record No:H050665
Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production. From an aquaculture entrepreneur’s perspective, the combination of fish farming and wastewater treatment in common waste stabilization ponds allows significant savings on capital (pond infrastructure) and running costs (wastewater supporting fish feed). On the other hand, the treatment plant owner will have the benefit of a partner taking over plant maintenance. Given the importance of food safety and related perceptions, the report is focusing on innovative business models where the marketed fish is not in direct contact with the treated wastewater, but only the brood stock or fish feed. The financial analysis of the presented systems shows profitable options for the fish farmer, operational and in part capital cost recovery for the treatment plant, and as the treatment plant operators can stop charging households a sanitation fee, eventually a triple-win situation for both partners and the served community.
Case studies / Environmental impact / Socioeconomic impact / Risk assessment / Public health / Water quality / Food safety / Nutrients / Fish feeding / Cost recovery / Circular economy / Financial analysis / Fisheries value chains / Markets / Nongovernmental organizations / Public-private partnerships / Stabilization ponds / Treatment plants / Infrastructure / Integrated systems / Fishery production / Wastewater treatment / Developing countries / Sustainability / Business models / Wastewater aquaculture / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H050557
Enhancing accountability has become an important objective of the governance reforms over the past two decades. Yet, only a few studies have explored the use of social accountability tools in the water sector in particular. This report aims to fill this gap, based on a case study of a donor-funded water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) program in Nepal. We document and analyze the effects of two types of social accountability tools implemented by the program: public hearings and social audits. We examined how these tools have contributed to increased transparency, participation, voice and accountability, and in turn discuss their potential to reduce corruption. We relied on qualitative methods to collect data in two case study water supply schemes in two districts of Nepal. The study found that the social accountability tools provided a platform for water users to participate and deliberate on issues related to the execution of WASH schemes. However, the scope of accountability narrowly focused on the integrity of the water user committees but did not provide the political resources and means for communities to hold funding and implementing agencies accountable. Furthermore, attention to budget management has not provided space to address environmental and social justice issues related to payment of wages, access to water and decision-making processes in the design of the water scheme and water allocation. Findings from the study also indicate that the concept of deliberation and downward accountability, as envisioned in international development discourses, does not necessarily match with local power relationships and local cultural norms.
Case studies / Rural communities / Awareness / Households / Inclusion / Women / Legislation / Public services / Institutional reform / Political institutions / Water user associations / Nongovernmental organizations / Stakeholders / Development aid / Water, sanitation and hygiene / Water allocation / Drinking water / Water resources / Citizen participation / Participatory approaches / Governance / Transparency / Corruption / Auditing / Budgeting / Water supply / Accountability / Social participation Record No:H050606
This report assesses the potential of solar photovoltaic (PV) irrigation for smallholder agriculture in Ghana, using elements of business planning and business models with a suitability mapping approach. These approaches take into account the economic as well as environmental sustainability of expanding such technology. Using data from existing solar PV irrigation systems and interviews with key industry actors, the report discusses the regulatory and institutional context for investment in solar PV technology and outlines the technology supply chain, mapping the key actors and their roles. The financial viability of two empirical business cases – directly funding an agribusiness and subsidizing a cooperative model – is analyzed to assess the feasibility of expanding access to the technology. Furthermore, three solar PV irrigation business model scenarios are presented based on insights gained from the two empirical cases as well as from analyzing the existing policy and regulatory framework, the technology supply chain and environmental suitability. The potential for solar PV irrigation pumps is substantial, especially in northern Ghana, although care must be taken to avoid overpumping some aquifers. Achieving this potential will require strengthening the policy framework and making finance available at a reasonable cost. The report identifies alternative financing mechanisms and business models that have been tried elsewhere and can be adapted to Ghana, and makes recommendations to enhance the sustainable uptake of solar PV irrigation.
Innovation scaling / Case studies / Institutions / Input output analysis / Costs / Financial viability / Value chains / Supply chains / Regulations / Policies / Renewable energy / Pumps / Water lifting / Multiple use water services / Water resources / Aquifers / Groundwater irrigation / Smallholders / Irrigated farming / Environmental sustainability / Feasibility studies / Business models / Irrigation systems / Small scale systems / Farmer-led irrigation / Technology / Photovoltaic systems / Solar energy Record No:H050503
Wastewater reuse is identified as strategic to help ameliorate scarcity in water-stressed regions around the world. However, to develop it, there is a need to better understand the social, institutional and technological contexts in which it takes place. This article develops a novel socio-technical framework to inform such an analysis and applies it to current wastewater reuse in Egypt. Our analysis highlights the different actors, management activities and practices that shape wastewater collection, transfer, treatment, discharge and/or reuse in different social, technological and environmental contexts in Egypt. It points out bottlenecks of current wastewater reuse policies and programmes.
Case studies / Farmers / Villages / Water resources / Technology / Treatment plants / Regulations / Water policies / Irrigation / Sewerage / Waste collection / Waste management / Wastewater treatment / Water reuse Record No:H050497
Dickens, Chris; McCartney, Matthew. 2021. Water-Related Ecosystems. In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 10p. (Online first) (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals)[DOI] More...
Development indicators / Water quality / Rivers / Wetlands / Environmental flows / Biodiversity / Aquatic ecosystems / Goal 15 Life on land / Goal 13 Climate action / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Ecosystem services / Freshwater ecosystems Record No:H050496
Fecal sludge (FS)-derived fertilizer material, Fortifer was used in farmers’ field to cultivate different crops under varying soil and agro-climatic conditions in Ghana. The aim was to (1) create awareness among smallholder farmers for widespread use of Fortifer (2) observe the response of crops to Fortifer application by farmers in different agro-ecological zones (3) obtain farmers feedback on the FS-derived product to enhance further dissemination across the country. In total 95 farmers in six locations participated in the farmer-led pilots. Fortifer containing up to 3.0% nitrogen, 3.6% phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 44.3% organic matter was applied to tomato, rice, maize and pepper in comparison to inorganic fertilizers at recommended rates. Subsequently, farmers’ perception of, and willingness to use the product were studied. Crop yield was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in the Fortifer plots compared to the inorganic fertilizer plots for all the selected crops. Yield was 12% higher for tomato, 27% for rice and maize and 30% for pepper under the Fortifer plots. Farmers indicated that, nutrient content was the most important factor they consider when making fertilizer purchasing decision.
Agroecological zones / Pilot farms / Marginal analysis / Willingness to pay / Awareness raising / Nutrient content / Crop yield / attitudes / Farmersapos / Faecal sludge / Composts / Organic fertilizers / Fertilizer application Record No:H050489
A necessary extension of the concept of Resource Recovery and Reuse with an even higher priority is the prevention and reduction of waste. One concern, in particular, is food waste, which constitutes the largest share of human waste. Target 12.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to ‘halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses, by 2030’. For this report, over 400 businesses were analyzed to identify common approaches and business models to address the food waste challenge. The business models are presented under seven categories – measurement, redistribution, resell, value addition, responsible waste collection, resource recovery, and recycling – with a special focus on their application potential to the Global South.
Implementing a circular economy approach to sanitation requires knowledge of the costs to construct, operate and maintain resource-oriented systems. Yet the dearth of data on costs of urban sanitation in general, and resource-oriented systems in particular, limit opportunities to progress sustainable sanitation in low- and middle-income countries. This paper contributes empirical data on the life-cycle costs of a resource-oriented sanitation system in urban Sri Lanka, addressing a gap in evidence about how much it costs, and who pays, for a system that integrates fecal sludge management with nutrient capture and reuse. Costs across the system life-cycle were analyzed according to: (i) cost type; (ii) phases of the sanitation chain; and (iii) distribution between actors. Over a 25-year lifespan, the system had an annualized cost of USD 2.8/person or USD 11/m3 of septage treated. Revenue from co-compost sales covered reuse-related costs plus 8% of present value costs for other phases of the sanitation chain. Findings affirm both the potential for resource-oriented sanitation to generate revenue, and the need for substantial complementary investment in the overall system. The system was found to be reliant on household investment, yet financially viable from the service provider perspective with revenue from desludging services (89%) and co-compost sales (11%) that exceeded costs over the system lifespan and in most years. The analysis of total costs, financial perspectives, and reuse specifics contributes critical evidence to inform policy and planning that supports a purposeful and equitable transition towards circular economy approaches to sanitation.
Sustainable Development Goals / Investment / Local government / Households / Urban areas / Composting / Desludging / Reuse / Resource recovery / Waste treatment / Faecal sludge / Financial viability / Economic aspects / Cost analysis / Sanitation / Waste management Record No:H050437
Access to sufficient and clean freshwater is essential for all life. Water is also essential for food system functioning: as a key input into food production, but also in processing and preparation, and as a food itself. Water scarcity and pollution are growing, affecting poorer populations, particularly food producers. Malnutrition levels are also on the rise, and this is closely linked to water scarcity. Achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2) and Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) are co-dependent. Solutions to jointly improve food systems and water security outcomes that the United Nations Food Security Summit (UNFSS) should consider include: 1) Strengthening efforts to retain water-based ecosystems and their functions; 2) Improving agricultural water management for better diets for all; 3) Reducing water and food losses beyond the farmgate; 4) Coordinating water with nutrition and health interventions; 5) Increasing the environmental sustainability of food systems; 6) Explicitly addressing social inequities in water-nutrition linkages; and 7) Improving data quality and monitoring for water-food system linkages, drawing on innovations in information and communications technology (ICT).
Ecosystems / Environmental sustainability / Climate change / Health / Malnutrition / Water pollution / Water scarcity / Water management / Agriculture / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Nutrition / Food systems / Water security Record No:H050435
de Souza, M.; Koo-Oshima, S.; Kahil, T.; Wada, Y.; Qadir, M.; Jewitt, G.; Cudennec, C.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Zhang, L. 2021. Food and agriculture. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021: valuing water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.67-78. More... | Fulltext (15.9 MB)
Costs / Diets / Poverty alleviation / Groundwater / Ecosystems / Water quality / Wastewater irrigation / Intensification / Irrigated farming / Rainfed farming / Water pricing / Water supply / Water productivity / Water use efficiency / Water scarcity / Water management / Water resources / Multiple use water services / Food production / Sustainable agriculture / Food security Record No:H050380
Safely managed waste reuse may be a sustainable way to protect human health and livelihoods in agrarian-based countries without adequate sewerage. The safe recovery and reuse of fecal sludge-derived fertilizer (FSF) has become an important policy discussion in low-income economies as a way to manage urban sanitation to benefit peri-urban agriculture. But what drives the user acceptance of composted fecal sludge? We develop a preference-ranking model to understand the attributes of FSF that contribute to its acceptance in Karnataka, India. We use this traditionally economic modeling method to uncover cultural practices and power disparities underlying the waste economy. We model farmowners and farmworkers separately, as the choice to use FSF as an employer versus as an employee is fundamentally different. We find that farmers who are willing to use FSF prefer to conceal its origins from their workers and from their own caste group. This is particularly the case for caste-adhering, vegetarian farmowners. We find that workers are open to using FSF if its attributes resemble cow manure, which they are comfortable handling. The waste economy in rural India remains shaped by caste hierarchies and practices, but these remain unacknowledged in policies promoting sustainable ‘business’ models for safe reuse. Current efforts under consideration toward formalizing the reuse sector should explicitly acknowledge caste practices in the waste economy, or they may perpetuate the size and scope of the caste-based informal sector.
Sanitation / Business models / Economic aspects / Agricultural workers / attitudes / Farmersapos / Caste systems / Periurban areas / Cultural factors / Organic fertilizers / Resource recovery / Excreta / Faecal sludge / Human wastes / Waste management Record No:H050316
Chapman, D. V.; Warner, S.; Dickens, Chris. 2021. Approaches to water monitoring. In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 11p. (Online first). (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals)[DOI] More...
Citizen science / Indicators / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Observation / Groundwater / Lakes / Rivers / Water resources / Assessment / Approaches / Monitoring / Water quality Record No:H050315
Recycling of wastewater provides a substantial solution to the global issue of water scarcity and high water use in aquaculture. However, this sustainable way of wastewater use has not been given much attention and exploration. This study focused on the consumer preference for fish grown in treated wastewater as well as the effect of aeration on the growth performance and economic benefit of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) grown in treated wastewater. Two hundred (200) respondents from two communities (Chirapatre and Gyinyase) near the wastewater treatment plant in Kumasi were interviewed to determine their willingness to accept and pay for African catfish grown in treated wastewater. For the growth trial, a total of 600 fish (of average initial weight 39.12g) were stocked in two maturation ponds with 4 h (3:00am–7:00am) of aeration daily. The trial lasted for 12 weeks and variables monitored included the survival, growth performance (weight gain, specific growth rate, and yield) and water quality. Fish cultured in non-aerated wastewater ponds (NWFPs) under similar conditions as in aerated wastewater-fed ponds (AWFPs) served as control. The results indicated most important considerations for consumers in their choice of fish to consume were in order of importance; food safety, freshness of fish, taste and packaging. The proximity of consumers to the treatment plant, the price of fish, religion, and age and whether or not they were fish consumers affected their willingness to pay for African catfish grown in the treated wastewater significantly. For the growth trial, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the aerated ponds were significantly higher than in the NWFPs and this led to more than a doubling of the growth rates in the African catfish grown in the AWFPs (189.10g 11.32) as compared to the NWFPs (90.70g 11.59). The pond aeration improved fish growth significantly (p lt; 0.0098). On economic benefit, the aerated system yielded profits of 618.83 (103.13) as compared to a loss of 104.99 (17.50), which was incurred in the non-aerated ponds. Education of the consumers on the process of wastewater treatment and establishment of food safety guidelines will therefore be recommended to increase consumer interest in consuming fish from the treated wastewater.
Economic aspects / Fish culture / Fishery production / Sewage ponds / Wastewater treatment plants / Cost benefit analysis / Water quality / Food safety / Willingness to pay / Fish consumption / Growth rate / Profitability / Consumer behaviour / Clarias gariepinus / African catfish / Wastewater aquaculture Record No:H050313
Financing / Enterprises / Water user associations / Refugees / Displacement / Political aspects / Conflicts / Water rights / Water law / International law / Agricultural insurance / Vulnerability / Drought / Flooding / Disaster risk reduction / Climate change / Water scarcity / Wastewater treatment / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Rural areas / Water supply / s empowerment / Womenapos / Gender / Hygiene / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water governance / Water policy Record No:H050271
Arid areas in East Africa are characterized by physical water scarcity. The physical water scarcity is further exacerbated by poor water quality (mainly salinity and fluoride) of mainly groundwater sources. Combined physical water scarcity and poor water quality makes the region a hydrogeologically difficult environment. Nevertheless, some viable high-yielding aquifers exist in East Africa. Difficult hydrogeology means that the best practices of reaching rural dwellers, towns, and urban centers require specialized financial, technical, and engineering approaches. The chapter describes the hydrogeology difficulty and the ongoing management strategies and its implications for the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene sector in East Africa arid regions.
Aquifers / Salinity / Water quality / Sustainability / Hygiene / Sanitation / Water availability / Water security / Drinking water / Hydrogeology / Drylands / Arid zones / Water scarcity / Groundwater management Record No:H050269
Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Drechsel, Pay; Dominish, E.; Carrard, N. 2021. Organic waste system assessment: Kaduwela Municipal Council. Report prepared by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) as part of Activity 1 within the project “From Urban Waste to Sustainable Value Chains: Linking Sanitation and Agriculture through Innovative Partnerships”. Sydney, Australia: University of Technology Sydney. Institute for Sustainable Futures. 53p. More... | Fulltext (4.99 MB)
Large cities in developing countries are facing the challenge of rapid urban population growth, which results in increasing waste generation. In Nairobi, the solid waste situation is characterized by low coverage of collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector operators and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. About 3,121 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated daily, of which about 850 tons are collected and the remaining is burnt or dumped in unauthorized sites or landfilled in the Dandora dumpsite causing health and environmental problems. The recovery of nutrients from the organic content of MSW for reuse in agriculture has the potential to address the dual challenge of waste management and soil nutrient depletion. This study assessed the economic and environmental impact of decentralized composting business model in Nairobi based on a comparison with the baseline scenario using an indicator expressed in tons CO2 equivalent. The cost–benefit analysis was based on data collected from existing compost plants in Kenya. To assess the sensitivity of the results to variation in input variables, a simulation model was developed using the Monte Carlo method. The decentralized composting business model resulted in a net GHG emission saving of 1.21 tons CO2-eq/ton of compost, being both financially and economically feasible with more than 70% chance of economic success. Assessing the economic and environmental impact is an important tool for decision making and to ensure that the business model results in desired benefits to society.
Sustainable management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a critical issue around the world, especially in South Asia where waste generation is expected to double by 2050. Closing the food-nutrient cycle through composting biodegradable MSW has the potential to meet human needs, including sanitation and food security, while protecting the environment. We use an interdisciplinary case study approach including systems thinking to assess Sri Lanka’s national MSW composting system, which primarily receives residential and commercial food waste. We embed quantitative compost quality analysis and interviews at 20 composting facilities within a broader qualitative assessment informed by ~60 stakeholders in total. This approach yields insights on how institutional, economic, social, and biophysical aspects of the system are interrelated, and how challenges and solutions can create undesirable and desirable cascading effects, respectively. Such dynamics can create risks of composting facility failure and unintended consequences, diminishing the chances of achieving a sustainable circular food–nutrient system. Compost quality, which was variable, plays a pivotal role within the system—a function of program design and implementation, as well as a determinant of value capture in a circular economy. We make several recommendations to inform future efforts to sustainably manage biodegradable MSW using composting, drawing on our case study of Sri Lanka and prior case studies from other nations. Key among these is the need for increased emphasis on compost product quality and markets in policy and program design and implementation. Targeted measures are needed to improve waste separation, boost compost quality, effectively use compost standards, encourage compost market development, ringfence the revenues generated at municipal compost plants, and identify efficient modes of compost distribution. Such measures require adequate space and infrastructure for composting, resource investment, local expertise to guide effective system management, strong links with the agriculture sector, and continued political support.
Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Aheeyar, Mohamed; Drechsel, Pay. 2021. Reuse of food waste as animal feed in Sri Lanka. In Malathy, P.; Kajanthy, S.; Rukshani, P.; Sarmatha, P. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Vavuniya University International Research Conference (VUIRC) 2021 on Human Empowerment Through Research Excellence, Virtual Conference, 15 October 2021. Vavuniya, Sri Lanka: University of Vavuniya. pp.51-55. More... | Fulltext (20.6 MB)
The use of food waste (FW) from food services as animal feed through informal agreements has been in practice for many years in Sri Lanka. However, data to show the scale of this practice are inadequate. This paper aims to study the extent of FW diverted to piggeries and the opportunities and challenges in reusing FW as animal feed. The data were collected via telephonic survey from 24 piggery farmers in the Western Province in May 2020. Results revealed that 50% of farmers were rearing 100-300 pigs. Farmers used FW as a major feed source to satisfy 82% of total feed requirement on an average. About 40% of the farmers collected the FW from multiple sources such as hotels, restaurants and canteens. Given that the piggery farms are located in peri-urban areas, the average distance traveled by the farmers is 38 km up and down which indicated the value of FW for them. FW was supplied mostly free of charge; however, 26% of the farmers pay LKR 2 to 40/kg when supplied by intermediaries. FW was collected daily, and the amount collected by the farmers varies 50 to 10000 kg/day depending on demand and supply, with 75% of farmers collected less than 1000 kg/day.
Little is known about the occurrence of emerging pollutants (EPs) in waters in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region despite the extensive use of low-quality water there. Available data dealing with the sources, occurrence and removal of EPs within the MENA region in different categories of water is collected, presented and analyzed in this literature review. According to the collected database, the occurrence and removal efficiency of EPs in the water matrix in the MENA region is available, respectively, for 13 and six countries of the 18 in total; no available data is registered for the rest. Altogether, 290 EPs have been observed in different water matrices across the MENA countries, stemming mainly from industrial effluents, agricultural practices, and discharge or reuse of treated wastewater (TWW). Pharmaceutical compounds figure among the most frequently reported compounds in wastewater, TWW, surface water, and drinking water. Nevertheless, pesticides are the most frequently detected pollutants in groundwater. Worryingly, 57 cases of EPs have been reported in different fresh and drinking waters, exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) and European Commission (EC) thresholds. Overall, pharmaceuticals, organic compounds, and pesticides are the most concerning EP groups. The review revealed the ineffectiveness of treatment processes used in the region to remove EPs. Negative removals of some EPs such as carbamazepine, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole were recorded, suggesting their possible accumulation or release during treatment. This underlines the need to set in place and strengthen control measures, treatment procedures, standards, and policies for such pollutants in the region.
Wastewater treatment plants / Irrigation / Public health / Pesticides / Risk / Monitoring / Drinking water / Groundwater / Surface water / Freshwater / Pollutants / Water pollution Record No:H050733
This report examines social equality aspects related to resource recovery through solid waste composting and wastewater irrigation. The report shows that women are represented in greatest numbers at the base of the recycling chain, most often as informal waste pickers and as sorters of recyclables with limited access to resources and upward mobility. Despite a wide gender gap in the solid waste and sanitation sectors, women play a key role in both municipal waste reduction and food safety where irrigation water is unsafe. Analyzing the gender dimension is important for understanding household responses to recycling programs, differences between the formal and informal sectors as well as along the waste-to-resource value chain from collection to treatment and reuse. The report stresses the important role of women in household waste management, including waste segregation, and the power of women-dominated waste picker associations, where the informal sector plays an essential role alongside the formal sector.
Farmers / Entrepreneurs / Social marketing / Community involvement / Sanitation / Health hazards / Sustainable Development Goals / Wastewater irrigation / Composting / Organic wastes / Wastewater treatment / Recycling / Waste collection / Faecal sludge / Household wastes / Urban wastes / s participation / Womenapos / Business models / Circular economy / Agricultural value chains / Liquid wastes / Solid wastes / Waste management / Social equality / Gender equity / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H050720
In 2019, Sri Lanka introduced two policies that referred to food waste and the need to reduce it. To understand key stakeholders’ readiness in this context, this study analyzed the food waste perceptions of private and public sectors in Colombo (open markets, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants, canteens, food caterers and key authorities). Interviews were carried out with operational managers and public officials, as well as other stakeholders who have roles in food waste redistribution and reuse, such as NGOs and the livestock sector. So far, the food-waste-related policy recommendations lack an operational inter-institutional home which can build on measures, like standards, regulations and incentives. Thus, most food waste reduction initiatives are initiated by NGOs or by the private sector, e.g., by larger hotels and supermarket chains. These entities were ready to lead by example, based on the understanding that urban food waste is an internal (financial) management challenge. Among smaller local entities, food waste was perceived more as an external issue to be handled by the city’s waste collection services. Although perceptions varied between entities generating smaller or larger quantities of food waste, there was general agreement that suboptimal capacities and mechanisms to quantify, monitor and cost food waste generation appeared to be obstacles for in-depth awareness creation and action. There was significant interest in communication platforms for cross-sectoral learning, win/win collaborations with reliable collection (reuse) services that are currently operational, such as those provided by piggeries, as well as surplus redistribution initiatives if food safety and related liabilities can be addressed effectively.
Sustainable Development Goals / Livestock feed / Policies / Training / Awareness raising / Local authorities / Stakeholders / Landfills / Urban areas / Resource recovery / Recycling / Waste treatment / Food surplus / Waste management / Strategies / Waste reduction / Food wastes Record No:H050177
This chapter documents and assesses available best practices and technologies that can be employed to mitigate the release of microplastics from textiles and tyres into the environment. The chapter follows a life-cycle approach, discussing options implementable at the design and manufacturing, use and end-of-life phases, as well as options for the end-of-pipe capture of microplastics.
Stormwater runoff / Industrial wastewater / OECD countries / Treatment plants / Sewage sludge / Wastewater treatment / Life cycle / Tyres / Textile industry / Best practices / Technology / Mitigation / Microplastic pollution Record No:H051310
Dickens, Chris; O’Brien, G. 2021. Water quality: standards and indicators. In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 11p. (Online first) (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals)[DOI] More...
Databases / Ecosystems / Water users / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Drinking water / Monitoring / Indicators / Water quality standards Record No:H051028
With adverse impacts of climate change growing in number and intensity, there is an urgent need to reduce emissions from food systems to net zero. This can only be achieved if rural areas in low- and middle-income countries gain access to clean energy. A review of the research and capacity building contributions of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) over the last 10 years suggests important contributions in the areas of energy policy and energy investment planning, cost and feasibility frameworks, and business models for clean energy technology uptake. WLE has also conducted successful pilot projects on solar irrigation to provide an evidence base for scaling up innovative energy initiatives. Finally, the program also considered non-agricultural uses of energy where relevant to food systems, and implemented capacity building activities.
Going forward, CGIAR has a key role to play in providing information, supporting access and piloting innovative, scalable clean energy interventions to support the achievement of multiple impacts for the poorest and most food-insecure women and men farmers and entrepreneurs.
Food security / Women / Farmers / Smallholders / Capacity development / Business models / Income generation / Reuse / Resource recovery / Emission reduction / Environmental sustainability / Pilot projects / Innovation / Investment / Technology / Pumps / Electricity / Groundwater / Irrigation systems / Solar energy / Energy consumption / Climate change / Water systems / Land use / Agrifood systems / Research programmes / CGIAR / Rural areas / Energy policies / Transformation / Agriculture Record No:H050910
In many parts of the world, wastewater irrigation has become a common practice because of freshwater scarcity and to increase resource reuse efficiency. Wastewater irrigation has positive impacts on livelihoods and at the same time, it has adverse impacts related to environmental pollution. Hydrochemical processes and groundwater behaviour need to be analyzed for a thorough understanding of the geochemical evolution in the wastewater irrigated systems. The current study focuses on a micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad of India, where farmers practice intensive wastewater irrigation. To evaluate the major factors that control groundwater geochemical processes, we analyzed the chemical composition of the wastewater used for irrigation and groundwater samples on a monthly basis for one hydrological year. The groundwater samples were collected in three settings of the watershed: wastewater irrigated area, groundwater irrigated area and upstream peri-urban area. The collected groundwater and wastewater samples were analyzed for major anions, cations and nutrients. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences and hydrogeochemical processes such as cation exchange, precipitation and dissolution of minerals using saturated indices, and freshwater-wastewater mixtures at the aquifer interface. Saturation indices of halite, gypsum and fluorite are exhibiting mineral dissolution and calcite and dolomite display mineral precipitation. Overall, the results suggest that the groundwater geochemistry of the watershed is largely controlled by long-term wastewater irrigation, local rainfall patterns and water-rock interactions. The study results can provide the basis for local decision-makers to develop sustainable groundwater management strategies and to control the aquifer pollution influenced by wastewater irrigation.
Periurban areas / Models / Saturation / Ion exchange / Water quality / Watersheds / Freshwater / Irrigated farming / Farming systems / Aquifers / Geochemistry / Hydrology / Groundwater irrigation / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H049333
Globally, 50% of the population relies on on-site sanitation systems (OSS) such as septic tanks and pit latrines and is, hence, in need of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions. India is a classic example, given that its government built more than 100 million toilets with the majority relying on OSS. With 400 fecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) in various stages of planning, procurement and construction, this report comes at an opportune time to present findings on FSM business models already implemented across India.
Interviews were conducted with a total of 105 Emptying and Transport (Eamp;T) operators in 72 towns and cities across 16 states in India, 22 representatives from municipalities that own emptying vehicles, 18 FSTP operators and more than 30 institutions. In addition, procurement tenders for Eamp;T and FSTPs in 13 states were analyzed.
In total, 18 business models were identified, several with energy or nutrient recovery components. The analysis of Eamp;T operators revealed clear differences that steer a business towards success or failure. The majority of operators still dispose fecal sludge in an unsafe manner, due to the lack of official disposal or treatment sites. In comparison to sewer networks, the capital and operating costs (per capita) of FSTPs were significantly lower. The report provides evidence-based discussions on policies and recommendations for scaling and sustaining FSM.
We describe the technical feasibility of metagenomic water quality analysis using only portable equipment, for example mini-vacuum pumps and filtration units, mini-centrifuges, mini-PCR machines and the memory-stick sized MinION of Oxford Nanopore Technologies, for the library preparation and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Using this portable toolbox on site, we successfully characterized the microbiome of water samples collected from Birtley Sewage Treatment Plant, UK, and its environs. We also demonstrated the applicability of the portable metagenomics toolbox in a low-income country by surveying water samples from the Akaki River around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing workflow, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification, sequencing library preparation, and sequencing was accomplished within one working day. The metagenomic data became available within 24e72 h, depending on internet speed. Metagenomic analysis clearly distinguished the microbiome of pristine samples from sewage influenced water samples. Metagenomic analysis identified the potential role of two bacterial genera not conventionally monitored, Arcobacter and Aeromonas, as predominant faecal pollution indicators/waterborne hazards. Subsequent quantitative PCR analysis validated the high Arcobacter butzleri abundances observed in the urban influenced Akaki River water samples by portable next generation sequencing with the MinION device. Overall, our field deployable metagenomics toolbox advances the capability of scientists to comprehensively monitor microbiomes anywhere in the world, including in the water, food and drinks industries, the health services, agriculture and beyond.
Case studies / Costs / Portable equipment / Chemicophysical properties / Faecal coliforms / Waterborne diseases / Microbiological analysis / Wastewater treatment plants / Monitoring / Water analysis / Water quality Record No:H049934
This study fills a knowledge gap about low-income rural communities’ holistic management of multiple water resources to meet their multiple needs through multiple or single-use infrastructure. Six low-income rural villages in Limpopo Province were selected with a diversity in: service levels, surface and groundwater resources, public infrastructure (designed for either domestic uses or irrigation but multiple use in reality) and self-supply (people’s individual or communal investments in infrastructure). Focusing on water-dependent livelihoods and water provision to homesteads, distant fields and other sites of use, three policy-relevant patterns were identified. First, most households have two or more sources of water to their homesteads as a vital buffer to irregular supplies and droughts. Second, infrastructure to homesteads is normally for domestic uses, livestock and, for many households, irrigation for consumption and sale. Public infrastructure to irrigate distant fields is multiple use. Exceptionally, self-supply point sources to distant fields are single use. Water bodies to other sites of use are normally multiple use. As for large-scale infrastructure, multiple-use infrastructure is cost-effective and water-efficient. Third, in four of the six villages people’s self-supply is a more important water source to homesteads than public infrastructure. In all villages, water provided through self-supply is shared. Self-supply improves access to water faster, more cost-effectively and more sustainably than public services do. In line with international debates, self-supply is there to stay and can be supported as a cost-effective and sustainable complementary mode of service delivery. A last potential policy implication regards community-driven planning, design and construction of water infrastructure according to people’s priorities. This may sustainably harness the above-mentioned advantages and, moreover, communities’ ability to manage complex multiple sources, uses and multiple-use infrastructure, whether public or self-supply, as a matter of daily life.
Livelihoods / Households / Villages / Sanitation / Water quality / Rainwater harvesting / Water use / Groundwater / Water resources / Water supply / Community involvement / Infrastructure / Communal irrigation systems / Rural communities / Water management / Integrated management / Multiple use water services Record No:H050552
Peri-urban areas are characterized by multifunctional land-use patterns forming a mosaic of built-up and agricultural areas. They are critical for providing food and other agricultural products, livelihood opportunities and multiple ecosystem services, which makes them transformative where urban and rural spaces blend. We analyzed land use changes in a peri-urban micro-watershed in Southern India by using Google Earth data to understand the micro-level spatio-temporal dynamics. This study aims at understanding the peri-urban agriculture and landscape changes as related to the change in use of wastewater and groundwater for irrigation. The temporal dynamics of peri-urban system including the changes in built-up, paragrass, paddy rice and vegetable cultivation, groundwater and wastewater irrigated areas in the watershed were evaluated. The detected changes indicate that, as a consequence of urban pressures, agricultural landscapes are being converted into built-up areas and, at the same time, former barren land is converted to agricultural plots. The mapped land use data are used in landscape change modelling for predicting the peri-urban agricultural dynamics and the driving factors in the watershed. Combined with the mapping and modelling approaches for land use change analysis, our results form the basis for integrated resources management in the wastewater influenced peri-urban systems.
Brachiaria mutica / Vegetables / Rice / Crops / Satellite imagery / Forecasting / Irrigated land / Watersheds / Irrigation systems / Groundwater irrigation / Modelling / Land use change / Peri-urban agriculture / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H049805
Based on primary data from fecal sludge (FS) treatment plants in three West African urban regions (Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, Greater Accra in Ghana, and Grand Nokou in Benin), FS collection and treatment patterns were analyzed to identify possible scenarios for resource recovery (RR) through FS co-composting. FS collection was analyzed for up to 7 years, in part per day, month and season, as well as FS characteristics to understand peak flows, FS qualities and related variations to plan for appropriate RR technology and capacities.
Overall, the FS volumes collected by vacuum trucks were not significantly affected by the calendar days, months or seasons. Commonly assumed increases during rainy months were, for example, only recorded in Ouagadougou. FS composition appeared highly variable with a pronounced difference in total solids between FS collected from households versus institutional sources, likely indicating that institutions are served more frequently.
The analyzed treatment plants appear to be exploited beyond their capacity. RR for reuse can turn sludge disposal from a cost into a source of revenue with co-benefits for farmers and the environment, thereby reducing the pressure on tipping fees. The probability of the added co-compost production being financially viable on its own was estimated for all the study sites, indicating an earliest breakeven point after 5 to 8 years.
Climatic variability and change result in unreliable and uncertain water availability and contribute to water insecurity in Africa, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas and where water storage infrastructure is limited. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR), which comprises purposeful recharge and storage of surface runoff and treated wastewater in aquifers, serves various purposes, of which a prominent one is to provide a means to mitigate adverse impact of climate variability. Despite clear scope for this technology in Africa, the prevalence and range of MAR experiences in Africa have not been extensively examined. The objective of this article is provide an overview of MAR progress in Africa and to inform the potential for future use of this approach in the continent. Information on MAR from 52 cases in Africa listed in the Global MAR Portal and collated from relevant literature was analyzed. Cases were classified according to 13 key characteristics including objective of the MAR project, technology applied, biophysical conditions, and technical and management challenges. Results of the review indicate that: (i) the extent of MAR practice in Africa is relatively limited, (ii) the main objective of MAR in Africa is to secure and augment water supply and balance variability in supply and demand, (iii) the surface spreading/infiltration method is the most common MAR method, (iv) surface water is the main water source for MAR, and (v) the total annual recharge volume is about 158 Mm3 /year. MAR schemes exist in both urban and rural Africa, which exemplify the advancement of MAR implementation as well as its out scaling potential. Further, MAR schemes are most commonly found in areas of high inter-annual variability in water availability. If properly planned, implemented, managed, maintained and adapted to local conditions, MAR has large potential in securing water and increasing resilience in Africa. Ultimately, realizing the full potential of MAR in Africa will require undertaking hydrogeological and hydrological studies to determine feasibility of MAR, especially in geographic regions of high inter-annual climate variability and growing water demand. This, supported by increased research to gauge success of existing MAR projects and to address challenges, would help with future siting, design and implementation of MAR in Africa.
Rain / Wastewater / Water reuse / Water supply / Water quality / Water availability / Climate change / Water security / Groundwater management / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge Record No:H049796
This article reviews the negative impact of anthropogenic changes on groundwater. The main changes in physical and geographical conditions that occur under the impact of anthropogenic pressures and that have the most significant influence on the state of groundwater, as well as a negative impaction the conditions of the formation of groundwater are: changes in the landscape caused by agricultural works, mining, construction of settlements, etc.; changes in the hydrographic network caused the construction of hydroelectric power facilities; changes in the composition of the atmospheric air; changes in the groundwater level regime, climatic conditions. The most significant factor of change in groundwater formation conditions is the progressive anthropogenic pollution of groundwater. It negatively influences the number of resources and their quality.
Investments in irrigation contribute to poverty reduction and enhance food security. This paper considers irrigation investments more broadly in the context of rural–urban linkages and thus examines rural irrigation schemes and peri-urban and urban agriculture using freshwater, groundwater and wastewater. We present case studies from East, West and Southern Africa, while focusing on the imperative of smallholders and of food security and nutrition. Evidence from Big Data and telecoupling show that, amid global change and sustainability issues, irrigation development strengthens connections between humans and nature with notable benefits to food security. Transforming investments to feed the future generation require priority investments in irrigation, solar energy for groundwater pumping, groundwater development policy, and integration of peri-urban and urban agriculture into food systems. Equally important will be no-regret interventions in wastewater reuse, water storage and groundwater buffer, micro-irrigation, and wholesale reconfiguration of farming systems, through anticipatory investments, to safeguard food security and sustainability into the distant future.
Sustainability / Groundwater development / Surface water / Solar energy / Water policy / Water reuse / Wastewater irrigation / Public-private partnerships / Business models / Poverty / Small scale systems / Intensification / Peri-urban agriculture / Urban agriculture / Rural urban relations / Public investment / Irrigation schemes / Smallholders / Nutrition security / Food security Record No:H049733
Water security is a key in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs); however, it is gradually becoming a scarce resource due to pressure from both climatic and non-climatic factors. Understanding sources and extend of vulnerability of the water resources is the very frst step to design appropriate strategies aimed at securing water for various uses. This study therefore assessed vulnerability of water resources and its spatial distribution across the Palikas (new local governments) with Gulmi district in Province-5 as the case study. Vulnerability was assessed using an indicator-based framework comprising of two components and six sub-indices. Results showed that Musikot is the highly vulnerable Palika among the 12 Palikas, and Resunga is the least vulnerable. The results are useful for prioritizing the Palikas for allocating resources aimed at targeting new programs for reducing poverty and conserving natural resources.
Highlands / Local government / Spatial distribution / Vegetation / Indicators / Population / Households / Sanitation / Drinking water / Rain / Water stress / Water scarcity / Climate change / Assessment / Vulnerability / Water availability / Water resources Record No:H049722
Urbanisation will be one of the 21st centuryapos;s most transformative trends. By 2050, it will increase from 55% to 68%, more than doubling the urban population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Urbanisation has multifarious (positive as well as negative) impacts on the wellbeing of humans and the environment. The 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) form the blueprint to achieve a sustainable future for all. Clean Water and Sanitation is a specific goal (SDG 6) within the suite of 17 interconnected goals. Here we provide an overview of some of the challenges that urbanisation poses in relation to SDG 6, especially in developing economies. Worldwide, several cities are on the verge of water crisis. Water distribution to informal settlements or slums in megacities (e.g. N50% population in the megacities of India) is essentially non-existent and limits access to adequate safe water supply. Besides due to poor sewer connectivity in the emerging economies, there is a heavy reliance on septic tanks, and other on-site sanitation (OSS) system and by 2030, 4.9 billion people are expected to rely on OSS. About 62–93% of the urban population in Vietnam, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Indonesia rely on septic tanks, where septage treatment is rare. Globally, over 80% of wastewater is released to the environment without adequate treatment. About 11% of all irrigated croplands is irrigated with such untreated or poorly treated wastewater. In addition to acute and chronic health effects, this also results in significant pollution of often-limited surface and groundwater resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect water reuse plays a key role in global water and food security. Here we offer several suggestions to mitigate water and food insecurity in emerging economies.
Behavioural changes / Sustainable Development Goals / Rural urban relations / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Ecosystems / Environmental health / Suburban agriculture / Wastewater irrigation / Water scarcity / Water supply / Indicators / Monitoring / Water quality / Health hazards / Public health / Water reuse / Sanitation / Septic tanks / Costs / Wastewater treatment / Waste treatment / Waste management / Food security / Water security / Economic development / Urbanization Record No:H049719
The world is not on track to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6 on clean water and sanitation by 2030. We urge a rapid change of the economics, engineering and management frameworks that guided water policy and investments in the past in order to address the water challenges of our time.
Millennium Development Goals / Drinking water / Water resources / Investment / Water governance / Water policy / Water access / Water management / Engineering / Economic aspects / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals Record No:H049713
Lee-Smith, D.; Prain, G.; Cofie, Olufunke; van Veenhuizen, R.; Karanja, N. 2020. Urban and peri-urban farming systems: feeding cities and enhancing resilience. In Dixon, J.; Garrity, D. P.; Boffa, J.-M.; Williams, Timothy Olalekan; Amede, T.; Auricht, C.; Lott, R.; Mburathi, G. (Eds.). Farming systems and food security in Africa: priorities for science and policy under global change. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.504-531. (Earthscan Food and Agriculture Series) More...
Strategies / Institutions / Markets / Trade / Policies / Energy / Technology / s participation / Womenapos / Social capital / Human capital / Climate change / Natural resources / Sustainable development / Resilience / Poverty / Hunger / Population / Farmers / Households / Nutrition security / Food security / Agricultural productivity / Nutrients / Waste utilization / Wastewater irrigation / Livestock / Crop production / Open spaces / Backyard farming / Irrigated farming / Rainfed farming / Towns / Peri-urban agriculture / Urban agriculture / Farming systems Record No:H049663
Monitoring the qualitative status of freshwaters is an important goal of the international community, as stated in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs) indicator 6.3.2 on good ambient water quality. Monitoring data are, however, lacking in many countries, allegedly because of capacity challenges of less-developed countries. So far, however, the relationship between human development and capacity challenges for water quality monitoring have not been analysed systematically. This hinders the implementation of fine-tuned capacity development programmes for water quality monitoring. Against this background, this study takes a global perspective in analysing the link between human development and the capacity challenges countries face in their national water quality monitoring programmes. The analysis is based on the latest data on the human development index and an international online survey amongst experts from science and practice. Results provide evidence of a negative relationship between human development and the capacity challenges to meet SDG 6.3.2 monitoring requirements. This negative relationship increases along the course of the monitoring process, from defining the enabling environment, choosing parameters for the collection of field data, to the analytics and analysis of five commonly used parameters (DO, EC, pH, TP and TN). Our assessment can be used to help practitioners improve technical capacity development activities and to identify and target investment in capacity development for monitoring.
Surveys / Environmental effects / Financing / Technology / Strategies / Decision making / Indicators / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Human resources / Capacity building / Monitoring / Water quality Record No:H049662
Belaud, G.; Mateos, L.; Aliod, R.; Buisson, Marie-Charlotte; Faci, E.; Gendre, S.; Ghinassi, G.; Gonzales Perea, R.; Lejars, C.; Maruejols, F.; Zapata, N. 2020. Irrigation and energy: issues and challenges.Irrigation and Drainage, 69(S1):177-185. (Special issue: Innovations in Irrigation Systems in Africa) [DOI] More...
Water-efficient agriculture has implied a large increase in energy consumption for irrigation in recent decades. In many irrigation systems, energy costs are now threatening their sustainability. However, new opportunities have arisen for the use of renewable energies in the irrigation sector. These are some of the aspects of the multifaceted multiple-actor ‘water–food–energy’ nexus. Technical, economic and environmental issues are linked in many ways, involving farmers, water users’ associations, energy suppliers, engineers and other stakeholders. The ICID session ‘Irrigation and energy’ triggered discussions on these multiple dimensions. This paper presents a synthesis of the presentations, discussions and conclusions.
Four main questions are addressed: How do irrigation productivity and sustainability of water resources exploitation change when farmers have access to energy? What do we know about energy efficiency in irrigation systems, at farm and collective network levels? How can this efficiency be optimized by using advanced technologies, modelling tools, improved management? Is energy production an opportunity for irrigation systems?
These questions have been posed based on multiple case studies from different parts of the world. The BRL network, in southern France, illustrates advanced strategies and opportunities to reduce energy consumption and develop energy production at a network level. General conclusions are drawn from this synthesis, illustrating trade-offs and synergies that can be identified in the irrigation sector at different scales, while opportunities for future research are proposed.
Solar energy / Hydropower / Energy conservation / Energy consumption / Renewable energy / Pumping / Infrastructure / Irrigation systems / Nexus / Energy generation / Food production / Water use efficiency / Irrigation efficiency Record No:H049658
Edberg, S.; Rodriguez, D. J.; Bernardini, F.; Koeppel, S.; Plotnykova, H.; Colombo, C. C.; Gaillard-Picher, D.; Gartner, T.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Hedger, M.; Kjellen, M.; Matthews, J.; Mauroner, A.; Pories, L. 2020. Climate finance: financial and economic considerations. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.160-171. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter addresses the current state of water and climate finance, the costs of inaction versus the benefits of action, and several ways to access climate finance flows to improve water management as well as water supply and sanitation services, while synergistically mitigating and/or adapting to climate change.
Investment / Public-private partnerships / Funding / Development banks / Multilateral organizations / Projects / Wastewater / Sanitation / Water supply / Sustainable Development Goals / Economic value / Water management / Financing / Climate change mitigation / Climate change adaptation Record No:H049606
Medlicott, K.; De France, J.; Villalobos-Prats, E.; Gordon, B.; Graczyk, H.; Zandaryaa, S.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Hada, R.; Caucci, S.; Smakhtin, V.; Pories, L. 2020. Human health impacts related to water, sanitation and climate change. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.68-77. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter focuses on the human health impacts associated with changes in water quality and quantity due to climate change. Trends in morbidity and mortality are examined in the context of health risks associated with climate change, and response options related to water supply and sanitation are presented.
Malnutrition / Drinking water / Wastewater / Water resources / Mortality / Morbidity / Infectious diseases / Hygiene / Water quality / Health hazards / Climate change adaptation / Sanitation / Water supply / Public health Record No:H049603
Smakhtin, V.; Perera, D.; Qadir, M.; Aureli, A.; Carvalho-Resende, T.; Dhot, N.; Findikakis, A.; Villholth, Karen G.; Gurdak, J. J.; Zandaryaa, S.; Hulsmann, S.; Medlicott, K.; Connor, R.; Timmerman, J. 2020. Water availability, infrastructure and ecosystems. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.46-57. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter establishes linkages between climate change and various aspects of water management. Adaptation and resilience-building options are presented with respect to water storage – including groundwater – and water supply and sanitation infrastructure, and unconventional water supply options are described. Mitigation options for water management systems are also presented.
Aquifers / Wetlands / Coastal area / Sanitation / Wastewater treatment / Water reuse / Water supply / Water security / Water scarcity / Water storage / Resilience / Groundwater / Water resources / Climate change mitigation / Water management / Climate change adaptation / Ecosystems / Infrastructure / Water availability Record No:H049601
Cofie, Olufunke; Nikiema, Josiane. 2020. Circular economy. In African Development Bank (AfDB); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); GRID-Arendal. Sanitation and wastewater atlas of Africa. Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: African Development Bank (AfDB); Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Arendal, Norway: GRID-Arendal. pp.127-145. More... | Fulltext (47.5 MB)
Farmers / Rural areas / Urban areas / Cost recovery / Income / Faecal sludge / Treatment plants / Industrial uses / Wastewater aquaculture / Wastewater irrigation / Drinking water / Water quality / Sanitation / Resource recovery / Water reuse / Recycling / Wastewater treatment / Waste management / Business models / Economic systems / Wastewater management Record No:H050265
Wetlands / Energy recovery / Policies / Developing countries / Health hazards / Public health / Risk / Waste incineration / Landfill leachates / Sewage sludge / Solid wastes / Municipal wastewater / Costs / Industrial wastewater / Drinking water treatment / Technology / Recycling / Treatment plants / Wastewater treatment / Water quality / Contamination / Freshwater pollution / Sea pollution / Waste management / Microplastics / Plastics / Water pollution Record No:H050126
Warner, S.; Chapman, D.; Dickens, Chris. 2020. Good ambient water quality. In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 11p. (Online first). (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals)[DOI] More...
Wastewater / Assessment / Monitoring / Topography / Biological processes / Anthropogenic factors / Ecosystems / Geology / Freshwater / Lakes / Rivers / Groundwater / Water resources / Development indicators / Sustainable Development Goals / Water quality Record No:H050048
Over the last decade, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has explored the use of fecal sludge (FS) in combination with other organic waste sources to optimize FS treatment and composting for the production of a safe organic fertilizer, which can – depending on demand – be enriched with crop nutrients or pelletized for volume reduction, delayed decomposition or easier application. Based on IWMI’s experience, this training manual has been compiled for plant managers and trainers to help ensure that staff involved in FS treatment and production, and application of an FS-based co-compost adopt best practices in all processes involved. The manual can be adapted to local needs as required. It also includes information on compost registration and certification, as well as guidelines for co-compost application in the field.
As we rapidly modify the environment around us, researchers have a critical role to play in raising our understanding of the interactions between people and the world in which they live. Knowledge and understanding of these interactions are essential for evidence based decision-making on resource use and risk management. In this paper, we explore three research case studies that illustrate co-evolution between people and water systems. In each case study, we highlight how different knowledge and understanding, stemming from different disciplines, can be integrated by complementing narratives with a quantitative modelling approach. We identify several important research practices that must be taken into account when modelling people-water systems: transparency, grounding the model in sound theory, supporting it with the most robust data possible, communicating uncertainty, recognising that there is no ‘one true model’ and diversity in the modelling team. To support interdisciplinary research endeavours, we propose a three-point plan: (1) demonstrating and emphasising that interdisciplinary collaboration can both address existing research questions and identify new, previously unknown questions at the interface between the disciplines; (2) supporting individual interdisciplinary learning at all career stages and (3) developing group practices and a culture of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Case studies / Hydrology / Social aspects / Decision making / Awareness raising / Collaboration / Risk management / Flooding / Water quality / Water reuse / Modelling / Interdisciplinary research / Water resources / Integrated management / Water systems / Water management Record No:H050217
There is a proactive interest in recovering water, nutrients and energy from waste streams with the increase in municipal wastewater volumes and innovations in resource recovery. Based on the synthesis of wastewater data, this study provides insights into the global and regional “potential” of wastewater as water, nutrient and energy sources while acknowledging the limitations of current resource recovery opportunities and promoting efforts to fast-track highefficiency returns. The study estimates suggest that, currently, 380 billion m3 (m3 = 1,000 L) of wastewater are produced annually across the world which is a volume fivefold the volume of water passing through Niagara Falls annually. Wastewater production globally is expected to increase by 24% by 2030 and 51% by 2050 over the current level. Among major nutrients, 16.6 Tg (Tg = million metric ton) of nitrogen are embedded in wastewater produced worldwide annually; phosphorus stands at 3.0 Tg and potassium at 6.3 Tg. The full nutrient recovery from wastewater would offset 13.4% of the global demand for these nutrients in agriculture. Beyond nutrient recovery and economic gains, there are critical environmental benefits, such as minimizing eutrophication. At the energy front, the energy embedded in wastewater would be enough to provide electricity to 158 million households. These estimates and projections are based on the maximum theoretical amounts of water, nutrients and energy that exist in the reported municipal wastewater produced worldwide annually. Supporting resource recovery from wastewater will need a step-wise approach to address a range of constraints to deliver a high rate of return in direct support of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 6, 7 and 12, but also other Goals, including adaptation to climate change and efforts in advancing “netzero” energy processes towards a green economy.
Water stress / Urban population / Sustainable Development Goals / Municipal wastewater / Forecasting / Energy recovery / Energy generation / Wastewater irrigation / Fertilizers / Potassium / Phosphorus / Nitrogen / Energy sources / Nutrients / Reuse / Resource recovery / Recycling / Wastewater treatment Record No:H049500
A water and soil quality baseline study was carried out across the ~ 4500 km2 Vientiane Plain in Lao PDR. Eight water quality and nine soil parameters were analysed using field kits at 95 sites in March 2015. Elevated electrical conductivity and chloride were apparent at two sites due to geogenic leaching from the marine rock-salt present in some areas. Groundwater was acidic in most locations. Nitrate and faecal contamination were also observed from nitrogenous fertilizers (diffuse) and from leaky sewage pits (localised) respectively. Soil quality is neither nutrient deficient nor does it pose a threat to plant growth. Where groundwater is used for drinking, removal of bacterial contamination by simple filtration or boiling is sufficient. In the absence of a functional monitoring network in the Vientiane Plain, periodic surveys of this kind should be performed. The results should be made widely available to the relevant government departments and other stakeholders for better management of the land and water resources.
Filtration / Land resources / Sewage / pH / Soil sampling / Soil quality / Nitrates / Chlorides / Biological contamination / Bacteria / Faecal coliforms / Groundwater / Water levels / Drinking water / Water resources / Water pollution / Water quality / Environmental impact assessment Record No:H048891
Public health / Mining / Forests / Fisheries / Agriculture / Investment / Dams / Hydropower / Development projects / Assessment / Nexus / Food security / Renewable energy / Water resources / International waters / River basin development Record No:H049306
Recent studies have examined the urban metabolism of cities using urban consumption as a proxy for food inflows but very few studies have aimed at quantifying the role of cities as trade hubs and nutrient sinks of their hinterlands. We therefore examined the linkages between food and animal feed supply, their places of production and nutrient flows through the urban system in the two West African cities of Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Using primary data on food and feed flows, and secondary data to assess the transformation of these flows into nutrient terms, we show that, besides urban consumption, the function of the two study sites as trade hubs significantly determines nutrient flows. In Tamale, gt; 50% of the nutrient inflows was neither consumed nor was lost in situ but left that city again for other destinations. At least 30% of the incoming cereals was stored in the city for later consumption or export. Ouagadougou relied more on imported goods with 40% of N imported from foreign countries compared to Tamale where only 10% of the N was imported, thus contributing to heavier nutrient extraction in remote production areas.
Animal feeding / Metabolism / Urban areas / Resource recovery / Nutrient content / Food crop / Food production / Food industry / Food consumption / Food supply Record No:H048873
Data management / Sustainable Development Goals / Reuse / Resource recovery / Urbanization / Poverty / Agricultural productivity / Economic growth / Resilience / Natural resources / Communication / Models / Research and development / Partnerships / Empowerment / Women / Gender equity / Environmental impact assessment / Digital technology / Nexus / Food security / Food systems / Climate change / Ecosystems / Water availability / Water policy / Water use / Water supply / Water security / Water governance / Water scarcity / Water management / Water resources / Research institutes / Strategy planning Record No:H049297
In low- and middle-income countries, the management of fecal sludge from on-site sanitation systems has received little attention over many decades, resulting in insufficient or missing regulations to guide investments and management options. To address this gap, this report examines existing and emerging guidelines and regulations for fecal sludge management (FSM) along the sanitation service chain (user interface, containment, emptying, transport, treatment, valorization, reuse or disposal). It also draws empirical examples from guidelines across the globe to support policy-makers, planners, and sanitation and health officers, as well as consultants in low- and middle-income countries in the development and design of local and national FSM guidelines and regulations.
European Union / Governmental organizations / Institutions / Stakeholders / Households / Urban areas / Land use / Occupational hazards / Environmental protection / Fuels / Energy generation / Composting / Organic fertilizers / Sewage sludge / Soil conditioners / Microplastics / Heavy metals / Pollutants / Aquaculture / Pathogens / Excreta / Public health / Operating costs / Transport / Septic tanks / Pit latrines / Waste treatment / Waste disposal / Technology / Frameworks / Sustainable Development Goals / Policies / Standards / Regulations / Guidelines / Sanitation / Faecal sludge / Reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H049291
Fecal sludge (FS) contains a significant amount of plant nutrients. FS (treated/untreated) has been used as soil ameliorant in several countries. Use of FS-based compost on lettuce may meet reservations due to possible microbiological contamination. The objectives of this research are: (1) To determine the fertilizer value of different formulations of sawdust and fecal sludge compost (SDFS) pellets, and (2) to compare the effect of these SDFS formulations with poultry manure, commercial compost, mineral fertilizer, and non-fertilization on lettuce cultivation. The SDFS products were made by enriching, and pelletized with ammonium sulphate, mineral-NPK, or ammonium sulphate + muriate of potash + triple superphosphate. Lettuce was cultivated in a greenhouse and an open field. The result showed that the saleable fresh weight lettuce yield obtained from all SDFS pellets with/without enrichments were higher than those obtained from commercial compost, poultry manure, mineral fertilizer, or no fertilizer. Cultivation in the open field gave higher yields than those in the greenhouse. No helminth eggs were detected in composts or lettuces. Some fecal coliforms were detected in lettuces fertilized with almost all fertilizers tested, including NPK and non-fertilized control. A properly treated fecal sludge-based fertilizer can be a sustainable solution for lettuce production, which helps urban and peri-urban agriculture.
The Arab region needs a new generation of policies and investments in agricultural water. Agricultural water management has always posed challenges and opportunities in the Arab world. However, unprecedented and accelerating drivers such as climate change, population growth, and land degradation make agricultural water management a more urgent priority than ever before. In addition, as part of the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development, Arab countries have committed to work towards an ambitious set of development targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unless the right policies and investments are put in place, it will be difficult to achieve the SDGs, including ending hunger and providing clean water and sanitation for all.
This paper is part of an ongoing collaboration between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Water Management Institute to foster dialogue on agricultural water policies and investments in the context of the FAO led Regional Water Scarcity initiative. The purpose of the paper is to frame the key challenges and opportunities in the sector – including emerging innovations in digital agriculture, water accounting, water supply and wastewater reuse – and to lay out broad strategic directions for action.
Case studies / Farmers / Gender / Social protection / Economic value / Public-private partnerships / Solar energy / Technology / Innovation / Water reuse / Wastewater / Climate change / Groundwater / Water resources / Water user associations / Water productivity / Water governance / Water scarcity / Water supply / Water security / Food security / Food policies / Agricultural development / Sustainable Development Goals / Funding / Irrigation investment / Agricultural policies / Water policy / Water management / Agricultural sector Record No:H049659
Scott, C. A.; Zhang, F.; Mukherji, A.; Immerzeel, W.; Mustafa, D.; Bharati, Luna; Zhang, H.; Albrecht, T.; Lutz, A.; Nepal, S.; Siddiqi, A.; Kuemmerle, H.; Qadir, M.; Bhuchar, S.; Prakash, A.; Sinha, R. 2019. Water in the Hindu Kush Himalaya. In Wester, P.; Mishra, A.; Mukherji, A.; Shrestha, A. B. (Eds.). The Hindu Kush Himalaya assessment: mountains, climate change, sustainability and people. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp.257-299. More... | Fulltext (28.3 MB)
Decision making / International cooperation / International waters / Environmental flows / Ecosystems / Urbanization / Contaminants / Sanitation / Drinking water / Plains / Mountains / Lowland / Groundwater management / Water institutions / Water governance / Water pollution / Water quality / Water use / Water springs / Sedimentation / Flow discharge / River basin management / Precipitation / Water availability Record No:H049103
Water–Sanitation–Hygiene (WASH) remains vital for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, yet many countries have not localised the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 6, which focuses on ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Even in leading African economies such as South Africa, many communities still use the bucket system for sanitation. Using a Composite Index drawn from three indicators whose data were available for 53 of the 54 African countries, it emerged that these states are at various stages of fulfilling the targets set out in SDG 6. The fact that some countries showed declining trends in WASH between 2000 and 2015, is an indication that it will be difficult for Africa to reach the 2030 targets. We recommend that Africa aggressively mobilise resources if it is to attain universal WASH services by 2030, along with other SDG 6-related targets.
Rural communities / Infrastructure / Drinking water / Water resources / Water supply / Water availability / Water quality / Stakeholders / Sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals Record No:H049146
Water availability for agriculture will become a growing constraint in areas already under environmental and social stress due to population growth, development, and climatic variability. This limits the potential for expanding irrigated areas and for sustainable intensification, and compromises the ability of smallholder farmers to cater to the increased demand for food. This chapter assesses the key global challenges to water availability and how increasing scarcity and competition for water resources are affecting agricultural productivity, especially that of smallholder producers in Asia and Africa. It further analyzes emerging water management practices that can be sustainably adapted to the needs of smallholder farmers. We provide evidence of the economic viability and potential to improve farmers’ income from such solutions. The opportunity for scaling up high-impact solutions is also assessed against available empirical evidence.
Policies / Investment / Household income / Living standards / Benefit-cost ratio / Pumps / Solar energy / Renewable energy / Irrigation water / Groundwater / Water storage / Water resources / Food security / Sustainability / Technology / Water management / Farmers / Agricultural sector / Smallholders / Water scarcity Record No:H049548
The Indus River Basin faces severe water quality degradation because of nutrient enrichment from human activities. Excessive nutrients in tributaries are transported to the river mouth, causing coastal eutrophication. This situation may worsen in the future because of population growth, economic development, and climate change. This study aims at a better understanding of the magnitude and sources of current (2010) and future (2050) river export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) by the Indus River at the sub-basin scale. To do this, we implemented the MARINA 1.0 model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs). The model inputs for human activities (e.g., agriculture, land use) were mainly from the GLOBIOM (Global Biosphere Management Model) and EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Model) models. Model inputs for hydrology were from the Community WATer Model (CWATM). For 2050, three scenarios combining Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs 1, 2 and 3) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 6.0) were selected. A novelty of this study is the sub-basin analysis of future N export by the Indus River for SSPs and RCPs. Result shows that river export of TDN by the Indus River will increase by a factor of 1.6–2 between 2010 and 2050 under the three scenarios. N90% of the dissolved N exported by the Indus River is from midstream sub-basins. Human waste is expected to be the major source, and contributes by 66–70% to river export of TDN in 2050 depending on the scenarios. Another important source is agriculture, which contributes by 21–29% to dissolved inorganic N export in 2050. Thus a combined reduction in both diffuse and point sources in the midstream sub-basins can be effective to reduce coastal water pollution by nutrients at the river mouth of Indus.
Estimation / Models / Socioeconomic development / Nutrient management / Climate change / Human wastes / Agricultural wastes / International waters / River basins / Nitrogen / Chemical contamination / Sea pollution / Water pollution Record No:H049540
This study applied a combined analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and goal programming (GP) model to assist decision makers in identifying and prioritizing key investment climate (IC) indicators for waste recycling and reuse enterprises in developing countries. Taking a sector based perspective, key IC criteria and indicators were identified and ranked through country stakeholder workshops in Ghana and Kenya. Three different key decision maker groups namely government agencies, private waste reuse enterprises and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were involved in identifying and ranking of IC criteria and indicators. The IC criteria identified were policy and infrastructure, finance, business support and markets. A number of indicators across each of the criteria were also identified. By incorporating qualitative and quantitative assessments, criteria and indicator rankings are determined using the AHP and GP model. Model results for Ghana revealed that both the private sector and NGO group ranked finance as the most important criterion while markets was the most important criterion for the government organization group. In contrast, none of the stakeholder groups in Kenya ranked finance as the most important criterion. This indicates that reform priorities of waste reuse sector vary across countries depending on the country’s current situation. The approach adopted in this study enables the criteria and indicators for assessing sector specific investment climate to be clearly identified and the decision making problem to be structured systematically. The exercise can be extended to other countries to elicit priority ranking of IC criteria and indicators for waste reuse enterprises.
Private sector / Financing / Market economies / Nongovernmental organizations / Government agencies / Stakeholders / Indicators / Climate change / Analytical methods / Decision making / Developing countries / Business enterprises / Reuse / Resource recovery / Investment / Waste treatment Record No:H049094
Young, W. J.; Anwar, Arif; Bhatti, Tousif; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Davies, S.; Garthwaite, W. R. III; Gilmont, M.; Leb, C.; Lytton, L.; Makin, Ian; Saeed, B. 2019. Pakistan: getting more from water. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank 191p. (Water Security Diagnostics) More... | Fulltext (9.43 MB)
This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water. The report highlights the complex water issues that Pakistan must tackle to improve water security and sheds new light on conventional assumptions around water. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development. The report assesses current water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. It identifies unmitigated water-related risks, as well as opportunities where water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The report analyzes how the performance and architecture of the water sector are related to broader economic, social, and environmental outcomes. It models alternative economic trajectories to identify where intervention can lead to a more water-secure future. A consideration of water sector architecture and performance and how these determine outcome leads to recommendations for improving aspects of sector performance and adjusting sector architecture for better outcomes. The sector performance analysis considers (a) management of the water resource, (b) delivery of water services, and (c) mitigation of water-related risks. The description of sector architecture considers water governance, infrastructure, and financing.
Models / Monitoring / Political aspects / Sediment / Dams / Reservoirs / Rivers / Planning / Risk reduction / Flood control / Climate change / Sanitation / Income / Financing / Economic aspects / Investment / Infrastructure / Law reform / Legal frameworks / Environmental sustainability / Nexus / Energy / Hydropower / Water supply / Irrigated farming / Irrigated sites / Irrigation systems / Institutional reform / Water extraction / Water quality / Water demand / Water balance / Water allocation / Water availability / Water productivity / Agricultural water use / Groundwater management / Water policy / Water governance / Water management / Water resources / Water security Record No:H049423
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2–3 log units as expected. Significantly higher levels of pathogen contamination were detected in the gut and skin of fish from the WFP than the NWFP. Heavy metal concentrations in all samples fell within the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) permissible limits except for iron and cadmium. There were significantly higher heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver than the muscle. Even though iron recorded the highest concentrations in fish tissue, the concentrations (0.1–2.0 mg kg-1) were below the expected daily nutritional requirement (1–2 mg) for humans and pose no toxicological risk. However, catfish from WFP would require precautionary measures such as cooking/grilling prior to consumption to avoid pathogen infection.
Health hazards / Sediment / Chemicophysical properties / Pathogens / Microbiological analysis / Fish ponds / Wastewater / Risk assessment / Heavy metals / Biological contamination / African catfish / Aquaculture Record No:H048447
Hydropower production is altering the Mekong River basin’s riverine ecosystems, which contain the world’s largest inland fishery and provide food security and livelihoods to millions of people. The basin’s hydropower reservoir storage, which may rise from ~2% of its mean annual flow in 2008 to ~20% in 2025, is attenuating seasonal flow variability downstream of many dams with integral powerhouses and large storage reservoirs. In addition, tributary diversions for off-stream energy production are reducing downstream flows and augmenting them in recipient tributaries. To help manage tradeoffs between dam benefits (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, domestic water supply, and navigation) and their consequences for livelihoods and ecosystems, we review observed and projected impacts on river flows along both the Mekong mainstream and its tributaries. We include the effects of diversions and inter-basin transfers, which prior reviews of flow alteration in the Mekong basin have largely neglected. We also discuss the extent to which concurrent changes in climate, water demand, and land use, may offset or exacerbate hydropower-induced flow alteration. Our major recommendations for assessing hydrological impacts in the Mekong and other basins undergoing rapid hydropower development include synchronizing and integrating observational and modeling studies, improving the accuracy of reservoir water balances, evaluating multi-objective reservoir operating rules, examining hydropeaking-induced flow alteration, conducting multi-dam safety assessments, evaluating flow indicators relevant to local ecosystems and livelihoods, and considering alternative energy sources and reservoir sedimentation in long-term projections. Finally, we strongly recommend that dam impact studies consider hydrological alteration in conjunction with fish passage barriers, geomorphic changes and other contemporaneous stressors.
Land cover change / Climate change / Sedimentation / Renewable energy / Energy generation / Tributaries / Mainstreaming / Downstream / Living standards / Food security / Ecosystems / Hydrological factors / River basin management / Water demand / Water storage / Reservoir storage / Dams / Hydropower Record No:H048985
Black soldier fly colonies can produce about 100 times more protein per year than chicken or soybeans, not to mention cattle, on the same area of land. The flies can directly feed on different types of organic wastes, leapfrogging closed loop processes within a circular food economy. Also, where no protein is needed, for example, to feed fish or pigs, the larvae can be processed into high-quality biodiesel. However, can this be done at scale? The answer is ‘Yes’. The report showcases some of the leading global businesses in Black Soldier Fly production.
Billions of people currently lack clean water and sanitation. By 2050 the global population will have grown to nearly 10 billion, over two-thirds of whom will live in urban areas. This Voices asks: what are the research and water-management priorities to ensure clean water and sanitation in the world’s cities?
Informal settlements / Population growth / Sustainable Development Goals / Water reuse / Wastewater / Technology / Water management / Drinking water / Urban areas / Sanitation / Water quality Record No:H049378
Natural wetlands are green infrastructure systems that are energy-efficient for wastewater treatment and can be found in diverse geo-environmental settings around the world. Their structure and functions, which defines the treatment efficiencies are highly varied. Wetlands over shallow bedrock and geological lineaments (weak zones) have been known to contribute to groundwater contamination. However, not many studies have been performed to understand the structure in different geological settings to identify the efficiency determining factors. Therefore, it is important to investigate the geological suitability of the natural wetlands. We examined wastewater fed natural wetlands in diverse geological settings aiming at studying the depth, geo-stability, bio-chemical interactions, and hydrogeological attributes that improve the wastewater quality, within the Musi River basin, India. The integrated geophysical scans encompassing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), hydrogeological test, bathymetric study and hydro-chemical analysis were carried out to explore the physical structure and hydro-dynamic processes in the wetlands. ERT investigations showed that, the depth to bedrock up to 20–25 m devoid of geo-fractures (lineaments) indicated the effective depth of saturated zone as a passable scope for potential bio-chemical interactions, implying the proportionality of the deep seated (deep bedrock) wetland to the pollutant removal efficiency. The lower order of electrical resistivity range 10–35 Om and hydraulic conductivity 2.938 md-1 acquired for saturated weathered zone were found catalyzing the bioremediation, sedimentation, adsorption, redox reactions and ion exchange processes. It caused the deep seated wetland removing nitrate 194.34 kgd-1 (97.18%); sulphate 333.75 kgd-1 (77.70%); phosphate 9.66 kgd-1 (82.53%); microbes 99.99%, BOD 80%, and COD 80% load with discharge 1408 m3d-1 of treated wastewater. Further, the strategies for designating the natural wetlands as wastewater treatment systems are also discussed in this paper.
Globally, many populations face structural and environmental barriers to access safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Among these populations are many of the 200 million pastoralists whose livelihood patterns and extreme environmental settings challenge conventional WASH programming approaches. In this paper, we studied the Afar pastoralists in Ethiopia to identify WASH interventions that can mostly alleviate public health risks, within the populationapos;s structural and environmental living constraints. Surveys were carried out with 148 individuals and observational assessments made in 12 households as part of a Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment. The results show that low levels of access to infrastructure are further compounded by risky behaviours related to water containment, storage and transportation. Additional behavioural risk factors were identified related to sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry. The Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment visually interprets the seriousness of the risks against the difficulty of addressing the problem. The assessment recommends interventions on household behaviours, environmental cleanliness, water storage, treatment and hand hygiene via small-scale educational interventions. The framework provides an approach for assessing risks in other marginal populations that are poorly understood and served through conventional approaches.
Households / Villages / Human behaviour / Water storage / Water purification / Drinking water / Pathogens / Faecal pollution / Health hazards / Public health / Communities / Pastoralists / Risk assessment / Hygiene / Sanitation / Water supply Record No:H049505
This study reports and analyzes nutrient balances in experimental vegetable production systems of the two West African cities of Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over a twoyear period comprising thirteen and eleven crops, respectively. Nutrient-use efficiency was also calculated. In Tamale and Ouagadougou, up to 2% (8 and 80 kg N ha–1) of annually applied fertilizer nitrogen were leached. While biochar application or wastewater irrigation on fertilized plots did not influence N leaching in both cities, P and K leaching, as determined with ion-absorbing resin cartridges, were reduced on biochar-amended plots in Tamale. Annual nutrient balances amounted to +362 kg N ha–1, +217 kg P ha–1, and –125 kg K ha–1 in Tamale, while Ouagadougou had balances of up to +692 kg N ha–1, +166 kg P ha–1, and –175 kg K ha–1 y–1. Under farmers’ practice of fertilization, agronomic nutrient-use efficiencies were generally higher in Tamale than in Ouagadougou, but declined in both cities during the last season. This was the result of the higher nutrient inputs in Ouagadougou compared to Tamale and relatively lower outputs. The high N and P surpluses and K deficits call for adjustments in local fertilization practices to enhance nutrient-use efficiency and prevent risks of eutrophication.
Crop production / Emission / Irrigation water / Soil fertility / Potassium / Phosphorus / Nitrogen fertilizers / Volatilization / Leaching / Horticulture / Biochar / Nutrient use efficiency / Nutrient balance / Vegetable growing / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H049077
Groundwater quantity and quality may be affected by climate change through intricate direct and indirect mechanisms. At the same time, population growth and rapid urbanization have made groundwater an increasingly important source of water for multiple uses around the world, including southern Africa. The present study investigates the coupled human and natural system (CHANS) linking climate, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a rapidly growing peri-urban area in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana, which relies on the transboundary Ramotswa aquifer for water supply. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicated that droughts like the one in 2013–2016 are increasing in likelihood in the area due to climate change. Key informant interviews showed that due to the drought, people increasingly used pit latrines rather than flush toilets. Nitrate, fecal coliforms, and caffeine analyses of Ramotswa groundwater revealed that human waste leaching from pit latrines is the likely source of nitrate pollution. The results in conjunction indicate critical indirect linkages between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality, and water security in the area. Improved sanitation, groundwater protection and remediation, and local water treatment would enhance reliable access to water, de-couple the community from reliance on surface water and associated water shortage risks, and help prevent transboundary tension over the shared aquifer.
Case studies / Human wastes / Caffeine / Faecal coliforms / Pit latrines / Drought / Rainfall / Aquifers / Contamination / Denitrification / Nitrates / Environmental protection / Environmental factors / Ecological factors / Water pollution / Wastewater treatment / Monitoring / Drinking water / Water security / Water supply / Water quality / Groundwater management / Sanitation / Climate change Record No:H049051
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Unver, O.; De Souza, M.; Turral, H.; Burke, J. 2018. Setting the scene. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.3-13. More... | Fulltext (544 KB)
Aquatic environment / Sustainable development / Costs / Water scarcity / Water quality / Livestock / Aquaculture / Crops / Agricultural wastes / Water pollution Record No:H048856
Forest management / Food security / Waste management / Economic growth / Poverty / Sustainable development / Natural resources / Policy making / Biodiversity / Ecosystem services Record No:H048875
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Albers, J. 2018. On-farm and off-farm responses. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.179-203. More... | Fulltext (692 KB)
Riparian zones / Constructed wetlands / Aquaculture / Pesticides / Grazing systems / Livestock farms / Nutrient management / Organic fertilizers / Resource recovery / Erosion control / Water management / Good agricultural practices / On-farm research / Water pollution Record No:H048864
Zandaryaa, S.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier. 2018. Organic matter, pathogens and emerging pollutants. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.125-138. More... | Fulltext (680 KB)
Livestock / Aquatic environment / Public health / Water quality / Surface water / Wastewater / Agricultural wastes / Pollutant load / Pathogens / Organic matter / Water pollution Record No:H048861
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Turral, H. 2018. Agricultural pollution sources and pathways. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.41-51. More... | Fulltext (656 KB)
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Turral, H.; Burke, J. 2018. Global drivers of water pollution from agriculture. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.15-38. More... | Fulltext (1.47 MB)
Aquaculture / Livestock production / Pesticide application / Fertilizer application / Irrigated farming / Intensification / Cropping systems / Farming systems / Population growth / Income / Diet / Food consumption / Agricultural wastes / Water pollution Record No:H048857
Current patterns of agricultural expansion and intensification are bringing unprecedented environmental externalities, including impacts on water quality. While water pollution is slowly starting to receive the attention it deserves, the contribution of agriculture to this problem has not yet received sufficient consideration.
We need a much better understanding of the causes and effects of agricultural water pollution as well as effective means to prevent and remedy the problem. In the existing literature, information on water pollution from agriculture is highly dispersed. This repost is a comprehensive review and covers different agricultural sectors (including crops, livestock and aquaculture), and examines the drivers of water pollution in these sectors as well as the resulting pressures and changes in water bodies, the associated impacts on human health and the environment, and the responses needed to prevent pollution and mitigate its risks.
Economic aspects / Good agricultural practices / Reservoirs / Lakes / Eutrophication / Erosion control / Sediment / Water policy / Environmental health / Public health / Freshwater / Irrigation water / Soil salinization / Salts / Phosphorus / Nitrogen / Nutrient management / Livestock production / Aquaculture / Pesticide application / Fertilizer application / Intensification / Farming systems / Models / Water quality / Food wastes / Pathogens / Organic matter / Pollutants / Risk management / Groundwater / Surface water / Population growth / Food consumption / Agricultural wastewater / Agricultural waste management / Water pollution Record No:H048855
The study is being carried out to investigate the potential for applying SAT in Xaysetha district, Lao PDR and investigation the most suitable site for SAT in Xaysetha district. The methodology was used MCDA, GIS, RRA and semistructured interview to rank SAT site and investigate the physical, social and economic factor at the most suitable site (Nonvay site). The results of SAT ranking indicated that Xaysetha district has a potential to construct up to 3 high suitable site, 8 moderate suitable sites, and 6 low suitable sites. On the other hand, the results of physical, social and economic assessment at Nonvay site represented that DO was exceeded the Lao National Environmental Standard, and the soil infiltration rate is about 24 mm/hour (0.58 m/day). The households around Nonvay site have their own land and they access to water use and have a relationship with 9 organizations. They product wastewater was estimate 150 liter/person/day. And the land available for SAT is worth to US$ 39 million.
Organizations / Households / Villages / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Natural resources / Water quality / Infiltration / Aquifers / Soils / Domestic water / Wastewater treatment Record No:H049237
Wastewater irrigation is a common livelihood practice in many parts of the developing world. With the continuous irrigation supply, groundwater systems in these regions perceive adverse impacts due to inadequate infrastructure to treat the wastewater. The current study area, Musi River irrigation system, is one such case study located in the peri-urban Hyderabad of South India. The Musi River water, which is used for irrigation, is composed of untreated and secondary treated wastewater from Hyderabad city. Kachiwani Singaram micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad is practicing wastewater irrigation for the last 40 years. The current quality of (untreated) wastewater used for irrigation is expected to have adverse impacts on the local aquifers, but detailed investigations are lacking. To elucidate the groundwater quality dynamics and seasonality of the wastewater irrigation impacts on the peri-urban agricultural system, we analyzed the groundwater quality on a monthly basis for one hydrological year in the wastewater and groundwater irrigated areas, which exist next to each other. The spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality in the watershed was analyzed with respect to wastewater irrigation and seasonality using multivariate statistical analysis, multi-way modeling and self-organizing maps. This study indicates the significance of combining various statistical techniques for detailed evaluation of the groundwater processes in a wastewater irrigated agricultural system. The results suggest that concentrations of the major ionic substances increase after the monsoon season, especially in wastewater irrigated areas. Multi-way modeling identified the major polluted groundwaters to come from the wastewater irrigated parts of the watershed. Clusters of chemical variables identified by using self-organizing maps indicate that groundwater pollution is highly impacted by mineral interactions and long-term wastewater irrigation. The study recommends regular monitoring of water resources and development of sustainable management strategies to mitigate the aquifer pollution in wastewater irrigation systems.
Case studies / Monsoon climate / Periurban agriculture / Irrigated land / Aquifers / Irrigation water / River basins / Models / Statistical analysis / Multivariate analysis / Periurban areas / Water pollution / Water quality / Groundwater / Irrigation systems / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H048766
Case studies / Sustainable development / Business models / Resource recovery / Energy generation / Energy recovery Record No:H048726
Di Mario, L.; Rao, Krishna C.; Drechsel, Pay. 2018. Enabling environment and financing - Section V. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.778-815. More... | Fulltext (1.79 MB)
Risk reduction / Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Socioeconomic environment / Supply chain / Market economies / Business models / Farmers / Water reuse / Water quality / Water pollution / Wastewater irrigation / Wastewater treatment Record No:H048694
Hanjra, Munir A.; Rao, Krishna C.; Danso, G. K.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Drechsel, Pay. 2018. Wastewater as a commodity driving change - Business Model 23. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.745-759. More... | Fulltext (1.16 MB)
Case study / Socioeconomic environment / Supply chain / Business models / Market economies / Cultivation / Crop production / Sewage / Fish culture / Fish feeding / Wastewater treatment Record No:H048681
Case studies / Partnerships / Supply chain / Market economies / Local government / Business models / Business enterprises / Cost recovery / Composting / Solid wastes / Municipal wastes Record No:H048664
Environmental impact / Supply chain / Business models / Socioeconomic environment / Municipal authorities / Electricity generation / Biogas / Renewable energy / Solid wastes / Household wastes / Municipal wastes Record No:H048644
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Power from agro-waste - Business Model 6. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.215-221. More... | Fulltext (928 KB)
Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Risk reduction / Business models / Supply chain / Agroindustry / Farmers / Energy generation / Agricultural waste management Record No:H048643
Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Rao, Krishna C. 2018. Power from manure - Business Model 5. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.182-192. More... | Fulltext (1.03 MB)
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Biogas from kitchen waste - Business Model 4. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.142-151. More... | Fulltext (908 KB)
Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Organic wastes / Supply chain / Models / Business management / Food wastes / Household consumption / Household wastes / Biogas Record No:H048636
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Briquettes from agro-waste - Business Model 1. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.52-60. More... | Fulltext (952 KB)
Health hazards / Renewable energy / Risk reduction / Models / Business management / Supply chain / Briquettes / Crop residues / Agricultural waste management Record No:H048627
Equity / Social aspects / Food chains / Risk management / Sustainable Development Goals / Environmental health / Environmental management / Organic matter / Nutrients / Resource recovery / Sanitation / Waste management / Economic aspects / Models / Business management Record No:H048697
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Energy recovery from organic waste - Section II. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.34-313. More... | Fulltext (10.3 MB)
Otoo, Miriam; Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Drechsel, Pay; Rao, Krishna C.; Fernando, Sudarshana; Pradhan, S. K.; Hanjra, Munir A.; Qadir, M.; Winkler, M. 2018. Defining and analyzing RRR business cases and models. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.17-31. More... | Fulltext (0.99 MB)
Environmental impact assessment / Health hazards / Risk reduction / Cost recovery / Public sector / Private sector / Energy recovery / Organic matter / Nutrients / Water reuse / Financing / Wastewater treatment / Waste management / Assessment / Case studies / Models / Business management / Resource recovery Record No:H048624
Poverty / Subsidies / Sanitation / Regulations / Urban population / Rural communities / Financing / Investment / Drinking water / Water levels / Water quality / Water pricing / Water rates / Water delivery / Water supply / Water management / Water use / Sustainable Development Goals / Sustainability Record No:H048609
Ecosystem services / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Subsidies / Financing / Investment / Irrigation water / Income / Households / Wastewater / Poverty / Sanitation / Policy making / Investment / Water quality / Water supply / Water policy / Water rates / Water management / Water use / Sustainable Development Goals / Sustainability Record No:H048608
This report outlines a business model approach to assessing the feasibility and for encouraging investment in smallholder solar pump irrigation. It also proposes a new methodology for mapping the suitability of solar energy-based irrigation pumps. The proposed business model framework and the methodology for suitability mapping are applied to Ethiopia as a case study, based on data from existing case studies and reports. A brief analysis outlines the regulatory and institutional context for investment in solar pump irrigation, and the ways in which it both constrains and attempts to support investment. The report identifies and outlines three business model scenarios that present opportunities for investing in smallholder solar pump-based irrigation, which would contribute towards sustainable intensification for food and nutrition security. The business model scenarios are based on the value proposition of supplying water to smallholder farmers for irrigated agricultural production. Analysis of potential gains and benefits suggests that direct purchase of solar pumps by farmers is feasible, and that out-grower schemes and pump supplier options with bundled financing offer promising solutions. The potential constraints that different investors may face in up-scaling the business models are also discussed, particularly within institutional, regulatory and financial contexts. The report provides development actors and investors with evidence-based information on the suitability and sustainability of solar pump irrigation in Ethiopia, as well as suggestions for helping to enable smallholders to invest in individually-owned, smallholder photovoltaic (PV) solar pumps.
Innovation scaling / Case studies / Farmer-led irrigation / s participation / Womenapos / Small scale systems / Markets / Rural communities / Regulations / Groundwater / Water management / Water supply / Nutrition / Food security / Intensification / Investment / Agricultural production / Irrigated farming / Economic aspects / Supply chain / Financing / Agricultural financial policy / Renewable energy / Policy making / Corporate culture / Environmental impact / Environmental sustainability / Alternative methods / Farmers / Smallholders / Pumping / Irrigation practices / Irrigation methods / Energy policies / Solar energy / Models / Business management Record No:H048583
The Nile Delta and its 2.27 million ha of irrigated land makes up two thirds of Egypt’s agricultural land. It is also the terminal part of a river basin that spans and feeds 11 countries. Increases in dam and irrigation development in upstream parts of the basin is poised to conflict with agricultural expansion and population growth in Egypt. Understanding where and how waters comes into and leaves the delta is therefore a crucial question for the future of the country. This paper revisits the surface and groundwater balances of the delta, emphasizes the additional relevance of drainage water reuse and of the salt balance, and evidences a relative stability of the outflow to the sea over the past 30 years. Various reasons for such a phenomenon and the scope for saving water are explored and discussed. The confusion between plot-level and delta-level efficiency and the relatively limited gains possible are emphasized. Beyond the overall water balance and quantitative issues, water management in the delta remains a complex task of spatially distributing the resource over a complex ramified network. Finally, limitations in the analysis related to data availability and accuracy are emphasized.
Coastal area / Deltas / Flow discharge / Rivers / Pumping / Irrigation efficiency / Evapotranspiration / Evaporation / Water reuse / Drainage water / Groundwater extraction / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Water management / Salinity / Water balance Record No:H048576
Resource recovery and reuse (RRR) of domestic and agro-industrial waste has the potential to contribute to a number of financial, socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, despite these benefits and an increasing political will, there remain significant barriers to build the required up-front capital which is discouraging private sector engagement. A systematic analysis and understanding of the enabling environment, public and private funding sources, risk-sharing mechanisms and pathways for cost recovery can help to identify opportunities to improve the viability of RRR solutions. This report looks at regulations and policies that remove disincentives for RRR, public and private funding sources for capital and operational costs, risk mitigation options through blending and structuring finance, and options for operational cost recovery.
Energy recovery / Communities / Equity / Water management / Waste management / Environmental management / Cost benefit analysis / State intervention / Payment for ecosystem services / Carbon markets / Value chain / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Risk management / Agreements / Grants / Loans / Funding / Stakeholders / Regulations / Development policies / Developing countries / Credit policies / Market economies / Incentives / Investment / Cost recovery / Financing / Economic development / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H049025
Sanitation / Drinking water / Ecosystems / Climate change / Food production / Irrigation water / Irrigation efficiency / Agriculture / Poverty / Water resources / Water quality / Water use / Groundwater management / Sustainable Development Goals Record No:H049043
The safe recovery of nutrients from our waste streams allows us to address the challenges of waste management and soil nutrient depletion conjointly. Commercialization of waste-based organic fertilizers such as FortiferTM (fecal sludge-based co-compost) has the potential to generate significant benefits for developing economies via cost recovery for the sanitation sector and the provision of an alternative agricultural input for smallholder farmers. To guide future FortiferTM businesses, this report presents examples of detailed market assessments, based on farmers’ perceptions, attitudes and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a pelletized and non-pelletized FortiferTM co-compost. The research was conducted in the Greater Accra and Western regions in Ghana, and in and around Kampala (Uganda), Bangalore (India), Hanoi (Vietnam), and Kurunegala (Sri Lanka). Cross-country analyses helped to understand the effects of market drivers and, where possible, capture lessons learned for knowledge sharing.
This Atlas summarizes recent advances in interdisciplinary approaches and research to address the different components of West African urban food systems, including urban and peri-urban agriculture. It thereby draws on the results of several major collaborative research projects and stakeholder consultations conducted in West Africa over the past two decades, and in particular on the UrbanFoodPlus project in Ghana and Burkina Faso (www.urbanfoodplus.org). The publication targets with its innovative design a broad range of stakeholders.
Nutrition / Water resources / Wastewater treatment / Wastewater irrigation / Cultivation / Crop production / Backyard farming / Trees / Vegetation / Land use / Diets / Stakeholders / Household consumption / Food supply / Food policies / Food safety / Food composition / Food consumption / Food marketing / Forestry / Livestock production / Farming systems / Urban development / Urban agriculture / Urban areas Record No:H048998
The use of wastewater to produce food crops particularly vegetables is very prevalent in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This practice may pose health risks to farm workers and consumers. Hence, the study was designed to evaluate farmers’ perceptions on irrigation water quality, health risks and health risk mitigation measures in four wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming sites in Addis Ababa. Data were collected on farm through 263 individual interviews and 12 focus group discussions. The findings showed that despite differences in levels of knowledge and awareness on health risks, farmers appear informed about the contamination of their irrigation water. The difference in perception to quality consideration of Akaki River/irrigation water is highlighted by the result of Kruskal–Wallis H test analysis which shows significant mean value (1.33) of positive perception toward the water quality by male than female farmers. Interestingly, significant difference (p lt; 0.05) in mean values of awareness toward problems of eating unwashed vegetables is also found between male and female farmers where females seemed to be more aware. Conversely, no significant difference was found in mean value of perception and awareness toward vegetables quality. Among the perceived health risks, skin problems were top-rated health risk while eye burn, sore feet and abdominal pains were rated low across the four farming sites. Although statistically not significant, perception toward consumption-related health risk differed with gender: females assigned relatively high mean score. Irrespective of the farming site and gender differences, the most accepted health risk reduction measures were health promotion programs and cessation of irrigation before harvesting. In view of crop restriction measures, females assigned significantly (p = 0.044) low mean score to planting non-food produce. Akaki-Addis farmers suitability perceptions of planting non-food produce and non-raw eaten crops were significantly (p lt; 0.001) higher than the other farming sites. Therefore, effective site and gender-specific educational programs have the potential for clarifying farmers and consumers’ risks and risk management perceptions and improving practical knowledge, which in turn may help identify adoption barriers, opportunities and incentives.
Educational courses / Capacity building / Vegetable growing / Wastewater irrigation / Risk reduction / Risk management / Health hazards / Contamination / Water pollution / Irrigation water / Farmer participation Record No:H048408
There is a strong link between gender and energy in view of food preparation and the acquisition of fuel, especially in rural areas. This is demonstrated in a range of case studies from East and West Africa, where biochar, human waste and other waste resources have been used to produce briquettes or biogas as additional high-quality fuel sources. The synthesis of the cases concludes that resource recovery and reuse for energy offers an alternative to conventional centralized grid projects which, while attractive to investors and large-scale enterprises, do not necessarily provide job opportunities for marginalized communities. Reusing locally available waste materials for energy production and as soil ameliorant (in the case of biochar) in small enterprises allows women and youth who lack business capital to begin modest, locally viable businesses. The case studies offer concrete examples of small-scale solutions to energy poverty that can make a significant difference to the lives of women and their communities.
Case studies / Research and development / Community involvement / Gasifiers / Biodigesters / Farmers organizations / Living standards / Empowerment / Investment / Biomass / Biochar / Biogas / Economic impact / Health hazards / Production factors / Supply chain / Refugees / Households / Urban areas / Sanitation / Marketing / Business enterprises / Briquettes / Fuels / Excreta / Human wastes / Waste management / Heating / Cooking / Renewable energy / Energy resources / Energy demand / Energy generation / Poverty / Equity / Role of women / Gender / Bioenergy / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H048999
Loans / Financing / Infrastructure / Investment / Resource recovery / Role of women / Entrepreneurs / Gender / Energy management / Waste management / Business management / Business enterprises Record No:H049001
Water and nutrition are linked in multiple ways, but few of these interlinkages are well understood. What is, for example, the exact relationship between water pollution and health or between water resource management and nutrition? Even less is known about the interactions across these various linkages. The importance of better understanding these connections has been highlighted as we pursue the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which challenge mankind to meet both water security as well as food and nutrition security goals, while also improving water-based ecosystems. It has become increasingly clear that progress toward these goals can only be achieved if measures in the food and nutrition space (SDG 2) do not constrain progress on water (SDG 6) and if measures undertaken to support targets under one of these SGDs also support the outcomes of the other. This paper provides an overview of water–nutrition linkages as reflected in the SDGs, and it identifies key gaps in these linkages and suggests a way forward to support the achievement of both water and nutrition goals and targets.
Irrigation water / Risk management / Communities / Ecosystem services / Wastewater treatment / Public health / Landscape / Equity / Economic aspects / Policy making / Climate change / Drinking water / Agricultural systems / Sustainable agriculture / Diet / Food production / Food security / Sanitation / Waterborne diseases / Water availability / Water use / Water pollution / Water security / Water quality / Water supply / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Nutrition / Sustainable Development Goals / Learning / Research and development Record No:H048974
Climate change is a complex and cross-cutting problem that needs an integrated and transformative systems approach to respond to the challenge. Current sectoral approaches to climate change adaptation initiatives often create imbalances and retard sustainable development. Regional and international literature on climate change adaptation opportunities and challenges applicable to southern Africa from a water-energy-food (WEF) nexus perspective was reviewed. Specifically, this review highlights climate change impacts on water, energy, and food resources in southern Africa, while exploring mitigation and adaptation opportunities. The review further recommends strategies to develop cross-sectoral sustainable measures aimed at building resilient communities. Regional WEF nexus related institutions and legal frameworks were also reviewed to relate the WEF nexus to policy. Southern Africa is witnessing an increased frequency and intensity in climate change-associated extreme weather events, causing water, food, and energy insecurity. A projected reduction of 20% in annual rainfall by 2080 in southern Africa will only increase the regional socio-economic challenges. This is exacerbating regional resource scarcities and vulnerabilities. It will also have direct and indirect impacts on nutrition, human well-being, and health. Reduced agricultural production, lack of access to clean water, sanitation, and clean, sustainable energy are the major areas of concern. The region is already experiencing an upsurge of vector borne diseases (malaria and dengue fever), and water and food-borne diseases (cholera and diarrhoea). What is clear is that climate change impacts are cross-sectoral and multidimensional, and therefore require cross-sectoral mitigation and adaptation approaches. In this regard, a wellcoordinated and integrated WEF nexus approach offers opportunities to build resilient systems, harmonise interventions, and mitigate trade-offs and hence improve sustainability. This would be achieved through greater resource mobilisation and coordination, policy convergence across sectors, and targeting nexus points in the landscape. The WEF nexus approach has potential to increase the resilience of marginalised communities in southern Africa by contributing towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 13).
Hydropower / Nutrition / Economic aspects / Public health / Sanitation / Agricultural production / Communities / Sustainable development / Nexus / Food security / Food resources / Energy resources / Water management / Water resources / Climate change adaptation Record No:H048960
Economic aspects / Farmers / Indigenous peoples / Soil quality / Irrigated sites / Agricultural productivity / Water policy / Groundwater irrigation / Pumps / Solar energy / Public health / Periurban areas / Wastewater irrigation / Water management / Water resources / State intervention / Development programmes / Irrigation management Record No:H049511
To understand the full value of Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR), a systematic assessment approach that balances complexity with practicality is required. This report highlights the methods available for quantifying and valuing social, environmental and economic costs and benefits of RRR, focusing on Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) as the primary framework. Rather than prescribing a standardized technique for conducting CBA for RRR, this report presents broad frameworks and several examples that can be catered to individual contexts. This results in a suggested eight-step process accompanied with suggested assessment techniques which have to be tailored to the type of question the assessment is meant to answer and related system boundaries.
Case studies / Nutrients / Urban areas / Living standards / Social aspects / Fortification / Developing countries / Rural communities / Anaerobic digesters / Composting / Biogas / Energy generation / Groundwater management / Equity / Ecosystem services / Farming systems / Decision analysis / Decision making / Faecal sludge / Waste management / Waste disposal / Food wastes / Solid wastes / Municipal wastes / Organic wastes / Industrial wastes / Agricultural wastes / Agroindustrial sector / Wastewater treatment / Cost benefit analysis / Economic growth / Economic value / Environmental impact assessment / Socioeconomic environment / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H049081
Globally, more than 60% of the human population live without safely managed sanitation services or even lack access to basic sanitation facilities. In addition, most of the wastewater produced in the world is discharged without proper treatment. Integrated approaches are needed to address these issues and curb the resulting adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and associated societal economic losses. The UN 2030 SDG Agenda provides an important framework towards more sustainable sanitation development, in terms of both safe sanitation access and wastewater management. Innovative solutions that treat and enable productive safe use of water, and recovery of nutrients and organic matter from wastes resources are booming. Some examples of trends are decentralized solutions, separation of waste flows, low/or no-flushing toilets, and converting faecal sludge to energy. These alternative technologies show huge potential to address many development challenges, contributing to multiple SDGs, but achieving upscaling has proved to be a major challenge. A paradigm shift to ‘treatment for reuse’ instead of ‘treatment for disposal’ is already taking place in the wastewater sector. Nevertheless, a better understanding of driving forces and enabling environment, new organizational models based on more service-oriented sanitation provision, and highlighting potential multiple societal benefits to attract investments from new sectors, are identified areas that need further attention.
Economic loss / Water use / Public health / Innovation / Sanitation / Waste management / Sustainable Development Goals / Resource recovery Record No:H048478
Gender / Energy generation / Food production / Wetlands / Fisheries / Mining / Industrial development / Irrigation systems / Irrigated farming / Urbanization / Agriculture / Ecosystem services / Sustainable agriculture / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Evapotranspiration / Temperature / Drought / Flooding / Climate change / Economic aspects / Groundwater management / Wastewater treatment / International waters / Surface water / Water requirements / Water demand / Water security / Water reuse / Water quality / Water power / Water availability / Water use / Water resources / River basin management Record No:H048269
Zadeh, S. M.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Antoniou, A.; Qadir, M.; Chilton, J.; Carrion-Crespo, C.; de Souza, M.; Zandaryaa, S.; Medlicot, K. 2017. Agriculture. In United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nations world water development report. Wastewater: the untapped resource. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. pp.69-77. More... | Fulltext (18.9 MB)
This chapter reviews the main pollutants from agriculture, its associated impacts, and offers some key pollution mitigation options. The chapter also discusses how agriculture can be a beneficial user of wastewater, and how the practice can become safe.
Food chains / Water quality / Groundwater / Environmental impact assessment / Health hazards / Livestock / Aquaculture / On-farm training / Pathogens / Soil organic matter / Sediment / Pesticides / Nutrients / Wastewater treatment / Wastewater irrigation / Pollution prevention / Pollution control / Pollutants / Water pollution / Pollution by agriculture / Agricultural production Record No:H048258
Community management / Physical states / Sanitation / Agriculture / Planning / Women / Men / Gender / Drinking water / Natural resources management / Water availability / Water supply / Water quality / Water management / Water law Record No:H048236
Case studies / Policy making / Household consumption / Rural areas / Drinking water / Capacity building / Education programmes / Sanitation / Water availability / Water quality / s participation / Womenapos / Gender Record No:H048234
European Union / Government departments / Nongovernmental organizations / Public administration / State intervention / Public investment / Financial institutions / Legal aspects / Environmental management / Aetiology / Kidney diseases / Chronic course / Sanitation / Food production / Water budget / Water policy / Water power / Water quality / Water supply / Water productivity / Water use / Economic aspects / Local government / Macroeconomics / Corporate culture / Political aspects / Water resources Record No:H048221
Covid-19 has caused a rupture in migration logistics and exposed inequities in the migration system, yet drivers of movement remain. Government lockdowns and closed borders due to the pandemic curtailed movement for migrants, posing complex problems for migrant hosting and origin countries. There have been significant economic shocks, with a sharp decline in unemployment for migrants and an inability to send money home through remittances to support family. Some migrants face social stigma for returning home without an income, particularly if families relied on loans to support their journeys. Consequences have been severe for informal migrants who lack government protection in their host countries. Migrants, particularly those living in crowded, lower-income neighborhoods, have been experiencing stigmatization related to the spread of Covid-19. We look at the impacts of Covid-19 on migration governance and rural areas across seven countries,development planning in Ghana, migration challenges in Southeast Asia, and community-based disaster management and resilience building in South Africa.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Enhancing capacity for system transformation
Food, land and water systems are complex networks of actors, institutions and activities related to the production, value addition and consumption of food. These systems are connected to and influenced by the structures and supporting mechanisms that underlie them. System transformation cannot occur without changing these underlying structures and supporting mechanisms. However, the capacity for actors to take up specific roles and responsibilities in scaling processes is sometimes lacking. Stimulating system transformation therefore requires enhancing actors’ capacity to assume their roles and responsibilities in the system to ensure that scaling processes provide equitable opportunities and contribute to sustainable development.
As a research institution, IWMI stimulates system transformation by building capacity within institutions and facilitating dialogue and collaboration between various stakeholders across sectors and their respective networks. IWMI does this by developing evidence-based capacity-strengthening programs and strategies. These include demand-driven internships with private sector entities and innovation hackathons.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Strengthening and sustaining the enabling environment
Making agricultural innovations and water solutions available to farmers on a massive scale is crucial if the world is to meet growing food demands and mitigate climate change impacts. However, innovation scaling efforts often do not have the desired impact because they do not sufficiently consider the factors enabling and inhibiting farmers’ adoption of these innovations. In some instances, they may even produce undesirable impacts, including environmental degradation, loss of access to resources and social inequality. IWMI develops tools and other evidence-based resources to help partners and stakeholders understand and sustain the enabling environment and introduce measures to ensure scaling success. In addition, IWMI co-designs innovative, inclusive financial modalities to accelerate investment in innovations by farmers and agri-businesses.
A key part of this focus area is the Accelerator Program, for which 12 small and medium-sized agribusinesses were selected to scale five innovation bundles that support climate information services and climate-smart agriculture.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Enabling gender and youth inclusion
Agriculture is the bedrock of food and nutrition security and a major source of income and employment in many developing countries. Inclusive agriculture, provides opportunities for women and youth who have historically been excluded from agriculture-led economic growth. Enhancing gender and youth inclusion in high-value agricultural value chains has the potential to increase the production of nutrient-rich, profitable crops and create attractive job opportunities for currently disadvantaged groups. Inclusive agriculture includes ensuring that women, youth and other vulnerable groups gain equitable access to water resources and technologies to support agronomic growth.
IWMI conducts comprehensive analyses of the policy framework and interventions in value chains in key geographies to clarify the barriers to gender and youth inclusion. Inclusion segmentation is also carried out to understand the investment needs and abilities of women and youth regarding innovation. IWMI then makes recommendations and develops evidence-based strategies to enable public and private sector actors to achieve sustainable and inclusive scaling of water solutions and agricultural innovation bundles. Among these strategies are internships with private sector companies for young professionals and entrepreneurs. These create win-win situations in which companies benefit from interns’ specific knowledge or skills while interns gain valuable private sector work experience and mentorship.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Brokering knowledge for sustainability
As a research-for-development organization, IWMI is both a producer and broker of knowledge. IWMI generates evidence to support investment in innovations that sustainably increase agricultural productivity and economic returns, support human well-being, water security and safeguard ecosystems in a changing climate. Through forums and events, often co-convened with partners, IWMI brokers knowledge exchange to catalyze change in water and food systems and accelerate innovation scaling. These forums and events include multi-stakeholder dialogues, demand-supply linkage workshops and knowledge exchange conferences.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Cultivating scaling preparedness
Scaling preparedness is a set of actions undertaken throughout the scaling process to maximize the adoption of innovation bundles, accelerate scaling and increase the likelihood of achieving transformational change. In cultivating scaling preparedness, stakeholder engagement is key to gain stakeholders’ buy-in, commitment, resource contribution and investment as well as adaptability. By cultivating scaling preparedness, IWMI is better able to identify and develop high-potential innovation bundles with the greatest chance of being successfully scaled.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Fostering scaling partnerships
Private sector actors play a central role in the dissemination and adoption of technologies and services such as information, financing, and pre- and after-sales support. IWMI has established scaling partnerships with private sector companies across Africa and Asia. Besides technical assistance, IWMI provides its partner companies with research evidence and advice, risk and suitability assessments and capacity strengthening for effective climate change-related planning and management.
Armed with these tools and resources, companies are better equipped to identify and reach their target customers in ways that are equitable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable. At the same time, farmers benefit from better access to innovations vital for improving livelihoods and climate adaptation.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Co-developing innovation bundles
Although agricultural water is still mainly funded by the public sector, private sector organizations and farmers are increasingly investing in innovative water management and irrigation technologies. At the same time, simply increasing the amount of finance flowing to the agricultural water sector is not enough to guarantee the uptake of innovative solutions. Investments must also be responsible, targeted and bundled with improved inputs and services, market information and access, and digital payment methods.
Consequently, IWMI partners with farmers and public and private sector actors to co-develop contextually relevant socio-technical-institutional-financial and process innovation bundles that are contextually relevant. IWMI integrates the scaling of innovation bundles into agricultural and food value chains, for instance by strengthening market linkages, to enhance the impacts on farmers’ investments, incomes and livelihoods.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender, intersectionality and social inclusion
It is critical to center gender and intersectional identities when unpacking migration phenomena. Gender as a social construct guides social norms and relations, including the decision-making processes and mechanisms leading to migration. We recognize that the intersections between race, age, class, sex, caste and region shape the migrant experience.
IWMI strives to offer transformative approaches and solutions for women, youth and marginalized groups, regarding them as equal partners in our work rather than passive end-users. For example, within communities that experience male out migration, socio-political systems are restructured to make women, youth and other groups active agents in their own agri-food transformation. Migration patterns contribute to the feminization of agriculture, and women may experience a greater burden of responsibility coupled with an increased ability to access and control resources and policies to build sustainable livelihoods. Acknowledging social complexities helps researchers and communities understand migration trends and address structural power imbalances to build a more equitable world.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Water, climate change and agrarian stress
Migration, water and climate stress are inextricably linked to rural development. Water stress and climate variability can act as a driver of fragility, intensifying pre-existing political, social, economic and environmental challenges. Initiatives designed to address migration-related challenges must tackle inequalities and the exclusion of women, youth and marginalized groups; governance opportunities to better manage water and natural resources and technology and innovations to help communities escape socio-ecological precarity and thrive despite climate challenges. IWMI intends to build climate resilience by implementing projects which tackle gender-power inequalities in the face of dynamic, economic-social-ecological challenges. Our work brings together affected communities, institutional stakeholders and social actors to manage water in response to climate variability and agrarian stress, striving to address complex physical and social variables.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Urban & rural transformation
As agricultural opportunities fluctuate in rural areas, migration, particularly to urban areas, is an adaptation technique to secure incomes and alternative livelihoods. Income generated by migrants is often sent back to family as remittances to support communities at home. At IWMI, we assess linkages between rural and urban areas, as well as the role of agricultural knowledge systems and food and water security. We recognize there are complex push and pull factors such as individual aspirations, economic opportunity, social norms, climate variability and government policies which drive migration and affect rural communities, particularly youth. Our work follows a ‘positive migration’ philosophy, framing migration as an adaptation technique and socio-economic choice (in many cases) rather than a problem to be solved, and focuses on establishing safer, more regular migration by supporting changes to migration governance in sending regions.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Economics and equity
At IWMI, researching underlying economic and social trends helps us understand why people migrate. They also explain the impact of remittances and loss of agricultural labor, as well as consequences of migration on gender roles and food and water security. For instance, communities with higher levels of income inequality, or relative deprivation, may experience greater levels of out-migration compared to consistently low-income communities. In addition, migration changes intra-household gender-labor composition, which can change the access of smallholders to water resources, affecting the functioning of community-based institutions and consequently household and local food security. IWMI also focuses on circular economy, a strategy to recover and reuse waste, to boost food security and understand how interventions can encourage refugee and host communities to retain scarce resources.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
A lack of affordable credit, particularly for women and resource-poor farmers, is one of the main barriers to expanding farmer-led irrigation in low- and middle-income countries. But credit alone is not enough. Financing for irrigation equipment must be embedded in a wider financing ecosystem that bundles credit with inputs and services, market information and access, and technology such as digital payment. In several countries, irrigation equipment suppliers are stepping in to provide financing directly to farmers. In doing so, they increase their own risk. To address this issue, IWMI works with farmers, private companies, finance institutions and development partners such as the World Bank Group to analyze whether credit-scoring tools are inclusive. We also help to identify gaps in the financing ecosystem and de-risk the private sector from testing innovative end-user financing mechanisms that take into account farming system typologies, financial and social capital and crop seasonality.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Adaptive scaling and partnerships
The ability of farmers to engage in or expand irrigation depends on the prevailing socioeconomic, ecological and political contexts, which are often complex, non-linear and changeable. Overcoming systemic barriers to farmer-led irrigation development while taking advantage of existing opportunities requires scaling processes to be adaptive. This means diverse actors feed off, adapt to, support, cooperate, compete and interact with each other, forming different multi-actor networks and engaging in collective action to undertake various functions in the scaling ecosystem. IWMI works with farmers and public and private sector partners to co-design and pilot contextually relevant innovation bundles and their scaling pathways or strategies, influence policies and accelerate the transition to scale of innovations with demonstrated early impact.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Population pressure and increasing water competition in a changing climate require us to take stock of the availability and use of water across scales. Water availability not only influences farmers’ commercial prospects but also irrigation-related enterprises and agri-businesses. Greater water scarcity could jeopardize irrigation and agricultural markets while excessive water use can lead to declining ecosystems, water quality and soil health. IWMI advises development partners and the public and private sectors on all aspects of water resource availability and use through a variety of advanced modeling and remote-sensing products and tools, including Water Accounting+, solar irrigation mapping and internet of things. These are complemented by multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the potential of irrigation expansion, taking into consideration environmental flows. With our private sector partners, we are leveraging converging technologies, such as sensors on solar pumps that capture usage data, to encourage better resource management and governance.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender and social inclusion
The barriers facing women and men in accessing irrigation technologies are not the same. Neither are the benefits. Social, cultural and religious norms influence inter- and intra-household power relations. These, in turn, affect access to resources such as land, credit, information and training. IWMI carries out cross-dimensional analysis of gender and social inclusion in policy, financing, livelihood assets and access, institutional approaches and interventions as well as gender-based technology preferences. For example, we work with farmers, financial institutions and the private sector to address gender-based constraints in credit scoring and enhance women’s purchasing power. But benefitting from farmer-led irrigation does not stop at accessing and adopting technologies; enabling women and resource-poor farmers to participate in input and output markets is equally important to ensure that investments in irrigation result in improved nutrition and economic empowerment. Other ways we enhance gender and social inclusion include tackling agency issues around financial management and literacy, livelihood diversity and social capital as well as access to infrastructure, extension services and market linkages.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Farmer-led irrigation development is about much more than installing a pump in a field. It requires access to financing, labor, energy, and input and output markets, so that investments in irrigation translate into sustainable returns. IWMI uses a systemic approach to understand the farming system as well as the factors in the enabling environment that prevent women, men and youth from engaging in and benefitting equitably from farmer-led irrigation. We partner with farmers and the public and private sectors to test contextually relevant innovation bundles that combine irrigation technology such as solar pumps with financing mechanisms like pay-as-you-own or pay-as-you-go, agricultural inputs and agronomic techniques. We also look at ways to improve on-farm water management and nutrient use efficiency and reduce evapotranspiration through digital advances and agricultural extension. We integrate the scaling of innovation bundles into agricultural value chains to enhance the impacts on farmers’ irrigation investments, incomes and livelihoods.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas: