Exposure to metals has been hypothesized as possible cause of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu) in Sri Lanka; however, evidence is inconclusive. We measured the concentrations of nephrotoxic metals (As, Pb, and Cd), as well as Se in rice (a staple grain in Sri Lanka) and other grains consumed in CKDu endemic and non-endemic regions using Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results showed comparable mean concentrations (in g/kg) of 24.518, 7.36.4, and 14.215 for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively, in rice from endemic regions and 17.74.7, 12.76.8, and 17.816 in rice from non-endemic regions. Selenium concentrations (in mg/kg) were 0.050.02 in rice cultivated in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Arsenic and Cd concentrations were significantly higher in rice compared to other grains, which themselves had higher Se than rice. All samples were below the Codex standards established for Cd (400 g/kg for rice; 100 g/kg for cereal grains), Pb (200 g/kg) and inorganic As (200 g/kg) for white rice. Our findings show that dietary exposure to low levels of As, Pb, Cd, and inadequate Se in staple grains cannot be clearly linked to CKDu, suggesting that the disease could be multifactorial. Additional research is needed to determine the contribution of other risk factors such as lifestyle habits and heat stress to plan preventive strategies for reducing CKDu health cases in Sri Lanka.
Ringler, C.; Agbonlahor, M.; Baye, K.; Barron, J.; Hafeez, Mohsin; Lundqvist, J.; Meenakshi, J. V.; Mehta, L.; Mekonnen, D.; Rojas-Ortuste, F.; Tankibayeva, A.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan. 2021. Water for food systems and nutrition. Food Systems Summit Brief. In von Braun, J.; Afsana, K.; Fresco, L. O.; Hassan, M. (Eds.). Science and innovations for food systems transformation and summit actions: papers by the Scientific Group and its partners in support of the UN Food Systems Summit 2021. Bonn, Germany: University of Bonn. Center for Development Research (ZEF). pp.251-259. More... | Fulltext (29.4 MB)
Access to sufficient and clean freshwater is essential for all life. Water is also essential for food system functioning: as a key input into food production, but also in processing and preparation, and as a food itself. Water scarcity and pollution are growing, affecting poorer populations, particularly food producers. Malnutrition levels are also on the rise, and this is closely linked to water scarcity. The achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 and SDG 6 are co-dependent. Solutions to jointly improve food systems and water security outcomes that the United Nations Food Security Summit (UNFSS) should consider include: 1) strengthening efforts to retain water-based ecosystems and their functions; 2) improving agricultural water management for better diets for all; 3) reducing water and food losses beyond the farmgate; 4) coordinating water with nutrition and health interventions; 5) increasing the environmental sustainability of food systems; 6) explicitly addressing social inequities in water-nutrition linkages; and 7) improving data quality and monitoring for water-food system linkages, drawing on innovations in information and communications technology (ICT).
Ecosystems / Environmental sustainability / Climate change / Health / Malnutrition / Water pollution / Water scarcity / Irrigation / Water management / Agriculture / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Food security / Nutrition / Food systems / Water security Record No:H050672
Existing climate projections and impact assessments in Nepal only consider a limited number of generic climate indices such as means. Few studies have explored climate extremes and their sectoral implications. This study evaluates future scenarios of extreme climate indices from the list of the Expert Team on Sector-specific Climate Indices (ET-SCI) and their sectoral implications in the Karnali Basin in western Nepal. First, future projections of 26 climate indices relevant to six climate-sensitive sectors in Karnali are made for the near (20212045), mid (20462070), and far (20712095) future for low-and high-emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively) using bias-corrected ensembles of 19 regional climate models from the COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment for South Asia (CORDEX-SA). Second, a qualitative analysis based on expert interviews and a literature review on the impact of the projected climate extremes on the climate-sensitive sectors is undertaken. Both the temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to deviate significantly from the historical reference already from the near future with increased occurrences of extreme events. Winter in the highlands is expected to become warmer and dryer. The hot and wet tropical summer in the lowlands will become hotter with longer warm spells and fewer cold days. Low-intensity precipitation events will decline, but the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events will increase. The compounding effects of the increase in extreme temperature and precipitation events will have largely negative implications for the six climate-sensitive sectors considered here.
Public health / Tourism / Biodiversity / Forests / Food security / Agriculture / Energy / Water resources / Impact assessment / Natural disasters / Monsoons / Rain / Lowland / Highlands / River basins / Precipitation / Temperature / Trends / Forecasting / Extreme weather events / Climate change Record No:H050668
Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production. From an aquaculture entrepreneur’s perspective, the combination of fish farming and wastewater treatment in common waste stabilization ponds allows significant savings on capital (pond infrastructure) and running costs (wastewater supporting fish feed). On the other hand, the treatment plant owner will have the benefit of a partner taking over plant maintenance. Given the importance of food safety and related perceptions, the report is focusing on innovative business models where the marketed fish is not in direct contact with the treated wastewater, but only the brood stock or fish feed. The financial analysis of the presented systems shows profitable options for the fish farmer, operational and in part capital cost recovery for the treatment plant, and as the treatment plant operators can stop charging households a sanitation fee, eventually a triple-win situation for both partners and the served community.
Case studies / Environmental impact / Socioeconomic impact / Risk assessment / Public health / Water quality / Food safety / Nutrients / Fish feeding / Cost recovery / Circular economy / Financial analysis / Fisheries value chains / Markets / Nongovernmental organizations / Public-private partnerships / Stabilization ponds / Treatment plants / Infrastructure / Integrated systems / Fishery production / Wastewater treatment / Developing countries / Sustainability / Business models / Wastewater aquaculture / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H050557
Case studies / Sustainable Development Goals / Markets / Risk management / Water use / Water availability / Water resources / Farmer-led irrigation / Smallholders / Pumping / Solar energy / Groundwater irrigation Record No:H050613
Assessing the magnitude of smallholder farmers’ livelihood vulnerability to drought is an initial step in identifying the causal factors and proposing interventions that mitigate the impacts of drought. This study aimed to assess smallholders’ livelihood vulnerability to the drought in the upper Awash sub-basin, Ethiopia. Household (HH) and climate data were used for indicators related to sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity that define vulnerability to drought. The vulnerability of farmers’ livelihood to drought was compared among the studies agroecological zone (AEZ) and farm typologies. The result illustrated a diverse magnitude of vulnerability index (VI) ranging from -1.956 to -4.253 for AEZ. The highest magnitude of VI was estimated for livelihood in the lowland AEZ, while the lowest magnitude of VI was estimated in midland AEZ. This could be accounted for by the fact that lowland farmers shown the highest exposure (0.432) and sensitivity (0.420) and the lowest adaptive capacity (0.288). A closer look at farmers’ livelihood typology, in each of the AEZ, showed substantial diversity of farmers’ livelihood vulnerability to drought, implying potential aggregations at AEZ. Accordingly, the vulnerability index for livestock and on-farm-income-based livelihood and marginal and off-farm-income-based livelihood typologies were higher than the intensive-irrigation-farming-based smallholders’ livelihood typology. Based on the result, we concluded that procedures for smallholders’ livelihood resilience-building efforts should better target AEZ to prioritize the focus region and farmers’ livelihood typology to tailor technologies to farms. Although the result emphasizes the importance of irrigation-based livelihood strategy, the overall enhancement of farmers adaptive capacity needs to focus on action areas such as reducing the sensitivity and exposure of the households, improving farmers usage of technologies, diversify farmers’ livelihood options, and, hence, long-term wealth accumulation to strengthen farmers’ adaptive capacity toward drought impacts.
Livestock / Farm income / Households / Farm typology / Agroecological zones / Resilience / Vulnerability / Livelihoods / Farmers / Smallholders / Drought Record No:H050617
Humanity is in a planetary emergency. Agriculture and food systems are contributing to an interconnected global environmental crisis, with increasing risks, social instability, and conflict. This chapter examines the challenges, drivers, and consequences of unsustainable agriculture and food systems, recognizing these are diverse and multi-scale. It presents a vision for sustainable, nutritious, and equitable food systems. Currently, food systems are a significant driver of climate change, nature loss, and pollution, as well as poor health and poverty, with inequitable access to resources and benefits from food systems. Fundamentally, the systems change needed is to transform terrestrial and aquatic food systems so that they become part of the solution for sustainability, not part of the problem. A safe future for humanity requires radical transformations ranging from agricultural production systems through dietary patterns and waste disposal. The focus is on the broad categories of innovation and sustainable technologies considered to have critical potential in pathways that enable transition to a more resilient and equitable system. Governance is a key enabling condition and needs to be based on food as a human right, not simply as a commodity. Multilevel governance underpins the development and implementation of territorial food systems strategies, which can provide effective integration of multiple solutions. Humanity is at an existential turning point and has a narrow window to act now to reduce risk and avoid catastrophe. The rules governing our food systems are human made and it is within the gift of humanity to change them.
This research report presents the first comprehensive framework of business models in terms of developing, marketing and scaling Index-based flood insurance (IBFI). The report evaluated ten case studies on agricultural insurance schemes (macro, meso and micro levels), globally, to develop public-private partnership business models for creating value (product development) and capturing value (product marketing). This report highlights four broad groups of interrelated factors that influence the uptake and scaling of agricultural insurance: (i) behavioral factors that influence farmers’ enthusiasm to invest in insurance; (ii) financial factors that stipulate governments’ willingness to provide financial support; (iii) legal and regulatory factors, which set ground rules for fair business and govern their adherence by stakeholders; and (iv) facilitating factors, including product design and development, business models, research and development, data availability, and awareness creation, which help ensure an efficient supply of insurance services. In summary, the report highlights the need for designing innovative IBFI and its potential benefits for uptake, and efforts for implementing IBFI as a potential risk transfer tool for comprehensive climate risk management among small-scale and marginal farmers.
DeClerck, F. A. J.; Koziell, I.; Sidhu, A.; Wirths, J.; Benton, T.; Garibaldi, L. A.; Kremen, C.; Maron, M.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.; Clark, M.; Dickens, Chris; Estrada-Carmona, N.; Fremier, A. K.; Jones, S. K.; Khoury, C. K.; Lal, R.; Obersteiner, M.; Remans, R.; Rusch, A.; Schulte, L. A.; Simmonds, J.; Stringer, L. C.; Weber, C.; Winowiecki, L. 2021. Biodiversity and agriculture: rapid evidence review. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 70p. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (7.29 MB)
Developing countries / Genetic diversity (as resource) / Pest control / Pollination / Soil fertility / Agricultural landscape / Investment / Policies / Sustainable Development Goals / Resilience / Climate change mitigation / Water security / Water quality / Environmental security / Habitats / Ecosystem services / Agroecology / Diversification / Food production / Food security / Livelihoods / Nutrition / Healthy diets / Agricultural productivity / Food systems / Agrobiodiversity Record No:H050605
Sustainable agriculture focuses using agricultural resources with minimum possible negative environmental externality to produce more food. The present study reports the environmental and health risks associated with the use, management and handling of agrochemical in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Six Woredas (or districts) covering both upstream and downstream areas and major ecosystems were selected. Data were collected using focus group discussion, key informant interviews, field observation and literature review. Pesticide Risks in the Tropics for Man, Environment and Trade tool was used to analyse data. Results indicated that local community’s awareness on use, handling and management of pesticides was low. Applications of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides polluted surface water systems and affected aquatic animals and plants with different level of risk (i.e. from no or insignificant risk to acute and chronic levels). The level of risks of using agrochemical on aquatic animals, human and the environment increased when the agricultural practices changed from good to non-good practices (i.e. increasing frequency of application). The types of agrochemicals determined the levels of risks on aquatic animals, human and the environment. For example, copper hydroxide and Lambda pose high risk, whereas Chlorpyrifos poses possible risk on fish under good agricultural practices. Also, the results indicated that the level of risks of using agrochemicals on fish and aquatic vertebrates was high for few pesticides (e.g. Chlorpyrifos) under both good and bad agricultural practices. The results of the present study support decision makers, practitioners and farmers to put corrective measures when importing agrochemicals, provide targeted risk management schemes including training on safety measures and screen agrochemicals on the market, respectively.
Aquatic animals / Agrochemicals / Surface water / Awareness / Local communities / Environmental impact / Pesticide toxicity / Aquatic ecosystems / Water pollution Record No:H050604
In spite of being water surplus, the 600+ million population of the large Ganges basin spread over 1.09 m km2 in South Asia is water insecure, poor, and highly exposed to water-induced stresses of floods and droughts. The contribution from the glaciers to the streamflow is ~70% in the Himalayan catchments though spatially distributed quantification is unavailable. An application of the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model with a sub-routine for snow and glaciers melt processes in the basin was set up. The model also examined the possible impacts of an increase in temperature of +1, +2 or +3C over 20 yrs of the simulation period. The impact on stream flows was high in the upstream (+8 to +26% at Tehri Dam) and moderate in downstream (+1 to +4% at Farakka). These increases shall create flood events more frequently or of higher magnitude in the mountains and Upper Ganga flood plains. To moderate the climate-change induced impacts of floods and improve water security during the non-monsoon season the novel concepts of Underground Taming of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI) and Cranking up the Ganges Water Machine for Ecosystem Services (GAMES) were developed, and pilot tested in the Ramganga sub-basin. Analysis showed that there is an assured possibility of reducing the floods and enhancing sub-surface storage in the identified basins to the level of 45 Bm3. The demonstrated managed aquifer recharge interventions are technically feasible, operationally acceptable and economically viable.
Models / Glaciers / Temperature / Water resources / River basins / Flood irrigation / Climate change / Water security Record No:H050555
Expansion of various types of water infrastructure is critical to water security in Africa. To date, analysis of adverse disease impacts has focused mainly on large dams. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of both small and large dams on malaria in four river basins in sub-Saharan Africa (i.e., the Limpopo, Omo-Turkana, Volta and Zambezi river basins). The European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) Yearly Water Classification History v1.0 data set was used to identify water bodies in each of the basins. Annual malaria incidence data were obtained from the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) database for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. A total of 4907 small dams and 258 large dams in the four basins, with 14.7million people living close (lt; 5 km) to their reservoirs in 2015, were analysed. The annual number of malaria cases attributable to dams of either size across the four basins was 0.91.7 million depending on the year, of which between 77 and 85% was due to small dams. The majority of these cases occur in areas of stable transmission. Malaria incidence per kilometre of reservoir shoreline varied between years but for small dams was typically 27 times greater than that for large dams in the same basin. Between 2000 and 2015, the annual malaria incidence showed a broadly declining trend for both large and small dam reservoirs in areas of stable transmission in all four basins. In conclusion, the malaria impact of dams is far greater than previously recognized. Small and large dams represent hotspots of malaria transmission and, as such, should be a critical focus of future disease control efforts.
Population density / Infrastructure / Water reservoirs / Risk / Vector-borne diseases / River basins / Dams / Disease transmission / Malaria Record No:H050499
Relying on published literature, we reviewed water-energy-food issues in Lao PDR in the context of a policy shift to more sustainable ‘green growth’ and significantly increased infrastructure investment resulting from China’s Belt and Road Initiative. The BRI provides the prospect for the country to address its infrastructure deficit and transform from a ‘land-locked’ to a ‘land-linked’ country. However, great care is needed to ensure that future investments do not result in further environmental degradation and harm to communities. An integrated ‘nexus’ approach, in which enhanced water management is central, is a prerequisite for more inclusive and sustainable development.
Strategies / Sustainability / Socioeconomic development / Poverty / Environmental impact / Hydropower / Policies / Development projects / Investment / Infrastructure / Water quality / Drought / Flooding / Economic development / Nexus / Food security / Energy / Water security / Water management Record No:H049795
Landslides are among the most dangerous natural hazards, particularly in developing countries, where ground observations for operative early warning systems are lacking. In these areas, remote sensing can represent an important detection and monitoring process to predict landslide occurrence in space and time, particularly satellite rainfall products that have improved in terms of accuracy and resolution in recent times. Surprisingly, only a few studies have investigated the capability and effectiveness of these products in landslide prediction in reducing the impact of this hazard on the population.
We have performed a comparative study of ground and satellite-based rainfall products for landslide prediction in India by using empirical rainfall thresholds derived from the analysis of historical landslide events. Specifically, we have tested Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and SM2RAIN-ASCAT satellite rainfall products, and their merging, at daily and hourly temporal resolution, and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) daily rain gauge observations. A catalogue of 197 rainfall-induced landslides that occurred throughout India in the 13-year period between April 2007 and October 2019 has been used.
Results indicate that satellite rainfall products outperform ground observations thanks to their better spatial (0.1 vs. 0.25 ) and temporal (hourly vs. daily) resolutions. The better performance is obtained through the merged GPM and SM2RAIN-ASCAT products, even though improvements in reproducing the daily rainfall (e.g. overestimation of the number of rainy days) are likely needed. These findings open a new avenue for using such satellite products in landslide early warning systems, particularly in poorly gauged areas.
Access to sufficient and clean freshwater is essential for all life. Water is also essential for food system functioning: as a key input into food production, but also in processing and preparation, and as a food itself. Water scarcity and pollution are growing, affecting poorer populations, particularly food producers. Malnutrition levels are also on the rise, and this is closely linked to water scarcity. Achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2) and Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) are co-dependent. Solutions to jointly improve food systems and water security outcomes that the United Nations Food Security Summit (UNFSS) should consider include: 1) Strengthening efforts to retain water-based ecosystems and their functions; 2) Improving agricultural water management for better diets for all; 3) Reducing water and food losses beyond the farmgate; 4) Coordinating water with nutrition and health interventions; 5) Increasing the environmental sustainability of food systems; 6) Explicitly addressing social inequities in water-nutrition linkages; and 7) Improving data quality and monitoring for water-food system linkages, drawing on innovations in information and communications technology (ICT).
Ecosystems / Environmental sustainability / Climate change / Health / Malnutrition / Water pollution / Water scarcity / Water management / Agriculture / Goal 2 Zero hunger / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Nutrition / Food systems / Water security Record No:H050435
Coates, D.; Connor, R.; Dickens, Chris; Villholth, Karen; Dhot, N.; O’Brien, G. 2021. Valuation of hydraulic infrastructure. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021: valuing water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.43-54. More... | Fulltext (15.9 MB)
Environmental factors / Social aspects / Decision making / Risk assessment / Resilience / Cost benefit analysis / Economic viability / Water supply / Water storage / Aquifers / Reservoirs / Dams / Valuation / Infrastructure / Hydraulic structures Record No:H050379
This paper proposes scenarios to achieve more crop per drop and irrigation for all in water-scarce irrigation systems, with a particular reference to India. It uses economic water productivity (EWP) and water cost curve for EWP as tools to reallocate irrigation consumptive water use (CWU) and identify economically viable cropping patterns. Assessed in the water-scarce Sina irrigation system in Maharashtra, India, the method shows that drought-tolerant annual crops such as fruits and/or fodder should be the preferred option in irrigated cropping patterns. Cropping patterns with orchard or fodder as permanent fixtures will provide sustainable income in low rainfall years. Orchards in combination with other crops will increase EWP and value of output in moderate to good rainfall years. Governments should create an enabling environment for conjunctive water use and allocation of CWU to achieve a gradual shift to high-value annual/perennial crops as permanent fixtures in cropping patterns.
Reservoir storage / Monsoons / Rain / Water scarcity / Drought tolerance / Water use / Benefit-cost ratio / Water costs / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater irrigation / Water allocation / Cropping patterns / Resilience / Canals / Irrigation systems / Economic analysis / Water productivity Record No:H050317
Analysis of long-term rainfall trends provides a wealth of information on effective crop planning and water resource management, and a better understanding of climate variability over time. This study reveals the spatial variability of rainfall trends in Sri Lanka from 1989 to 2019 as an indication of climate change. The exclusivity of the study is the use of rainfall data that provide spatial variability instead of the traditional location-based approach. Henceforth, daily rainfall data available at Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation corrected with stations (CHIRPS) data were used for this study. The geographic information system (GIS) is used to perform spatial data analysis on both vector and raster data. Sen’s slope estimator and the MannKendall (MK) test are used to investigate the trends in annual and seasonal rainfall throughout all districts and climatic zones of Sri Lanka. The most important thing reflected in this study is that there has been a significant increase in annual rainfall from 1989 to 2019 in all climatic zones (wet, dry, intermediate, and Semi-arid) of Sri Lanka. The maximum increase is recorded in the wet zone and the minimum increase is in the semi-arid zone. There could be an increased risk of floods in the southern and western provinces in the future, whereas areas in the eastern and southeastern districts may face severe droughts during the northeastern monsoon. It is advisable to introduce effective drought and flood management and preparedness measures to reduce the respective hazard risk levels.
Geographical information systems / Semiarid zones / Arid zones / Drought / Monsoons / Flooding / Precipitation / Natural disasters / Climatic zones / Weather hazards / Spatial variation / Climate change / Trends / Rainfall patterns Record No:H050312
Financing / Enterprises / Water user associations / Refugees / Displacement / Political aspects / Conflicts / Water rights / Water law / International law / Agricultural insurance / Vulnerability / Drought / Flooding / Disaster risk reduction / Climate change / Water scarcity / Wastewater treatment / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Rural areas / Water supply / s empowerment / Womenapos / Gender / Hygiene / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Water governance / Water policy Record No:H050271
Until recently, households in the most chronic kidney disease-affected rural areas of Sri Lanka used untreated groundwater for drinking and cooking, but, by 2018, that share was only 35%. About 50% of households consume water treated by reverse osmosis; others rely on piped water, water delivery by tanker and rainwater harvesting. Based on a new and representative survey of 1500 households, households’ propensities to treat drinking water and adopt improved water sources are shown to be associated with their perceptions of water safety and trust in the institutions that provide alternatives to untreated well water.
Nongovernmental organizations / Institutions / Villages / Decision making / Safety / Risk assessment / Households / Rural communities / Wells / Rainwater / Reverse osmosis / Water use / Drinking water / Water supply / Aetiology / Chronic course / Kidney diseases Record No:H050264
This paper outlines a new and integrated water storage agenda for resilient development in a world increasingly characterised by water stress and climate uncertainty and variability.; Storing water has long been a cornerstone of socio-economic development, particularly for societies exposed to large climatic variability. Nature has always supplied the bulk of water storage on earth, but built storage has increased significantly, particularly over the twentieth century. Today, numerous countries suffer from water storage gaps and increasingly variable precipitation, threatening sustainable development and even societal stability. There is a growing need to develop more storage types and manage existing storage better. At the same time, the policy, engineering, and scientific communities may not fully recognise the extent of these storage gaps and how best to manage them. There are large and uncertain costs and benefits of different types of storage, and developing storage can be risky and controversial. Although there is consensus that built and natural storage are fundamentally complementary, there is still no pragmatic agenda to guide future integrated water storage development.; This paper argues that water storage should be recognised as a service rather than only a facility. More than volumes of water stored behind a dam or in a watershed, what ultimately matters is the ability to provide different services at a particular time and place with a given level of assurance. Integrated storage systems should be developed and managed to deliver a targeted service standard. This will reduce the costs of new storage development and make the benefits more sustainable.; As this paper demonstrates, there are numerous data gaps pertaining to water storage, as well as a need for greater clarity on some key concepts. This paper does not introduce new data or research but rather provides a review of some of the current knowledge and issues around water storage, and outlines a new, integrated and constructive water storage agenda for the decades to come.
Wetlands / Reservoirs / Glaciers / River basins / Lakes / Dams / Aquifers / Groundwater / Soil moisture / Rainfall patterns / Risk / Water demand / Infrastructure / Water supply / Socioeconomic development / Resilience / Climate change / Sustainable development / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Water storage Record No:H050263
Groundwater (GW) depletion and recurring floods have become a major concern among researchers and planners across the world. To rejuvenate stressed aquifer and moderate flood impacts, a modified version of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) consisting of a cluster of ten recharge wells (RWs) embedded in a community pond with an area of 2625 m2 and utilizing diverted floodwater was tested on a pilot scale in Ramganga sub basin, India. The approach could recharge a maximum of 72426 m3 of floodwater in 78 days during the wet season. The pond intervention minimized clogging of RWs by retaining maximum silt load of 68.01%. Hydro-geochemically, majority of water samples were of Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3type. Ion exchange processes and weathering of carbonate and silicates were the controlling factors, determining water quality of the area. Total dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, cobalt, nickel, mercury, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonical nitrogen were found within the permissible limits as laid down by World Health Organization except arsenic and lead, which seems to be the inherent problem in the area, as evidenced by water quality analysis of farmers tube wells located upstream and down streams of the recharge site. The coliform presence in the 88.23% of sampled GW may thwart from direct use for drinking whereas it was fit for irrigation. Looking the benefits of modified MAR as a proactive GW quality improvement with good aquifer recharge, it is recommended for scaling up of the intervention across the GW stressed parts of the whole Ram Ganga basin and similar hydro-geological regions elsewhere.
Amarnath, Giriraj; Ghosh, Surajit; Alahacoon, Niranga; Nakada, Toru; Rao, K. V.; Sikka, Alok. 2021. Regional drought monitoring for managing water security in South Asia. In Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R.; Dias, N. (Eds.). Multi-hazard early warning and disaster risks. Selected papers presented at the International Symposium on Multi-Hazard Early Warning and Disaster Risk Reduction, Online Symposium, 14-16 December 2020. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp.465-481. [DOI] Abstract
Drought is the most complex climate-related disaster issue in South Asia and has affected 1.46 billion people with an economic loss of over 7 billion USD in the last 56 years. South Asia is challenged with water, food, and energy security due to growing populations, incomes, resource degradation, and vulnerability to climate change. Monitoring of drought and associated agricultural production deficits using meteorological and agricultural indices is an essential component for drought preparedness. Remote sensing offers near real-time monitoring of drought conditions and IWMI’s has implemented South Asia Drought Monitoring System (SADMS) in 2014 as an online platform for drought early warning and support in drought declaration. This chapter explores the use of composite drought indices implemented in Google Earth Engine (GEE) and evaluates the crop yield variability during drought years. The study provides a rapid overview of drought-prone conditions that could enhance the present capabilities of early warning systems and enable science based policies for addressing water security in the agriculture sector and develop a drought response plan between water supply and demand, significantly increasing the vulnerability of regions to damaging impacts of drought events.
This paper assesses how the Huruluwewa tank (HWT) irrigation system in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka adapts to climate variability. The lessons learned in the HWT will be helpful for many water-scarce irrigation systems in the country, which bear high climate risks. Recurrent droughts are the bane of agriculture in the Dry Zone, comprising three-fourths of the land area spread over the Northern, North Central and Eastern provinces. In the HWT, the fifteenth largest canal irrigation system in the country, adaptation to climate variability happens on several fronts: changes made by the irrigation management to the water release regime; changes in the cropping patterns practiced by farmers in the command area; and the use of groundwater, which is recharged from rainfall, reservoir storage and canal irrigation, as supplemental irrigation. Such adaptation measures ensure that the available water supply in the reservoir is adequate for 100% cropping intensity over two cropping seasons, even in drought years, and enhances economic water productivity in terms of value per unit of consumptive water use. Moreover, irrigation management should consider groundwater recharge through canal irrigation as a resource, which brings substantial agricultural and economic benefits not only for the command area but also outside the command area. The adaptation patterns implemented in HWT demonstrate how water-scarce irrigation systems can achieve higher economic water productivity, i.e., generate ‘more income per drop’ to enhance climate resilience for people in and outside the canal command areas.
Case studies / Geographical information systems / Remote sensing / Farm income / Farmers / Consumptive use / Crop water use / Diversification / Seasonal cropping / Water policies / Water accounting / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Catchment areas / Water spreading / Reservoirs / Water management / Water scarcity / Resilience / Risk / Rainfall patterns / Drought / Water availability / Water productivity / Irrigation efficiency / Water use efficiency / Crop production / Water depletion / Water supply / Cropping patterns / Land use / Irrigation management / Irrigation canals / Tank irrigation / Arid zones / Irrigation systems / Climate change adaptation / Climate variability Record No:H050737
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has recently developed an innovative Index-based Flood Insurance (IBFI) product to facilitate the scaling of flood insurance particularly in vulnerable economies, to provide risk cover to poor farmers against crop losses that occur due to floods. While the product developed is technically very sound, the economics of such an intervention is important to ensure the large-scale acceptance and adoption of the product by different stakeholders and for its sustenance in the long term. This paper attempts at conducting an ex ante assessment of the economics of IBFI from the perspectives of the three main stakeholders: farmers, the insurance company and the government. The paper discusses the methodological challenges and data issues encountered in undertaking an economic analysis of such a product. The issues and processes involved have been empirically demonstrated using a theoretical case study based on a synthesis of information drawn from a host of sources and certain assumptions. Field-based data are now being collected and analyzed from the locations where IBFI has recently been piloted by IWMI. This will help in further refining the process of economic evaluation and identifying the experiences of different stakeholders.
Rice is the most important food crop. With the largest rain-fed lowland area in the world, flooding is considered as the most important abiotic stress to rice production in India. With climate change, it is expected that the frequency and severity of the floods will increase over the years. These changes will have a severe impact on the rain-fed agriculture production and livelihoods of millions of farmers in the flood affected region. There are numerous flood risk adaptation and mitigation options available for rain-fed agriculture in India. Procuring, maintaining and distributing the newly developed submergence-tolerant rice variety called Swarna-Sub1 could play an important role in minimizing the effect of flood on rice production. This paper assesses the quantity and cost of a flood-tolerant rice seed variety- Swarna-Sub1, that would be required during the main cropping season of rice i.e., kharif at a district level for 17 major Indian states. The need for SS1 seeds for rice production was assessed by developing a geospatial framework using remote sensing to map the suitability of SS1, to help stakeholders prepare better in managing the flood risks. Results indicate that districts of Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh will require the highest amount of SS1 seeds for flood adaptation strategies. The total estimated seed requirement for these 17 states would cost around 370 crores INR, less than 0.01 percent of Indian central government’s budget allocation for agriculture sector.
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer / Livelihoods / Farmers / Land use / Agricultural production / Rainfed farming / Disaster risk management / Assessment / Spatial data / Geographical information systems / Remote sensing / Strategies / Climate change adaptation / Seeds / Rice / Flooding tolerance Record No:H050735
The use of improved technologies has been encouraged to improve irrigation on farms, especially in drought-prone areas. However, farmersapos; irrigation decisions may be rather motivated by a desire to reduce risk of crop loss than to reduce water use. Using the case of Jordan, we contribute to the water-saving debate by examining whether current irrigation frequency is influenced by past experiences of losses due to water shortage and whether preferences for technologies and irrigation advisory services are mediated by water shortage experiences. Our data are based on a survey of 304 fruit farms in the highlands that were all using drip irrigation, a popular way to “save” water globally. We find that farms that faced losses due to water shortages in the past are more likely to irrigate more frequently. More frequent irrigators who have such shortages are more likely to prefer receiving irrigation advisory information rather than upgrading technologies, while more frequent irrigators who have not faced such shortages are more likely to prefer upgrading irrigation technologies. Results suggest that irrigation management is motivated by risk reduction, not just by water conservation. Irrigation advisory services, hitherto neglected, may be an important component of agricultural water management in Jordan.
Highlands / Drought / Farmers / Agricultural production / Groundwater / Drip irrigation / Water management / Agricultural extension / Advisory services / Technology / Irrigation efficiency / Water shortage Record No:H050734
Little is known about the occurrence of emerging pollutants (EPs) in waters in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region despite the extensive use of low-quality water there. Available data dealing with the sources, occurrence and removal of EPs within the MENA region in different categories of water is collected, presented and analyzed in this literature review. According to the collected database, the occurrence and removal efficiency of EPs in the water matrix in the MENA region is available, respectively, for 13 and six countries of the 18 in total; no available data is registered for the rest. Altogether, 290 EPs have been observed in different water matrices across the MENA countries, stemming mainly from industrial effluents, agricultural practices, and discharge or reuse of treated wastewater (TWW). Pharmaceutical compounds figure among the most frequently reported compounds in wastewater, TWW, surface water, and drinking water. Nevertheless, pesticides are the most frequently detected pollutants in groundwater. Worryingly, 57 cases of EPs have been reported in different fresh and drinking waters, exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) and European Commission (EC) thresholds. Overall, pharmaceuticals, organic compounds, and pesticides are the most concerning EP groups. The review revealed the ineffectiveness of treatment processes used in the region to remove EPs. Negative removals of some EPs such as carbamazepine, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole were recorded, suggesting their possible accumulation or release during treatment. This underlines the need to set in place and strengthen control measures, treatment procedures, standards, and policies for such pollutants in the region.
Wastewater treatment plants / Irrigation / Public health / Pesticides / Risk / Monitoring / Drinking water / Groundwater / Surface water / Freshwater / Pollutants / Water pollution Record No:H050733
The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events such as heavy rainfall and droughts are expected to increase with climate change and are predicted to severely affect the agriculture sector. However, drought vulnerability of rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, despite these communities being composed of mainly smallholder farmers whose livelihoods depend on rainfed agriculture. In this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of a rural community in Ethiopia to drought using both primary and secondary data. The primary data was generated from a household survey, whereas the secondary data was obtained from the National Meteorology Agency of Ethiopia and Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation (CHIRP) product. We decomposed vulnerability in to three components which are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to drought based on indices derived from the primary and secondary data. Results show that the average score for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity is nearly equal. High seasonal water variability coupled with severe, frequent, and long drought status increases exposure to drought in the study area. The main factor which affects sensitivity to drought in this community is the land cover. For adaptive capacity, the social capital of the community is low while their physical capital is high. The overall estimated drought vulnerability shows that the community is moderately vulnerable. The community’s exposure and sensitivity analyses show the need to increase the amount of moisture stored within the soil with the adoption of appropriate soil and water conservation techniques. Results also show that the head of the household’s educational level, the number of livestock owned, and annual income affect the community’s adaptive capacity.
Households / Livelihoods / Social capital / Water storage / Runoff / Water availability / Watersheds / Indicators / Exposure / Rain / Drought / Resilience / Rural communities / Vulnerability / Climate change Record No:H050724
This factsheet provides information on the general knowledge collected by the city region food system (CRFS) project in its phase 2 regarding the assessment of risks for the CRFS of Tamale. The data was collected through literature review and stakeholder consultations.
This report examines social equality aspects related to resource recovery through solid waste composting and wastewater irrigation. The report shows that women are represented in greatest numbers at the base of the recycling chain, most often as informal waste pickers and as sorters of recyclables with limited access to resources and upward mobility. Despite a wide gender gap in the solid waste and sanitation sectors, women play a key role in both municipal waste reduction and food safety where irrigation water is unsafe. Analyzing the gender dimension is important for understanding household responses to recycling programs, differences between the formal and informal sectors as well as along the waste-to-resource value chain from collection to treatment and reuse. The report stresses the important role of women in household waste management, including waste segregation, and the power of women-dominated waste picker associations, where the informal sector plays an essential role alongside the formal sector.
Farmers / Entrepreneurs / Social marketing / Community involvement / Sanitation / Health hazards / Sustainable Development Goals / Wastewater irrigation / Composting / Organic wastes / Wastewater treatment / Recycling / Waste collection / Faecal sludge / Household wastes / Urban wastes / s participation / Womenapos / Business models / Circular economy / Agricultural value chains / Liquid wastes / Solid wastes / Waste management / Social equality / Gender equity / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H050720
The Middle East and North Africa region experiences severe socioeconomic and political impacts during droughts and faces increasing drought risk in future climate projections. The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction’s Sendai Framework and the International Drought Management Programme provide a global standard (a norm) to manage droughts through natural hazard risk reduction approaches. We use participatory engagement to evaluate whether norm diffusion has taken place in four countries. Data were collected in interviews, focus groups, workshops, and policy documents. Analysis reveals incomplete norm diffusion; stakeholders subscribe to relevant values, but national policies and implementation do not fully reflect the norm. Process tracing reveals that the availability of drought early warning data is a key barrier to risk reduction. Further more, a drought early warning system would not be feasible or sufficient unless paired with policy measures and financial mechanisms to reduce the political and economic costs of a drought declaration.
Political aspects / Insurance / Financial situation / Governance / Stakeholders / Civil societies / Government agencies / Decision making / Participatory approaches / Climate change / Groundwater / Vulnerability / Early warning systems / Declarations / Policies / Monitoring / Frameworks / Disaster risk reduction / Disaster risk management / Drought Record No:H050017
Commercial farming of banana for export has rapidly expanded across northern uplands of Laos since 2008 with the establishment of new plantations by foreign companies. Heavy reliance on agrochemical usage warrants examination of possible environmental and human health risks. This study presents a preliminary assessment of the environmental risks from pesticide usage associated with bananas and other major crops in Oudomxay province.
Surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment samples collected from the study area were analyzed for pesticide residues in the laboratory during the wet and dry seasons. Results of the analysis revealed that samples from banana farms had higher concentrations of residues from currently used (CU) pesticides compared with samples from adjacent farms producing maize, rubber, upland rice and gourd. Residues from highly persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor, dieldrin and lindane, which are no longer used in Laos, were also detected. Laboratory results were compared against a low-cost pesticide residue detection method and a simple pesticide risk assessment tool. However, neither approach was comparable to laboratory analysis.
The potential environmental risk from pesticides and pesticide breakdown products was found to be substantial. For example, concentrations of some CU compounds exceeded the limits set by the World Health Organization.
The report highlights several mitigation measures to reduce the environmental risks from hazardous pesticides: (i) increase efforts to eliminate the import and use of hazardous and persistent pesticides; (ii) promote targeted education programs to implement best practices, including the selection and use of pesticides as per international standards, and Integrated Pest Management techniques; (iii) identify and protect drinking water sources with a high risk of contamination; and (iv) maintain vegetated buffers and sediment traps to detain farm runoff, which will allow CU pesticides to degrade to safe levels before entering watercourses.
Modelling / Health hazards / Farmers / Runoff / Stream flow / Seasonal variation / Land use / Irrigation / Water management / Agricultural practices / Environmental monitoring / Contamination / Drinking water / Water quality / Soil analysis / Sediment / Groundwater / Surface water / Guidelines / Pest management / Fertilizer application / Agrochemicals / Bananas / Commercial farming / Risk assessment / Environmental impact / Pesticide residues Record No:H050717
Drought-related risk is among the major global challenges of our time. It negatively impacts food security and ecosystem health. It is becoming a persistent problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and specifically in Ethiopia. Information on its intensity and spatiotemporal distribution is critical to contextualize interventions and build agroecosystem and community resilience. This study aims at analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological drought over eight Agroecological Zones (AEZs) of the Awash Basin, Ethiopia. Annual gridded temperature and precipitation dataset obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia for the period 19832016, covering 1655 grid points, were used. The study applied the Standard Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) methods to characterize the meteorological droughts. The study applied Arc GIS 10.5 to map the drought hotspots. From the result, the value of SPEI and SPI methods was divergent in characterizing the magnitude and spatial occurrence of drought episodes. SPEI has more advantages in detecting dry months and a small advantage in detecting dry seasons compared to the SPI. Temporally, wet and dry years dominated the 1990s and 2010s, respectively. Drought dominated 1980s and normal years dominated the 2000s. The spatial context of drought hotspot showed that AEZs in the upper and lower parts of the Awash Basin were hit by severe to extreme drought while the escarpments and middle parts of the basin experienced mild to moderate drought. This contrasts with the common perception that the hot to warm arid lowlands AEZs are the only hotspot areas to drought. Moreover, previously none frequent drought AEZs, such as tepid to cool humid mid-highlands were identified as drought hotspots in the basin. This information could help policymakers to target AEZs and implement context-specific and informed drought risk management decisions and adaptation measures.
Lowland / Highlands / Arid zones / Adaptation / Disaster preparedness / Risk management / Temperature / Rain / Evapotranspiration / Precipitation / Meteorological factors / Agroecological zones / Mapping / Drought Record No:H050179
Pragmatic, cost-effective, socially inclusive and scalable solutions that reduce risks from recurrent cycles of floods and droughts would greatly benefit emerging economies. One promising approach known as Underground Transfer of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI) involves recharging depleted aquifers with seasonal high flows to provide additional groundwater for irrigated agriculture during dry periods, while also mitigating floods. It has been identified that there is potential for implementing the UTFI approach across large parts of South Asia. The first pilot-scale implementation of UTFI was carried out in a rural community of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India, and performance of the approach was assessed over three years from a technical, environmental, socioeconomic and institutional perspective. The results are promising and show that UTFI has the potential to enhance groundwater storage and control flooding, if replicated across larger scales. The challenges and opportunities for more wide-scale implementation of UTFI are identified and discussed in this report. In areas with high potential for implementation, policy makers should consider UTFI as an option when making decisions associated with relevant water-related development challenges.
Drought / Rain / Monsoons / Wells / Ponds / River basins / Environmental impact / Irrigated farming / Food security / Livelihoods / Socioeconomic aspects / Community involvement / Stakeholders / Cost benefit analysis / Risk management / Assessment / Pilot projects / Technology / Pumping / Water quality / Water storage / Groundwater table / Flood control / Transfer of waters / Groundwater flow / Sustainable use / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater depletion / Water use / Floodwater / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management Record No:H050171
Globally, 50% of the population relies on on-site sanitation systems (OSS) such as septic tanks and pit latrines and is, hence, in need of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions. India is a classic example, given that its government built more than 100 million toilets with the majority relying on OSS. With 400 fecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) in various stages of planning, procurement and construction, this report comes at an opportune time to present findings on FSM business models already implemented across India.
Interviews were conducted with a total of 105 Emptying and Transport (Eamp;T) operators in 72 towns and cities across 16 states in India, 22 representatives from municipalities that own emptying vehicles, 18 FSTP operators and more than 30 institutions. In addition, procurement tenders for Eamp;T and FSTPs in 13 states were analyzed.
In total, 18 business models were identified, several with energy or nutrient recovery components. The analysis of Eamp;T operators revealed clear differences that steer a business towards success or failure. The majority of operators still dispose fecal sludge in an unsafe manner, due to the lack of official disposal or treatment sites. In comparison to sewer networks, the capital and operating costs (per capita) of FSTPs were significantly lower. The report provides evidence-based discussions on policies and recommendations for scaling and sustaining FSM.
This report presents a spatial analysis conducted at global scale to identify areas of high suitability for implementing the Underground Transfer of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI) approach. The study used multiple global spatial datasets, and the related data were arranged under three categories water supply, water demand and water storage to assess global UTFI suitability. Among the river basins with high suitability, the Awash in Ethiopia, Ramganga in India (one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River Basin) and Chao Phraya in Thailand were selected for the economic analysis in this study. The results from this study are intended to provide a first step towards identifying the broad areas (at the river basin or country scale) where more detailed investigation would be worthwhile to ascertain the technical and economic feasibility of UTFI, with greater confidence.
Models / Rural areas / Urban areas / Socioeconomic environment / Monsoon climate / Rain / Land use / Crop production / Pumps / Wells / Infrastructure / Groundwater irrigation / Stakeholders / Policies / Food security / Water security / Climate change / Water availability / Surface water / Water management / Water resources / Watershed management / Ecosystem services / Mitigation / Disaster risk reduction / Flood control / Benefit-cost ratio / Cost benefit analysis / Economic analysis / Drought / Water demand / Water supply / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / River basins / Flood irrigation Record No:H050008
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are an alternative to costly and time-consuming traditional methods to improve agricultural water management and crop productivity through the acquisition, processing, and analyses of high-resolution spatial and temporal crop data at field scale. UAVs mounted with multispectral and thermal cameras facilitate the monitoring of crops throughout the crop growing cycle, allowing for timely detection and intervention in case of any anomalies. The use of UAVs in smallholder agriculture is poised to ensure food security at household level and improve agricultural water management in developing countries. This review synthesises the use of UAVs in smallholder agriculture in the smallholder agriculture sector in developing countries. The review highlights the role of UAV derived normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) in assessing crop health, evapotranspiration, water stress and disaster risk reduction. The focus is to provide more accurate statistics on irrigated areas, crop water requirements and to improve water productivity and crop yield. UAVs facilitate access to agro-meteorological information at field scale and in near real-time, important information for irrigation scheduling and other on-field decision-making. The technology improves smallholder agriculture by facilitating access to information on crop biophysical parameters in near real-time for improved preparedness and operational decision-making. Coupled with accurate meteorological data, the technology allows for precise estimations of crop water requirements and crop evapotranspiration at high spatial resolution. Timely access to crop health information helps inform operational decisions at the farm level, and thus, enhancing rural livelihoods and wellbeing.
Cost benefit analysis / Satellite imagery / Resilience / Disaster risk reduction / Models / Farmers / Smallholders / Mapping / Irrigation scheduling / Water stress / Evapotranspiration / Remote sensing / Vegetation index / Monitoring / Crop yield / Plant health / Water management / Unmanned aerial vehicles / Water productivity / Agricultural productivity Record No:H049892
Built water infrastructure impacts the balance of services provided by a river and its flow regime. Impacts on both commercial and subsistence activities should be considered in water management decision-making. Various methods used to define mandatory minimum environmental releases do not account for the inherent and often complex trade-offs and synergies which must be considered in selecting a balance of ecosystem and engineered services. This paper demonstrates the value and use of optimised many-objective trade-off analysis for managing resource-systems providing diverse and sometimes competing services. Using Kenya’s Tana River basin as a demonstration it shows controlled releases from multi-reservoir systems can be optimised using multiple performance metrics, representing individual provisioning ecosystem and engineered services at different locations and relating to different time periods. This enables better understanding the interactions between natural and built assets, and selecting river basin interventions that appropriately trade-off their services. Our demonstration shows prioritising Kenya’s statutory minimum environmental ‘reserve’ flows degrades flood-related provisioning services. Low overall flow regime alteration correlates negatively with consistency of hydropower generation, but positively with other provisioning services.
Models / Decision making / Costs / Assets / Fisheries / Floodplains / Flood control / Water management / Water resources / Water storage / Dams / Reservoirs / Infrastructure / Hydropower / Energy generation / Environmental flows / River basins / Ecosystem services Record No:H049875
Capacity building / Knowledge management / Policies / Stakeholders / Intervention / Research institutions / CGIAR / Research programmes / Agricultural research for development / Multiple use / Water use / Ecosystems / Food systems / Risk reduction / Resilience / Climate change / Structural change / Empowerment / Social development / Women / Equity / Social inequalities / Sustainable Development Goals / Data management / Digital innovation / Water systems / Water security / Organizational change / Strategies / Inclusion / Gender equality Record No:H049876
Applicability of satellite rainfall products must be explored since rain gauge networks have limitations to provide adequate spatial coverage. In this study, Climate Hazards InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) satellite-only product was evaluated for rainfall-runoff modeling whereas the simulated runoff served as input to simulate the water levels of Lake Ziway from 1986 to 2014. CHIRP dataset was bias-corrected using power transformation and used as input to Hydrologiska Byrns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model to simulate streamflow of Meki and Katar catchments. Results showed that gauged catchments of Meki and Katar contributed 524 and 855 mm to the annual lake inflow, respectively. The estimated runoff from ungauged catchments is 182 mm that amounts to approximately 8.5% of the total lake inflow over the period 19862000. The results of lake level simulation show good agreement from 1986 to 2000, but deteriorating agreement after 2000, which is mainly attributed to errors in water balance terms and human-induced impacts. For the period 19862000, the water balance closure error for the lake was 67.5 mm per year, which accounts for 2.9% of the total lake inflow from rainfall and river inflow. This study shows bias correction increases the applicability of CHIRP satellite product for lake water balance studies.
Evapotranspiration / Catchment areas / Precipitation / Rain gauges / Models / Flow discharge / Rivers / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Estimation / Water balance / Simulation / Water levels / Lakes Record No:H049933
Rural areas / Capacity building / Guidelines / Development programmes / Government agencies / International organizations / Development agencies / Funding / Nongovernmental organizations / Public-private partnerships / River basin management / Irrigation systems / Solar energy / Groundwater recharge / Water harvesting / Water conservation / Water policy / Sustainable Development Goals / Drought / Flooding / Risk management / Climate-smart agriculture / Water quality / Water demand / Water supply / Water security / Water resources / Models / Financing / Resilience / Climate change mitigation / Climate change adaptation / Water management Record No:H049930
Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of future droughts is essential for effective water resource management, especially in the Mediterranean region where water resources are expected to be scarcer in the future. In this study, we combined meteorological and hydrological drought indices with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to predict future dry years during two periods (20352050and 20852100) in a typical Mediterranean watershed in Northern Morocco, namely, Bouregreg watershed. The developed methodology was then used to evaluate drought impact on annual water yields and to identify the most vulnerable sub-basins within the study watershed. Two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of a downscaled global circulation model were used to force the calibrated SWAT model. Results indicated that Bouregreg watershed will experience several dry years with higher frequency especially at the end of current century. Significant decreases of annual water yields were simulated during dry years, ranging from -45.6% to -76.7% under RCP4.5, and from -66.7% to -95.6% under RCP8.5, compared to baseline. Overall, hydrologic systems in sub-basins under the ocean or high-altitude influence appear to be more resilient to drought. The combination of drought indices and the semi-distributed model offer a comprehensive tool to understand potential future droughts in Bouregreg watershed.
Evapotranspiration / Runoff / Land use / Temperature / Rain / Precipitation / Risk management / Meteorological factors / Water yield / Watersheds / Water resources / Modelling / Weather forecasting / Hydrological factors / Vulnerability / Drought / Climate change Record No:H049879
When drought hits water-scarce regions, there are significant repercussions for food and water security, as well as serious issues for the stability of broader social and environmental systems. To mitigate these effects, environmental monitoring and early warning systems aimed at detecting the onset of drought conditions can facilitate timely and effective responses from government and private sector stakeholders. This study uses multistage, participatory research methods across more than 135 interviews, focus groups, and workshops to assess extant climatic, agricultural, hydrological, and drought monitoring systems; key cross-sector drought impacts; and drought monitoring needs in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, and Jordan. This extensive study of user needs for drought monitoring across the MENA region is informing and shaping the ongoing development of drought early warning systems, a composite drought indicator (CDI), and wider drought management systems in each country. Overarching themes of drought monitoring needs include technical definitions of drought for policy purposes; information-sharing regimes and data-sharing platforms; ground-truthing of remotely sensed and modeled data; improved data quality in observation networks; and two-way engagement with farmers, organizations, and end-users of drought monitoring products. This research establishes a basis for informing enhanced drought monitoring and management in the countries, and the broad stakeholder engagement can help foster the emergence of effective environmental monitoring coalitions.
Information exchange / Socioeconomic impact / Agriculture / Remote sensing / Hydrological factors / Indicators / Water scarcity / Farmers / Government agencies / Private sector / Stakeholders / Participatory research / Participatory approaches / Early warning systems / Environmental monitoring / Drought Record No:H049576
A key question in sustainable development is how much alteration in natural systems, such as river basins, is acceptable? One of the ways by which humans alter a river basin is by building water storage infrastructure. While storage reservoirs deliver numerous benefits, they can also induce social and environmental costs by displacing people, fragmenting river networks and altering downstream flow regimes. In such a context, merely capping total water withdrawal from rivers for human consumption is not sufficient. River basin plans should also identify optimal (acceptable) limits to surface storage capacities, and optimal numbers, degrees of distribution and locations of storage infrastructure. It remains largely unclear, however, whether it is possible to define a hydrologically, ecologically and socially justified ‘surface water storage boundary’ for a river basin. An associated question is what would be the ‘best’ arrangement of this bounding storage capacity in the basins river network (in terms of numbers, sizes and locations of reservoirs) to maximize water storage benefits and minimize environmental and social costs. The main objective of this review is to examine contemporary knowledge on surface water storage development with a focus on tools and approaches that may help to answer the above questions of a ‘surface water storage boundary’ and its ‘optimum arrangement’ for a river basin. In order to achieve this objective, our review introduces two novel concepts: the ‘storage scale’ and the ‘sustainable storage development framework.’ The ‘storage scale’ has four elements capacity, number, distribution and location individual scales that help visualize a ‘surface water storage boundary’ and its ‘optimum arrangement’ for a typical river basin. The ‘sustainable storage development framework’ consists of three dimensions economic benefits, ecosystems and society- and a set of indicators quantifying each dimension. This review shows that optimal levels of the elements of the ‘storage scale’ may be identified using the ‘sustainable storage development framework’.
Indicators / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Sediment / Flooding / Environmental flows / Hydropower / Ecosystem services / Ecological factors / Water supply / Infrastructure / Dams / Reservoirs / Water resources / Sustainable development / River basins / Water storage / Surface water Record No:H049809
Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water in varied, remote and inaccessible isolated floodplain lakes is difficult. Seasonal inundation patterns of these isolated lakes can be misestimated in a hydrodynamic model due to the short time of connectivity. The seasonal and annual variability of the Dinder River flow has great impact on what is so called Mayas wetlands, and hence, on the habitats and the ecological status of the Dinder National Park. This variability produces large morphological changes due to sediment transported within the river or from the upper catchment, which affects inflows to Mayas wetlands and floodplain inundation in general. In this paper, we investigated the morphological dimension using a quasi-3D modelling approach to support the management of the valuable Mayas wetlands ecosystems, and in particular, assessment of hydrological and morphological regime of the Dinder River as well as the Musa Maya. Six scenarios were developed and tested. The first three scenarios consider three different hydrologic conditions of average, wet and dry years under the existing system with the constructed connection canal. While the other three scenarios consider the same hydrologic conditions but under the natural system without an artificial connection canal. The modelling helps to understand the effect of human intervention (connection canal) on the Musa Maya. The comparison between the simulated scenarios concludes that the hydrodynamics and sedimentology of the Maya are driven by the two main factors: a) the hydrological variability of Dinder River; and b) deposited sediment plugs in the connection canal.
Ecosystems / National parks / Rivers / Canals / Erosion / Sediment / Water levels / Morphology / Hydrological factors / Modelling / Hydrodynamics / Flooding / Floodplains / Wetlands Record No:H049807
Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Hazra, A.; Getirana, A.; McNally, A.; Kumar, S. V.; Koster, R. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H.; Jung, H. C.; Narapusetty, B.; Navari, M.; Wang, S.; Mocko, D. M.; Funk, C.; Harrison, L.; Husak, G. J.; Adoum, A.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Roningen, J.; Shaw, M.; Eylander, J.; Bergaoui, K.; McDonnell, Rachael A.; Verdin, J. P. 2020. The NASA hydrological forecast system for food and water security applications.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), 101(7):E1007-E1025. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (8.47 MB)
Many regions in Africa and the Middle East are vulnerable to drought and to water and food insecurity, motivating agency efforts such as the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to provide early warning of drought events in the region. Each year these warnings guide life-saving assistance that reaches millions of people. A new NASA multimodel, remote sensingbased hydrological forecasting and analysis system, NHyFAS, has been developed to support such efforts by improving the FEWS NET’s current early warning capabilities. NHyFAS derives its skill from two sources: (i) accurate initial conditions, as produced by an offline land modeling system through the application and/or assimilation of various satellite data (precipitation, soil moisture, and terrestrial water storage), and (ii) meteorological forcing data during the forecast period as produced by a state-of-the-art oceanlandatmosphere forecast system. The land modeling framework used is the Land Information System (LIS), which employs a suite of land surface models, allowing multimodel ensembles and multiple data assimilation strategies to better estimate land surface conditions. An evaluation of NHyFAS shows that its 15-month hindcasts successfully capture known historic drought events, and it has improved skill over benchmark-type hindcasts. The system also benefits from strong collaboration with end-user partners in Africa and the Middle East, who provide insights on strategies to formulate and communicate early warning indicators to water and food security communities. The additional lead time provided by this system will increase the speed, accuracy, and efficacy of humanitarian disaster relief, helping to save lives and livelihoods.
Modelling / Satellite observation / Meteorological factors / Land area / Monitoring / Stream flow / Soil water content / Water storage / Groundwater / Precipitation / Flooding / Drought / Water security / Food security / Early warning systems / Forecasting / Hydrology Record No:H049803
Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, D.; Borgomeo, Edoardo. 2020. Water security. In Oxford University Press. Oxford research encyclopedia of environmental science. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. 19p. [DOI] More...
Water security has emerged in the 21st century as a powerful construct to frame the water objectives and goals of human society and to support and guide local to global water policy and management. Water security can be described as the fundamental societal goal of water policy and management. This article reviews the concept of water security, explaining the differences between water security and other approaches used to conceptualize the water-related challenges facing society and ecosystems and describing some of the actions needed to achieve water security. Achieving water security requires addressing two fundamental challenges at all scales: enhancing water’s productive contributions to human and ecosystems’ well-being, livelihoods and development, and minimizing water’s destructive impacts on societies, economies, and ecosystems resulting, for example, from too much (flood), too little (drought) or poor quality (polluted) water.
Indicators / Risks / Investment / Environmental effects / Ecosystems / Water governance / Water policy / Conflicts / Water pollution / Drought / Flooding / Water management / Water resources / Sustainable development / Water scarcity / Water stress / Water security Record No:H049747
Hall, J. W.; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Wheeler, K. 2020. Water resource system modelling and decision analysis. In Dadson, S. J.; Garrick, D. E.; Penning-Rowsell, E. C.; Hall, J. W.; Hope, R.; Hughes, J. (Eds.). Water science, policy, and management: a global challenge. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons. pp.257-273. More...
Environmental impact / Economic aspects / Risk / Climate change / Uncertainty / Planning / Sustainability / Water supply / Simulation models / Hydrology / Decision making / Decision analysis / Modelling / Water resources Record No:H049801
McDonnell, Rachael; Fragaszy, S.; Sternberg, T.; Veeravalli, S. 2020. Drought Policy and Management. In Dadson, S. J.; Garrick, D. E.; Penning-Rowsell, E. C.; Hall, J. W.; Hope, R.; Hughes, J. (Eds.). Water science, policy, and management: a global challenge. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons. pp.233-253. More...
Case studies / Institutions / Strategies / Impact assessment / Early warning systems / Water allocation / Insurance / Planning / Disaster preparedness / Resilience / Mitigation / Vulnerability / Desertification / Arid climate / Climate change / Monitoring / Governance / Legislation / Water scarcity / Disaster risk management / Policies / Drought Record No:H049800
We compare the effect of the wetting front detector on yield and water productivity with farmersapos; practices (FP) and irrigation requirements based on crop water requirement calculation (IRCWR). A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of the wetting front detector, FP and IRCWR combined with six fertilizer rates. We also interviewed 50 farmers to understand their perception about the use and associated concerns with the wetting front detector. Analysis of variance and partial budget economic analysis were performed. The results show that the wetting front detector saved 16% of irrigation water compared to FP, which in turn led to 16% labour saving to irrigate pepper as compared to FP. Yield and water productivity of pepper were not significantly affected by the irrigation regimes. Regardless of irrigation regimes, yield of pepper was significantly influenced by fertilizer treatment in both years. Although the highest fresh fruit yield of pepper (8.6 t ha-1 ) was recorded from Fortifer granules, the highest marginal rate of return was obtained from application of inorganic fertilizer including 173 N, 36 P,18 K ha ¹. The majority of farmers perceived the wetting front detector as low risk and compatible to use. The result also suggests that farmers are interested in buying and adopting the tool for future use.
Economic analysis / Field experimentation / Risks / Soil properties / Fertilizer application / Irrigation water / attitudes / Farmersapos / Water productivity / Water requirements / Crop water use / Pepper / Crop yield / Wetting front / Irrigation scheduling Record No:H049734
This article reviews the negative impact of anthropogenic changes on groundwater. The main changes in physical and geographical conditions that occur under the impact of anthropogenic pressures and that have the most significant influence on the state of groundwater, as well as a negative impaction the conditions of the formation of groundwater are: changes in the landscape caused by agricultural works, mining, construction of settlements, etc.; changes in the hydrographic network caused the construction of hydroelectric power facilities; changes in the composition of the atmospheric air; changes in the groundwater level regime, climatic conditions. The most significant factor of change in groundwater formation conditions is the progressive anthropogenic pollution of groundwater. It negatively influences the number of resources and their quality.
Urbanisation will be one of the 21st centuryapos;s most transformative trends. By 2050, it will increase from 55% to 68%, more than doubling the urban population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Urbanisation has multifarious (positive as well as negative) impacts on the wellbeing of humans and the environment. The 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) form the blueprint to achieve a sustainable future for all. Clean Water and Sanitation is a specific goal (SDG 6) within the suite of 17 interconnected goals. Here we provide an overview of some of the challenges that urbanisation poses in relation to SDG 6, especially in developing economies. Worldwide, several cities are on the verge of water crisis. Water distribution to informal settlements or slums in megacities (e.g. N50% population in the megacities of India) is essentially non-existent and limits access to adequate safe water supply. Besides due to poor sewer connectivity in the emerging economies, there is a heavy reliance on septic tanks, and other on-site sanitation (OSS) system and by 2030, 4.9 billion people are expected to rely on OSS. About 6293% of the urban population in Vietnam, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Indonesia rely on septic tanks, where septage treatment is rare. Globally, over 80% of wastewater is released to the environment without adequate treatment. About 11% of all irrigated croplands is irrigated with such untreated or poorly treated wastewater. In addition to acute and chronic health effects, this also results in significant pollution of often-limited surface and groundwater resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect water reuse plays a key role in global water and food security. Here we offer several suggestions to mitigate water and food insecurity in emerging economies.
Behavioural changes / Sustainable Development Goals / Rural urban relations / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Ecosystems / Environmental health / Suburban agriculture / Wastewater irrigation / Water scarcity / Water supply / Indicators / Monitoring / Water quality / Health hazards / Public health / Water reuse / Sanitation / Septic tanks / Costs / Wastewater treatment / Waste treatment / Waste management / Food security / Water security / Economic development / Urbanization Record No:H049719
Sishu, F. K.; Thegaye, E. K.; Schmitter, Petra; Habtu, N. G.; Tilahun, S. A.; Steenhuis, T. S. 2020. Endosulfan pesticide dissipation and residue levels in khat and onion in a sub-humid region of Ethiopia. In Habtu, N. G.; Ayele, D. W.; Fanta, S. W.; Admasu, B. T.; Bitew, M. A. (Eds.). Advances of science and technology. Proceedings of the 7th EAI International Conference on Advancement of Science and Technology (ICAST 2019), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 2-4 August 2019. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp.16-28. (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICST) Volume 308)[DOI] More...
Endosulfan, a mixture of a- and -isomers, is used by farmers in the wet and dry season for khat and onion production. Khat leaf samples were collected in farmer fields at intervals of 1 h; 1, 5, 9 and 14 d after application. The dissipation rate of a- and -isomers and residue level in khat were compared with residue levels in onion. The extraction was done by using Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Greater residue a- and -isomer endosulfan levels were found in khat compared to onion as khat leaves are sprayed repeatedly in two week. Residue levels of khat exceeded the tolerable EU limit of 0.05 mg.kg-1 for leafy vegetables and herbs. For both raw and processed onion sample a- and endosulfan residues level were below the tolerable of limit EU regulation for bulb vegetables (i.e. 0. 1 mg.kg-1). The mean half-life for the a-isomer of endosulfan was 3.4 d in the wet season and 3.6 d in the dry season whilst that for the -isomer was 5.0 d and 5.4 d respectively. Both isomers dissipated fastest in the wet season under conditions of high humidity and precipitation. The -isomer persisted longer and had a lower dissipation rate from plants surface compared to the a-isomer.
Farmers / Dry season / Wet season / Subhumid zones / Onions / Catha edulis / Crop production / Pesticide residues / Endosulfan / Pesticide application Record No:H049711
Satellite-based actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is becoming increasingly reliable and available for various water management and agricultural applications from water budget studies to crop performance monitoring. The Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model is currently used by the US Geological Survey (USGS) Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) to routinely produce and post multitemporal ETa and ETa anomalies online for drought monitoring and early warning purposes. Implementation of the global SSEBop using the Aqua satellite’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and global gridded weather datasets is presented. Evaluation of the SSEBop ETa data using 12 eddy covariance (EC) flux tower sites over six continents indicated reasonable performance in capturing seasonality with a correlation coefficient up to 0.87. However, the modeled ETa seemed to show regional biases whose natures and magnitudes require a comprehensive investigation using complete water budgets and more quality-controlled EC station datasets. While the absolute magnitude of SSEBop ETa would require a one-time bias correction for use in water budget studies to address local or regional conditions, the ETa anomalies can be used without further modifications for drought monitoring. All ETa products are freely available for download from the USGS FEWS NET website.
Land cover / Estimation / Precipitation / River basins / Satellite observation / Remote sensing / Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer / Models / Monitoring / Drought / Energy balance / Water balance / Evaluation / Evapotranspiration Record No:H049657
The managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess monsoonal runoff to mitigate downstream flooding and enhance groundwater storage has received limited attention across the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Here, we assess the performance of a pilot MAR trial carried out in the Ramganga basin in India. The pilot consisted of a battery of 10 recharge wells, each 24 to 30 m deep, installed in a formerly unused village pond situated adjacent to an irrigation canal that provided river water during the monsoon season. Over three years of pilot testing, volumes ranging from 26,000 to 62,000 m3 were recharged each year over durations ranging from 62 to 85 days. These volumes are equivalent to 1.33.6% of the total recharge in the village, and would be sufficient to irrigate 8 to 18 hectares of rabi season crop. High inter-year variation in performance was observed, with yearly average recharge rates ranging from 430 to 775 m3 day-1 (164295 mm day-1 ) and overall average recharge rates of 580 m3 day-1 (221 mm day-1 ). High intra-year variation was also observed, with recharge rates at the end of recharge period reducing by 72%, 88% and 96% in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively, relative to the initial recharge rates. The observed inter- and intra-year variability is due to the groundwater levels that strongly influence gravity recharge heads and lateral groundwater flows, as well as the source water quality, which leads to clogging. The increase in groundwater levels in response to MAR was found to be limited due to the high specific yield and transmissivity of the alluvial aquifer, and, in all but one year, was difficult to distinguish from the overall groundwater level rise due to a range of confounding factors. The results from this study provide the first systematic, multi-year assessment of the performance of pilot-scale MAR harnessing village ponds in the intensively groundwater irrigated, flood prone, alluvial aquifers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Agriculture is critical to the economies of developing countries. It is the basic source of food supply and a major contributor to economic development. But there is a cost. Today, agricultural water pollution undermines economic growth and threatens the environmental and physical health of millions of people around the world. The annual social and economic costs of agricultural water pollution could reach trillions of dollars. Yet the issue receives scant attention in global research and debate.
Developing countries / Economic aspects / Policies / Agricultural practices / Environmental effects / Health hazards / Water quality / Mitigation / Pollution by agriculture / Water pollution Record No:H049611
Risk management / Extreme weather events / Food systems / Sustainability / Groundwater / Water availability / Integrated management / Water resources / Climate change adaptation / Water management Record No:H049610
Kjellen, M.; White, M.; Matthews, J.; Mauroner, A.; Timboe, I.; Burchi, S.; Dhot, N.; van Waeyenberge, T.; El Fenni, Y. R.; Lohani, A.; Newton, J.; Imamura, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Moors, E.; de Oliveira, V. G.; Schmeier, S.; Crespo, C. C.; Gutierrez, M. T.; Welling, R.; Suhardiman, Diana; Hada, R.; Saji, M.; Jimenez, A.; Lymer, B. L.; Saikia, P.; Mathews, R.; Bernardini, F.; Koeppel, S.; Aureli, A.; Resende, T. C.; Avellan, T.; Hahn, A.; Kirschke, S. J.; Perera, D.; Loeffen, A.; Turner, R.; Pories, L.; Aldaco-Manner, L.; Daher, B.; Willemart, S.; Schillinger, J. 2020. Water governance for resilience to climate change. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.150-159. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter outlines legal, institutional and political means to support climate change adaptation and mitigation, to enhance resilience, and to reduce vulnerability through more inclusive water management, especially at the country level.
Poverty / Uncertainty / Monitoring / Decision making / Public participation / Legal aspects / Institutions / Political aspects / Disaster risk reduction / Water policy / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Resilience / Climate change mitigation / Climate change adaptation / Water governance Record No:H049605
Medlicott, K.; De France, J.; Villalobos-Prats, E.; Gordon, B.; Graczyk, H.; Zandaryaa, S.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Hada, R.; Caucci, S.; Smakhtin, V.; Pories, L. 2020. Human health impacts related to water, sanitation and climate change. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.68-77. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter focuses on the human health impacts associated with changes in water quality and quantity due to climate change. Trends in morbidity and mortality are examined in the context of health risks associated with climate change, and response options related to water supply and sanitation are presented.
Malnutrition / Drinking water / Wastewater / Water resources / Mortality / Morbidity / Infectious diseases / Hygiene / Water quality / Health hazards / Climate change adaptation / Sanitation / Water supply / Public health Record No:H049603
Perera, D.; Smakhtin, V.; Pischke, F.; Ohara, M.; Findikakis, A.; Werner, M.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Koeppel, S.; Plotnykova, H.; Hulsmann, S.; Caponi, C. 2020. Water-related extremes and risk management. In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.58-67. More... | Fulltext (37.7 MB)
This chapter focuses on the linkages between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, highlighting opportunities to build more resilient systems through a combination of apos;hardapos; and apos;softapos; measures.
Interventions that are robust, cost effective, and scalable are in critical demand throughout South Asia to offset growing water scarcity and avert increasingly frequent water-related disasters. This case study presents two complementary forms of intervention that transform water hazards (floodwater) into a resource (groundwater) to boost agricultural productivity and enhance livelihoods. The first intervention, holiya, is simple and operated by individual farmers at the plot/farm scale to control local flooding in semiarid climates. The second is the underground transfer of floods for irrigation (UTFI) and operates at the village scale to offset seasonal floods from upstream in humid climates. Rapid assessments indicate that holiyas have been established at more than 300 sites across two districts in North Gujarat since the 1990s, extending the crop growing season and improving water quality. UTFI knowledge and experience has grown rapidly since implementation of a pilot trial in western Uttar Pradesh in 2015 and is now embedded within government programs with commitments for modest scaling up. Both approaches can help farmers redress the multiple impacts associated with floods, droughts, and groundwater overexploitation at a range of scales from farm plot to the river basin. The potential for wider uptake across South Asia depends on setting up demonstration sites beyond India and overcoming gaps in technical knowledge and institutional capacity.
Case studies / Villages / s participation / Womenapos / Gender / Farmers / Community involvement / Institutions / Social aspects / Environmental effects / Economic aspects / Sustainability / Performance evaluation / Technology assessment / Flood irrigation / Drought / Flood control / Water management / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge Record No:H049595
Soil moisture is a highly suitable indicator for assessing agricultural drought, as plants start to wilt when there is not sufficient soil water to meet evapotranspiration demand. In this study, we provide insights on information obtained from satellite surface soil moisture observations (as compared to modeled soil moisture and observed ground precipitation) on water stress and its impact on crop production variability in India. The analysis involved generating a Standardized Soil Moisture Index using (1) satellite soil moisture observations from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative and (2) the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 soil moisture data set as well as producing a Standardized Precipitation Index using ground-based rainfall observations from the Indian Meteorological Department. Spanning the period from 1998 to 2015, the study covers Maharashtra and Karnataka states. These states were recently hit by a severe drought, resulting in significant crop failure and human losses. Results show that soil moisture is an important limiting factor for crop production. As such, it is more suitable for representing agricultural drought than precipitation during drought conditions, as it correlates more closely with reduced crop yields. Additionally, using the satellite-based Standardized Soil Moisture Index seemed to explain crop yield reductions better than when we applied the model-based Standardized Soil Moisture Index from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2, particularly for irrigated crops (i.e., wheat). This preliminary study can underpin future crop-forecasting tools assimilating satellite soil moisture data. In practice, satellite soil moisture may help to improve the efficiency of agricultural and irrigation management practices.
Models / Wheat / Maize / Crop production / Farmland / Irrigated land / Land cover / Rain / Precipitation / Forecasting / Drought / Crop yield / Satellite observation / Soil moisture Record No:H049546
This paper examines whether there are systematic differences in the historical behaviors of households that are affected and unaffected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Sri Lanka pertaining to their water source choices, water treatment practices, and agrochemical use. This analysis is motivated by the Sri Lankan government’s largest policy response to this epidemic to encourage communities to switch from untreated well water to publicly provided alternatives. We use recall methods to elicit information on the drinking water source and treatment choices of households over an 18-year period from 2000 2017. Our analysis is based on a survey of 1497 rural ground-water dependent households in the most CKD-affected areas of the 10 districts of Sri Lanka with the highest prevalence of CKD. Our main findings are that (a) households that have ever used a pump to extract (typically deep) drinking water from a household well are more likely to be affected by CKD; (b) we fail to find a relationship between disease status and households’ use of buckets to extract (typically shallow) groundwater from their wells; and (c) those who have ever treated their shallow well water by boiling it are less likely to be affected by CKD. We also find that a greater share of CKD affected households historically used agrochemicals, used wells that were geographically removed from surface water sources, and displayed lower proxies of wealth. The implications of these findings are fourfold. First, since the systematic differences in the historical patterns of water sources and treatments used by CKD affected and non-affected households are modest, the sources of water and the treatment practices themselves may not be the sole risk factors in developing CKD. Second, although we find a negative association between boiling water and the probability of CKD, it is not obvious that a public policy campaign to promote boiling water is an appropriate response. Third, the hydrochemistry of deep and shallow well water needs to be better understood in order to shed light on the positive relationship between deep well water and disease status, and on why boiling shallow but not deep well water is associated with a lower probability of CKD. Fourth, there is a need for a deeper understanding of other risk factors and of the efficacy of preventative programs that provide alternative sources of household drinking water.
Models / Rural areas / Socioeconomic environment / Reverse osmosis / Water purification / Wells / Water supply / Farmland / Agrochemicals / Agricultural practices / Behaviour / Households / Risk factors / Public health / Groundwater / Drinking water treatment / Chronic course / Kidney diseases Record No:H049541
Protecting flood prone locations through floodwater recharge of the depleted aquifers and using it for protecting dry season irrigated agriculture is the rationale for a form of intervention termed as ‘underground transfer of floods for irrigation’ (UTFI). This helps reduce the intensity of seasonal floods by tapping and storing excess floodwater in aquifers for productive agricultural use. This paper presents a case study of managing the recharge interventions in the context of the Ramganga basin, India. Using a case study approach, this study determines the socio-economic and institutional context of the study area, proposes three potential routes to institutionalize UTFI, and provides insights for scaling up the interventions in the Ganges and other river basins that face seasonal floods and dry season water shortages.
Managing the interventions involves community participation in regular operations and maintenance tasks. Given the limited scale of the pilot UTFI intervention implemented to date, and the socio-economic and institutional context of the case study region, the benefits are not conspicuous, though the piloting helped in identifying potential ways forward for the long-term management of the pilot site, and for scaling up the interventions. Initially pilot site management was handled by the project team working closely with the community leaders and villagers. As the intervention was demonstrated to perform effectively, management was handed over to the district authorities after providing appropriate training to the government personnel to manage the system and liaise with the local community to ensure the site is operated and managed appropriately. The district administration is willing to support UTFI by pooling money from different sources and routing them through the sub-district administration. While this is working in the short term, the paper outlines a programmatic longer term approach for wider replication.
Case studies / Socioeconomic environment / Households / Communities / Villages / Monitoring and evaluation / Sustainability / Cost benefit analysis / Capacity building / Corporate culture / Water institutions / Drought / River basins / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management / Flood irrigation Record No:H049537
Credit constraint is considered by many as one of the key barriers to adoption of modern agricultural technologies, such as chemical fertilizer, improved seeds, and irrigation technologies, among smallholders. Past research and much policy discourse associates agricultural credit constraints with supply-side factors, such as limited access to credit sources or high costs of borrowing. However, demand-side factors, such as risk-aversion and financial illiteracy among borrowers, as well as high transaction costs, can also play important roles in credit-rationing for smallholders. Using primary survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania, this study examines the nature of credit constraints facing smallholders and the factors that affect credit constraints. In addition, we assess whether credit constraints are gender-differentiated. Results show that demand-side credit constraints are at least as important as supply-side factors in both countries. Women are more likely to be credit constrained (from both the supply and demand sides) than men. Based on these findings, we suggest that policies should focus on addressing both supply- and demand-side credit constraints, including through targeted interventions to reduce risk, such as crop insurance and gender-sensitive policies to improve women’s access to credit.
Econometric models / Irrigation / Small scale systems / Policies / Risk factors / Financial institutions / Microfinance / Adoption / Technology transfer / Socioeconomic environment / Women / Gender / Households / Constraints / Supply balance / Farmers / Smallholders / Loans / Agricultural credit Record No:H050170
This working paper was produced under the European Union Horizon 2020 funded AGRUMIG project and traces the impact of Covid-19 on migration trends in seven project countries China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand.
The context of global migration has changed dramatically due to the coronavirus pandemic. Both within and between countries there has been a substantial curtailment of movement. As a result of multiple lockdowns, economic activity has severely declined and labor markets have ground to a halt, with mass unemployment in industrialized economies looming on the horizon. For both migrant hosting and origin countries some are substantially both this poses a set of complex development challenges.
Partners of the AGRUMIG project undertook a rapid review of impacts across project countries, exploring the impacts on rural households but also identifying the persistent desire to migrate in spite of restrictions.
Uncertainty / Assessment / Policies / Border closures / Travel restrictions / Quarantine / Governance / State intervention / Rural areas / Households / Food supply / Social inequalities / Poverty / Economic activities / Remittances / Income / Health hazards / Livelihoods / Unemployment / Migrant labour / Labour market / Pandemics / COVID-19 / Migration Record No:H050125
The Ganga is an international transboundary river that flows across three major riparian countries: India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, where India shares a significant proportion of the total basin area. The river system is highly dynamic and regularly floods in all three countries due to abundant rainfall in a short period of only four months each year that causes tremendous loss of both property and human life. In this study, we have done a synoptic review to synthesize the hydrology, hydrogeology, and modeling studies that have analyzed hydrological changes and their impacts in the Ganga basin. This review also identifies some of the knowledge gaps and discusses possible options for enhancing the understanding of sustainable water development and management. This review indicated that transparent data sharing, use of satellite-based observations along with in-situ data, integrated hydro-economic modeling linked to reliable coupled surfacegroundwater models, a central shared decision support center for early warning systems to deal with hydrological extremes, joint river commissions and monitoring teams, and multilateral water sharing treaties (agreements) are required to promote sustainable and equitable distribution of water resources and to avoid water sharing conflicts in the Ganga basin.
Modelling / Aquifers / Deltas / Geomorphology / Satellite observation / Strategies / Conflicts / International cooperation / International agreements / Environmental flows / Flow discharge / Groundwater recharge / Surface water / Water management / Water resources / Sustainable development / Climate change / Rain / Flooding / Extreme weather events / Hydrogeology / Riparian zones / International waters / River basins Record No:H050114
With the objective to provide a basis for regional climate models (RCMs) selection and ensemble generation for climate impact assessments, we perform the first ever analysis of climate projections for Western Nepal from 19 RCMs in the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment for South Asia (CORDEX-SA). Using the climate futures (CF) framework, projected changes in annual total precipitation and average minimum/maximum temperature from the RCMs are classified into 18 CF matrices for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs: 4.5/8.5), three future time frames (20212045/20462070/20712095), three geographic regions (mountains/hills/plains) and three representative CF (low-risk/consensus/ high-risk). Ten plausible CF scenario ensembles were identified to assess future water availability in Karnali basin, the headwaters of the Ganges. Comparison of projections for the three regions with literature shows that spatial disaggregation possible using RCMs is important, as local values are often higher with higher variability than values for South Asia. Characterization of future climate using raw and bias-corrected data shows that RCM projections vary most between mountain and Tarai plains with increasing divergence for higher future and RCPs. Warmer temperatures, prolonged monsoon and sporadic rain events even in drier months are likely across all regions. Highest fluctuations in precipitation are projected for the hills and plains while highest changes in temperature are projected for the mountains. Trends in change in annual average discharge for the scenarios vary across the basin with both precipitation and temperature change influencing the hydrological cycle. CF matrices provide an accessible and simplified basis to systematically generate application-specific plausible climate scenario ensembles from all available RCMs for a rigorous impact assessment.
Mountains / Decision support / Meteorological stations / Risk assessment / Uncertainty / Temperature / Precipitation / Impact assessment / Water resources / Models / Forecasting / Climate change Record No:H049417
There is increasing recognition of the need to bring about changes across the full spectrum of agricultural practices to ensure that, in future, food production systems are more diverse, sustainable and resilient. In this context, the objectives of irrigation need to be much more ambitious, shifting away from simply maximizing crop yields to maximizing net benefits across a range of uses of irrigation water, including ecosystems and nature-based solutions. One important way to achieve this is by better integrating fisheries into the planning, design, construction, operation and management of irrigation systems. Irrigation a major contributor to the Green Revolution has significantly improved agricultural production worldwide, with consequent benefits for food security, livelihoods and poverty alleviation. Today, irrigated agriculture represents about 21 percent of cultivated land, but contributes approximately 40% of the total global crop production. Many governments continue to invest in irrigation as a cornerstone of food security and rural development. Investments in irrigation often represent a pragmatic form of adaptation to changing climatic conditions. This guide focuses on how to sustainably optimize and broaden the range of benefits from irrigation development - not only economic but also social and environmental benefits. It emphasizes the opportunities that fisheries could provide to increase food production and economic returns, enhance livelihoods and public health outcomes, and maintain key ecosystem services. The guide considers possible trade-offs between irrigation and fisheries, and provides recommendations on how these could be minimized.
Floodplains / Rivers / Water reservoirs / Rural areas / Conflicts / Stakeholders / Institutions / Water governance / Participatory approaches / Community management / Sustainable Development Goals / Trends / Environmental Impact Assessment / Monitoring and evaluation / Socioeconomic environment / Nutrition security / Food security / Livelihoods / Infrastructure / Irrigated farming / Aquaculture / Habitats / Aquatic ecosystems / Irrigation management / Guidelines / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Irrigation systems / Sustainability / Fishery production Record No:H050111
This paper tries to shift the focus of research on the impact of natural disasters on economic growth from global and national levels to sub-national levels. Inadequate sub-national level information is a significant lacuna for planning spatially targeted climate change adaptation investments. A fixed-effect panel regression analyses of 19 states from 2001 to 2015 assess the impacts of exposure to floods and droughts on the growth of gross state domestic product (GSDP) and human development index (HDI) in India. The flood and drought exposure are estimated using satellite data. The 19 states comprise 95% of the population and contribute 93% to the national GDP. The results show that floods indeed expose a large area, but droughts have the most significant impacts at the sub-national level. The most affected GSDPs are in the non-agriculture sectors, positively by the floods and negatively by droughts. No significant influence on human development may be due to substantial investment on mitigation of flood and drought impacts and their influence on better income, health, and education conditions. Because some Indian states still have a large geographical area, profiling disasters impacts at even smaller sub-national units such as districts can lead to effective targeted mitigation and adaptation activities, reduce shocks, and accelerate income growth and human development.
McCartney, Matthew; Dickens, Chris. 2020. Landscape regeneration and the role of water. In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 10p. (Online first). (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals)[DOI] More...
Land degradation / Water quality / Flooding / Runoff / Rivers / Wetlands / Grasslands / Forests / Sustainable Development Goals / Freshwater ecosystems / Water resources / Environmental restoration / Landscape conservation Record No:H050016
The term “environmental flows” refers to a combination of features, including quantity, quality, and timing of water flows required to sustainably maintain a river’s health, balancing both ecological and societal needs. Incorporating basic human livelihood and sociocultural aspects in environmental flow assessments alongside ecological concerns provides a more holistic perspective on water flow management. Here, we provide an assessment that complements an ecosystem functioning lens by focusing solely on quantifying the flows associated with livelihood activities and spiritual water requirements of local riparian communities in the Karnali basin in Western Nepal. This assessment is based on the first social survey related to environmental flows conducted in the Karnali basin. We collected data using mixed methods, including social surveys, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions, across six locations in the Karnali basin that provide us with a rich and dynamic perspective on the relationship between rivers and their surrounding communities, and the challenges faced by those communities. Among the subsistence and spiritual requirements of local communities are uses for activities that include drinking, small-scale irrigation, domestic needs, fishing, and ceremonial usage. All communities we visited most strongly associated the following activities with water flow variation: small-scale irrigation, fishing, ceremonial usage, domestic needs, and tourism. The water flows required for these key activities were quantified, and results from the six sites are presented in the form of a qualitative scale of minimum water levels (ranging across poor, acceptable, and ideal) required to meet vital local needs. The minimum acceptable water flow requirement to satisfy social criteria is just gt; 20% of the mean annual runoff at the visited locations. These requirements are particularly vital to consider, given ongoing efforts to tap the vast hydropower potential in Nepal through construction of major storage projects. Such projects would change the flow regime of affected rivers and potentially raise concerns that existing demands might be compromised.
Socioeconomic aspects / Sustainable development / Women / Local communities / Riparian zones / Tourism / Household consumption / Irrigation / Fisheries / Water use / Water pollution / Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Water levels / Flow discharge / Water management / Assessment / Sociocultural environment / Livelihoods / River basins / Environmental flows Record No:H050015
Over the last decade, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has explored the use of fecal sludge (FS) in combination with other organic waste sources to optimize FS treatment and composting for the production of a safe organic fertilizer, which can depending on demand be enriched with crop nutrients or pelletized for volume reduction, delayed decomposition or easier application. Based on IWMI’s experience, this training manual has been compiled for plant managers and trainers to help ensure that staff involved in FS treatment and production, and application of an FS-based co-compost adopt best practices in all processes involved. The manual can be adapted to local needs as required. It also includes information on compost registration and certification, as well as guidelines for co-compost application in the field.
As we rapidly modify the environment around us, researchers have a critical role to play in raising our understanding of the interactions between people and the world in which they live. Knowledge and understanding of these interactions are essential for evidence based decision-making on resource use and risk management. In this paper, we explore three research case studies that illustrate co-evolution between people and water systems. In each case study, we highlight how different knowledge and understanding, stemming from different disciplines, can be integrated by complementing narratives with a quantitative modelling approach. We identify several important research practices that must be taken into account when modelling people-water systems: transparency, grounding the model in sound theory, supporting it with the most robust data possible, communicating uncertainty, recognising that there is no ‘one true model’ and diversity in the modelling team. To support interdisciplinary research endeavours, we propose a three-point plan: (1) demonstrating and emphasising that interdisciplinary collaboration can both address existing research questions and identify new, previously unknown questions at the interface between the disciplines; (2) supporting individual interdisciplinary learning at all career stages and (3) developing group practices and a culture of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Case studies / Hydrology / Social aspects / Decision making / Awareness raising / Collaboration / Risk management / Flooding / Water quality / Water reuse / Modelling / Interdisciplinary research / Water resources / Integrated management / Water systems / Water management Record No:H050217
Floodplains are particularly important in the semi-arid region of the Sub-Sahelian Africa. In this region, water governance is still being developed, often without adequate information and technical capacity for good, sustainable water resource management. However, water resources are being allocated for use with minimal sustainability considerations. Environmental flows (e-flows) include the quantity and timing of flows or water levels needed to meet the sustainable requirements of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. Holistic regional scale e-flows linked to floodplain management can make a noticeable contribution to sustainable floodplain management. The Inner Niger Delta (IND) in Mali is an example of a vulnerable, socio-ecologically important floodplain in the Sahel region of North Africa that is being developed with little understanding of sustainability requirements. Although integrally linked to the Upper Niger River catchment, the IND sustains a million and half people within the region and exports food to surrounding areas. The flooding of the Delta is the engine of the socio-economic development as well as its ecological integrity. This paper aims to demonstrate the contribution that holistic regional e-flow assessment using the PROBFLO approach has to achieving floodplain sustainability. This can be achieved through the determining the e-flow requirements to maintain critical requirements of the ecosystems and associated services used by local vulnerable human communities for subsistence and describing the socio-ecological consequences of altered flows. These outcomes can contribute to the management of the IND. In this study, the socio-ecological consequences of altered flows have been evaluated by assessing the risk of alterations in the volume, duration, and timing of flows, to a number of ecological and social endpoints. Based on the risk posed to these endpoints by each scenario of change, an e-flow of 58% (26,685 million cubic meters (MCM) of water annually) was determined that would protect the ecosystem and maintain indicator components at a sustainable level. These e-flows also provide sustainable services to local communities including products for subsistence and limit any abnormal increases in diseases to the vulnerable African communities who live in the basin. Relative risk outputs for the development scenarios result in low-to-high-risk probabilities for most endpoints. The future development scenarios include insufficient flows to maintain sustainability during dry or low-flow periods with an increase in zero flow possibilities. Although unsuitable during the low-flow or dry periods, sufficient water is available through storage in the basin to meet the e-flows if these scenarios were considered for implementation. The IND is more vulnerable to changes in flows compared to the rivers upstream of the IND. The e-flow outcomes and consequences of altered flow scenarios has contributed to the management of vulnerable IND f
South Africa is ranked among the thirty driest countries in the world, a challenge that is negatively affecting agricultural production. Other challenges such as population growth, rural-urban migration, changing food preferences and drought exacerbate pressure on agricultural water productivity. The review critically assessed the different considerations for increasing agricultural water productivity under water scarce conditions in South Africa. While under these conditions, irrigation may seem an obvious solution to increasing agricultural water productivity as a response to frequent droughts and mid-season dry spells. However, considerations on the availability of water and energy for irrigation expansion and the accessibility of irrigation services to different farming groups in the country. It is generally argued that irrigation is an expensive option and not necessarily readily accessible to most farmers.
There are prospects for tapping into South Africa’s groundwater resources but the extent to which they can contribute to expanding area under irrigation is contested given the challenges of quantifying and pumping the water. Most smallholder farmers currently lack access to water, energy, infrastructure and technical skills to irrigate thus making irrigation a challenging option in this sector. An alternative would be to explore rainwater harvesting and soil water conservation technologies, which involve inducing, collecting, storing and conserving runoff water for agriculture. The drawbacks to this are that, apart from scale issues, rainfall is becoming more erratic and droughts more frequent and hence the feasibility of this approach under frequent drought could be challenged.
Water use / Irrigation methods / Strategies / Water management / Farmers / Smallholders / Rainwater harvesting / Drought / Risks / Climate change / Water scarcity / Water productivity / Agricultural production Record No:H049340
Farmers / Technology / Water supply / Pumps / Irrigated farming / Risk reduction / Yield losses / Crop losses / Water lifting Record No:H049334
Dillon, P.; Stuyfzand, P.; Grischek, T.; Lluria, M.; Pyne, R. D. G.; Jain, R. C.; Bear, J.; Schwarz, J.; Wang, W.; Fernandez, E.; Stefan, C.; Pettenati, M.; van der Gun, J.; Sprenger, C.; Massmann, G.; Scanlon, B. R.; Xanke, J; Jokela, P.; Zheng, Y.; Rossetto, R.; Shamrukh, M.; Pavelic, Paul; Murray, E.; Ross, A.; Bonilla Valverde, J. P.; Palma Nava, A.; Ansems, N.; Posavec, K.; Ha, K.; Martin, R.; Sapiano, M. 2019. Sixty years of global progress in managed aquifer recharge.Hydrogeology Journal, 27(1):1-30. [DOI] More... | Fulltext (4.47 MB)
The last 60 years has seen unprecedented groundwater extraction and overdraft as well as development of new technologies for water treatment that together drive the advance in intentional groundwater replenishment known as managed aquifer recharge (MAR). This paper is the first known attempt to quantify the volume of MAR at global scale, and to illustrate the advancement of all the major types of MAR and relate these to research and regulatory advancements. Faced with changing climate and rising intensity of climate extremes, MAR is an increasingly important water management strategy, alongside demand management, to maintain, enhance and secure stressed groundwater systems and to protect and improve water quality. During this time, scientific researchon hydraulic design of facilities, tracer studies, managing clogging, recovery efficiency and water quality changes in aquifershas underpinned practical improvements in MAR and has had broader benefits in hydrogeology. Recharge wells have greatly accelerated recharge, particularly in urban areas and for mine water management. In recent years, research into governance, operating practices, reliability, economics, risk assessment and public acceptance of MAR has been undertaken. Since the 1960s, implementation of MAR has accelerated at a rate of 5%/year, but is not keeping pace with increasing groundwater extraction. Currently, MAR has reached an estimated 10 km3/year, ~2.4% of groundwater extraction in countries reporting MAR (or ~1.0% of global groundwater extraction). MAR is likely to exceed 10% of global extraction, based on experience where MAR is more advanced, to sustain quantity, reliability and quality of water supplies.
Drinking water / Filtration / Artificial recharge / Aquifers / Water supply / Water storage / Water levels / Water resources / Water quality / Water use / Groundwater pollution / Groundwater extraction / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management Record No:H048926
Background: The impact of large dams on malaria has received widespread attention. However, understanding how dam topography and transmission endemicity influence malaria incidences is limited.
; Methods: Data from the European Commission’s Joint Research Center and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission were used to determine reservoir perimeters and shoreline slope of African dams. Georeferenced data from the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) were used to estimate malaria incidence rates in communities near reservoir shorelines. Population data from the WorldPop database were used to estimate the population at risk of malaria around dams in stable and unstable areas.
; Results: The data showed that people living near (lt; 5 km) large dams in sub-Saharan Africa grew from 14.4 million in 2000 to 18.7 million in 2015. Overall, across sub-Saharan Africa between 0.7 and 1.6 million malaria cases per year are attributable to large dams. Whilst annual malaria incidence declined markedly in both stable and unstable areas between 2000 and 2015, the malaria impact of dams appeared to increase in unstable areas, but decreased in stable areas. Shoreline slope was found to be the most important malaria risk factor in dam-affected geographies, explaining 4182% (P lt; 0.001) of the variation in malaria incidence around reservoirs.
; Conclusion: Gentler, more gradual shoreline slopes were associated with much greater malaria risk. Dam-related environmental variables such as dam topography and shoreline slopes are an important factor that should be considered in efforts to predict and control malaria around dams.
Health hazards / Communities / Climatic data / Topography / Slope / Water reservoirs / Breeding habitats / Anopheles / Mosquitoes / Endemics / Disease transmission / Environmental effects / Dams / Vector-borne diseases / Malaria Record No:H049330
A water and soil quality baseline study was carried out across the ~ 4500 km2 Vientiane Plain in Lao PDR. Eight water quality and nine soil parameters were analysed using field kits at 95 sites in March 2015. Elevated electrical conductivity and chloride were apparent at two sites due to geogenic leaching from the marine rock-salt present in some areas. Groundwater was acidic in most locations. Nitrate and faecal contamination were also observed from nitrogenous fertilizers (diffuse) and from leaky sewage pits (localised) respectively. Soil quality is neither nutrient deficient nor does it pose a threat to plant growth. Where groundwater is used for drinking, removal of bacterial contamination by simple filtration or boiling is sufficient. In the absence of a functional monitoring network in the Vientiane Plain, periodic surveys of this kind should be performed. The results should be made widely available to the relevant government departments and other stakeholders for better management of the land and water resources.
Filtration / Land resources / Sewage / pH / Soil sampling / Soil quality / Nitrates / Chlorides / Biological contamination / Bacteria / Faecal coliforms / Groundwater / Water levels / Drinking water / Water resources / Water pollution / Water quality / Environmental impact assessment Record No:H048891
In low- and middle-income countries, the management of fecal sludge from on-site sanitation systems has received little attention over many decades, resulting in insufficient or missing regulations to guide investments and management options. To address this gap, this report examines existing and emerging guidelines and regulations for fecal sludge management (FSM) along the sanitation service chain (user interface, containment, emptying, transport, treatment, valorization, reuse or disposal). It also draws empirical examples from guidelines across the globe to support policy-makers, planners, and sanitation and health officers, as well as consultants in low- and middle-income countries in the development and design of local and national FSM guidelines and regulations.
European Union / Governmental organizations / Institutions / Stakeholders / Households / Urban areas / Land use / Occupational hazards / Environmental protection / Fuels / Energy generation / Composting / Organic fertilizers / Sewage sludge / Soil conditioners / Microplastics / Heavy metals / Pollutants / Aquaculture / Pathogens / Excreta / Public health / Operating costs / Transport / Septic tanks / Pit latrines / Waste treatment / Waste disposal / Technology / Frameworks / Sustainable Development Goals / Policies / Standards / Regulations / Guidelines / Sanitation / Faecal sludge / Reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H049291
Mainstreaming gender in water governance through “how to do gender” toolkits has long been a development focus. It has been widely argued that such toolkits simplify the complex, nuanced realities of inequalities by gender in relation to water and fail to pay attention to the fact that the proposed users of such gender-water toolkits, i.e. mostly male water sector professionals, lack the skills, motivation and/or incentives to apply these toolkits in their everyday work. We adopt a feminist political ecology lens to analyse some of the barriers to reduce social inequalities in the management of global commons such as international rivers. Our findings highlight the leap of faith made in the belief that gender toolkits, as they exist, will filter through layers of a predominantly masculine institutional culture to enable change in ground realities of complex inequalities by gender. Analysing the everyday workings of two hydropower development organisations in India, we show how organisational structures demonstrate a blatant culture of masculinity. These two organisations, like many others, are sites where hierarchies and inequalities based on gender are produced, performed and reproduced. This performance of masculinity promotes and rewards a culture of technical pride in re-shaping nature, abiding by and maintaining hierarchy and demonstrating physical strength and emotional hardiness. In such a setting, paying attention to vulnerabilities, inequalities and disparities are incompatible objectives.
Case studies / Private sector / Public sector / Water institutions / Organizations / Risks / Human behaviour / Social aspects / Men / Gender equality / Hydropower / Political ecology / Women / Gender mainstreaming Record No:H049290
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development promises to achieve change in almost every aspect of life on Earth. Encompassing 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets, the Agenda marks the first time in history when all nations have agreed on how to chart their future. The SDGs are not just a global reporting exercise, however, but rather involve a global program that embraces country-led efforts. Guided by the ideas contained in the 2030 Agenda, each nation must seek to become more prosperous and sustainable, while contributing to the global effort at the same time. If all the countries achieve this, we will have a sustainable planet and a secure future for all.
This document offers guidance on how developing countries can adapt the SDGs to their own contexts and priorities. It indicates important areas for developing countries to consider when creating their own program to achieve the SDGs, and provides examples of success to demonstrate concrete possibilities for progress.
Strategies / Risk assessment / Adaptability / Accountability / Impact assessment / Monitoring / Budgeting / Financing / Governance / Institutions / Government agencies / National planning / Development policies / Economic development / Awareness raising / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Multi-stakeholder processes / Development indicators / UN / Developing countries / Mainstreaming / Sustainable Development Goals Record No:H049245
The increasing demand for water, energy and food, and the interdependence of these systems could lead to potential human conflict in the future. This was seen in the food crisis of 2008, which stirred a renewed interest in taking a quot;systemsquot; approach to managing resources. The initial flurry of activities led to many nexus frameworks, but there remains a gap between theory and its implementation. This paper tries to look at various frameworks and unpacks the concept of nexus in order to develop matrices to help quantify and understand the interlinkages between the nexus systems. It suggests multi-level and multi-system indices to measure the health of nexus systems and to identify the weak links. It is hoped that such frameworks can be used at country level, and eventually be used to measure and rank countries on the health of their systems. The paper suggests a questionnaire that can be used (after modifying for local conditions) to collect country-level institutional and political-economy data (which is difficult to get from online resources) to be used in the framework.
Decision making / Resource allocation / Resource management / Legislation / Sustainability / Risk management / Environmental impact assessment / Socioeconomic environment / Stakeholders / Ecosystem services / Nexus / Water governance / Water policy / Water institutions / Water security / Water availability / Energy sources / Energy generation / Food security / Food production Record No:H049196
Food insecurity is a recurrent problem in northern Ghana. Food grown during the rainy season is often insufficient to meet household food needs, with some households experiencing severe food insecurity for up to five months in a year. Flood recession agriculture (FRA) an agricultural practice that relies on residual soil moisture and nutrients left by receding flood water is ordinarily practiced by farmers along the floodplains of the White Volta River in northern Ghana under low-input low-output conditions. Opportunities abound to promote highly productive FRA as a means of extending the growing season beyond the short rainy season (from May to September) into the dry season and thereby increase household income and food security of smallholder farmers. This study uses an optimization modelling approach to explore this potential by analyzing the crop mix and agricultural water management options that will maximize household income and enhance food security. Results indicate that growing cowpea, groundnut and melon under residual-moisture based FRA and high value crops (onion, pepper, and tomato) under supplementary irrigation FRA maximize household income and food security. The cash income from the sale of FRA crops was sufficient to purchase food items that ensure consumption smoothing during the food-insecure months. The study concludes that the full potential of FRA will be realized through a careful selection of crop mixtures and by enhancing access of farmers to improved seeds, integrated pest management and credit and mainstreaming FRA through targeted policy interventions and institutional support.
Communities / Land allocation / Wet season / Dry season / Soil moisture / Rainfed farming / Farmers / Smallholders / Food consumption / Household income / Supplemental irrigation / Models / Food security / Crop production / Water management / Floodplains / Agricultural practices Record No:H049190
Southern Africa faces acute water scarcity challenges due to drought recurrence, degradation of surface water resources, and the increasing demand of water from agriculture, which has to meet the growing food demands of an increasing population. These stressors require innovative solutions that ensure the sustainability of water resources, without which the consequences could be dire for a region exposed to a host of vulnerabilities, including climate change. This review outlines the role of water markets in water management in times of water scarcity, highlighting the drivers of water markets in southern Africa, such as water scarcity, transboundary nature of water resources, and their uneven distribution. The review further discusses the role of water markets in climate change adaptation. Related institutional and legal frameworks as well as water allocation mechanisms are explored, aiming at improving water markets governance. The impact of adaptation to new water regimes in the face of scarcity are assessed by considering characteristics of current markets as related to future opportunities. In a diverse region such as southern Africa with unevenly distributed water resources, advancing the concept of water markets could play an important role in mitigating water scarcity challenges and promoting regional integration through coordinated transboundary water transfers. The emergence of water markets in the region is influenced by the continued depletion of water resources, which is resulting in the adoption of innovative water marketing strategies, such as inter-farm sharing or farm joint venture systems and inter-basin and intra-basin water transfers. As the concept is new in the region, it still has challenges that include general market inefficiencies, high transaction costs, market information asymmetries, imperfect competition, and weak or absent robust institutional frameworks that can facilitate market development.
Risks / Legal frameworks / River basins / Water distribution / Water security / Water rights / Joint ventures / Water transfer / International waters / Water resources / Resilience / Rain / Arid climate / Drought / Climate change adaptation / Water scarcity / Water management / Water market Record No:H049189
This report presents findings from a study conducted to explore the synergies and trade-offs between built (i.e., engineered) and natural (i.e., ecological systems) infrastructure in the Tana River Basin, Kenya. The study considered hydrological, ecological and economic processes in order to value flow-related ecosystem services. It provides quantitative insights into the links between flow and the benefits derived from both built and natural infrastructure. The results provide initial perspectives not just on the monetary values of a number of ecosystem services (and how they change as flows vary and are altered by large dams) but also, importantly, aspects of equity and social inclusion, that also need to be considered in decision-making.
Land management / Decision making / Grazing / Smallholders / Ecosystem services / Cost benefit analysis / River basins / Sediment / Coastal area / Flood irrigation / Inland fisheries / Estuarine fisheries / Marine fisheries / Reservoirs / Soils / Hydrological factors / Hydroelectric power / Economic impact / Economic analysis / Flow discharge / Flood control / Floodplains / Dam construction / Downstream / Upstream / Infrastructure / Manmade structures / Natural environment / Climate change Record No:H049163
The impact of climate variability on groundwater storage has received limited attention despite widespread dependence on groundwater as a resource for drinking water, agriculture and industry. Here, we assess the climate anomalies that occurred over Southern Africa (SA) and East Africa, south of the Equator (EASE), during the major El Nio event of 20152016, and their associated impacts on groundwater storage, across scales, through analysis of in situ groundwater piezometry and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. At the continental scale, the El Nio of 20152016 was associated with a pronounced dipole of opposing rainfall anomalies over EASE and Southern Africa, northsouth of ~12 S, a characteristic pattern of the El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO). Over Southern Africa the most intense drought event in the historical record occurred, based on an analysis of the cross-scale areal intensity of surface water balance anomalies (as represented by the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index SPEI), with an estimated return period of at least 200 years and a best estimate of 260 years. Climate risks are changing, and we estimate that anthropogenic warming only (ignoring changes to other climate variables, e.g. precipitation) has approximately doubled the risk of such an extreme SPEI drought event. These surface water balance deficits suppressed groundwater recharge, leading to a substantial groundwater storage decline indicated by both GRACE satellite and piezometric data in the Limpopo basin. Conversely, over EASE during the 20152016 El Nio event, anomalously wet conditions were observed with an estimated return period of ~10 years, likely moderated by the absence of a strongly positive Indian Ocean zonal mode phase. The strong but not extreme rainy season increased groundwater storage, as shown by satellite GRACE data and rising groundwater levels observed at a site in central Tanzania. We note substantial uncertainties in separating groundwater from total water storage in GRACE data and show that consistency between GRACE and piezometric estimates of groundwater storage is apparent when spatial averaging scales are comparable. These results have implications for sustainable and climate-resilient groundwater resource management, including the potential for adaptive strategies, such as managed aquifer recharge during episodic recharge events.
Satellite observation / Satellite imagery / Evapotranspiration / Precipitation / Surface water / Water levels / Water balance / Drought / Rainfall / Climate change / Water storage / Water resources / Groundwater management / El Nino Record No:H049164
Scott, C. A.; Zhang, F.; Mukherji, A.; Immerzeel, W.; Mustafa, D.; Bharati, Luna; Zhang, H.; Albrecht, T.; Lutz, A.; Nepal, S.; Siddiqi, A.; Kuemmerle, H.; Qadir, M.; Bhuchar, S.; Prakash, A.; Sinha, R. 2019. Water in the Hindu Kush Himalaya. In Wester, P.; Mishra, A.; Mukherji, A.; Shrestha, A. B. (Eds.). The Hindu Kush Himalaya assessment: mountains, climate change, sustainability and people. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp.257-299. More... | Fulltext (28.3 MB)
Decision making / International cooperation / International waters / Environmental flows / Ecosystems / Urbanization / Contaminants / Sanitation / Drinking water / Plains / Mountains / Lowland / Groundwater management / Water institutions / Water governance / Water pollution / Water quality / Water use / Water springs / Sedimentation / Flow discharge / River basin management / Precipitation / Water availability Record No:H049103
Indian agricultural communities are facing a crisis driven by, among other things, skewed terms of trade and farmers’ inability to deal with increasingly adverse climatic conditions. Because agriculture continues to be the primary source of livelihood for most of India’s population, governments at all levels are under pressure to find ways to help farmers. In western and peninsular India, where droughts are common, several state governments have vowed to make farming “drought-proof” through ambitious flagship programs. This case study reviews the experience of four such programs in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Rajasthan. Although the programs differ in approach, implementation style, and duration, all of them aim to shield farmers, particularly smallholders, from the misery imposed by droughts. Among these states, efforts in Gujarat appear to be the most mature; however, concerns regarding sustaining momentum, capacity building of communities, demand management, and establishing functional local governance remain. We use evidence gathered through field studies to draw lessons for designing effective drought-mitigation strategies through improved management of groundwater resources.
Case studies / Strategies / Sustainability / Technology / Farmers / Villages / Communities / Tank irrigation / Irrigated land / Water policy / Groundwater irrigation / Initiatives / Irrigation programs / Groundwater management / Aquifers / Drought / Groundwater recharge Record No:H049598
The Indus River Basin faces severe water quality degradation because of nutrient enrichment from human activities. Excessive nutrients in tributaries are transported to the river mouth, causing coastal eutrophication. This situation may worsen in the future because of population growth, economic development, and climate change. This study aims at a better understanding of the magnitude and sources of current (2010) and future (2050) river export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) by the Indus River at the sub-basin scale. To do this, we implemented the MARINA 1.0 model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs). The model inputs for human activities (e.g., agriculture, land use) were mainly from the GLOBIOM (Global Biosphere Management Model) and EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Model) models. Model inputs for hydrology were from the Community WATer Model (CWATM). For 2050, three scenarios combining Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs 1, 2 and 3) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 6.0) were selected. A novelty of this study is the sub-basin analysis of future N export by the Indus River for SSPs and RCPs. Result shows that river export of TDN by the Indus River will increase by a factor of 1.62 between 2010 and 2050 under the three scenarios. N90% of the dissolved N exported by the Indus River is from midstream sub-basins. Human waste is expected to be the major source, and contributes by 6670% to river export of TDN in 2050 depending on the scenarios. Another important source is agriculture, which contributes by 2129% to dissolved inorganic N export in 2050. Thus a combined reduction in both diffuse and point sources in the midstream sub-basins can be effective to reduce coastal water pollution by nutrients at the river mouth of Indus.
Estimation / Models / Socioeconomic development / Nutrient management / Climate change / Human wastes / Agricultural wastes / International waters / River basins / Nitrogen / Chemical contamination / Sea pollution / Water pollution Record No:H049540
Infrastructure / Financing / Investment / Resilience / Disaster prevention / Flood control / Wetlands / Farmers / Smallholders / Water user associations / Water conservation / Soil conservation / Pollution by agriculture / Water pollution / Resource management / Water accounting / Water governance / Water law / Groundwater irrigation / Irrigation management / Solar energy / Food security / Research programmes / CGIAR / Sustainable Development Goals / Sustainable agriculture / Water management Record No:H049534
Southern Africa is highly vulnerable to drought because of its dependence on climate-sensitive sectors of agriculture, hydroenergy and fisheries. Recurring droughts continue to impact rural livelihoods and degrade the environment. Drought severity in southern Africa is exacerbated by poor levels of preparedness and low adaptive capacity. Whilst weather extremes and hazards are inevitable, the preparedness to manage such hazards determines their impact and whether they become disasters. Southern Africa is often caught unprepared by drought as existing early warning systems lack the drought forecasting component, which often results in reactionary interventions as opposed to well-planned and proactive response mechanisms. This study assesses the spatio-temporal changes of rainfall and aridity in southern Africa through an analysis of long-term precipitation and evaporation trends from 1960 to 2007. Stakeholder consultation was conducted in Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe during the peak of the 2015/16 drought, focusing on overall drought impacts, current water resource availability, existing early warning systems, adaptation mechanisms and institutional capacity to mitigate and manage droughts as part of overall disaster risk reduction strategies. Average rainfall has decreased by 26% in the region between 1960 and 2007, and aridity has increased by 11% between 1980 and 2007. The absence of drought forecasting and lack of institutional capacity to mitigate drought impede regional drought risk reduction initiatives. Existing multi-hazard early warning systems in the region focus on flooding and drought monitoring and assessment. Drought forecasting is often not given due consideration, yet it is a key component of early warning and resilience building. We propose a regional drought early warning framework, emphasising the importance of both monitoring and forecasting as being integral to a drought early warning system and building resilience to drought.
Weather forecasting / Environmental impact assessment / Monitoring / Rainfall / Natural disasters / Environmental degradation / Disaster risk reduction / Water resources / Water scarcity / Drought resistance / Early warning systems Record No:H049087
The increasing frequency and intensity of droughts and floods, coupled with increasing temperatures and declining rainfall totals, are exacerbating existing vulnerabilities in southern Africa. Agriculture is the most affected sector as 95% of cultivated area is rainfed. This review addressed trends in moisture stress and the impacts on crop production, highlighting adaptation possible strategies to ensure food security in southern Africa. Notable changes in rainfall patterns and deficiencies in soil moisture are estimated and discussed, as well as the impact of rainfall variability on crop production and proposed adaptation strategies in agriculture. Climate moisture index (CMI) was used to assess aridity levels. Southern Africa is described as a climate hotspot due to increasing aridity, low adaptive capacity, underdevelopment and marginalisation. Although crop yields have been increasing due to increases in irrigated area and use of improved seed varieties, they have not been able to meet the food requirements of a growing population, compromising regional food security targets. Most countries in the region depend on international aid to supplement yield deficits. The recurrence of droughts caused by the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) continue devastating the region, affecting livelihoods, economies and the environment. An example is the 2015/2016 ENSO drought that caused the region to call for international aid to feed about 40 million people. In spite of the water scarcity challenges, cereal production continues to increase steadily due to increased investment in irrigated agriculture and improved crop varieties. Given the current and future vulnerability of the agriculture sector in southern Africa, proactive adaptation interventions are important to help farming communities develop resilient systems to adapt to the changes and variability in climate and other stressors.
Economic aspects / Food security / Water scarcity / Rainfall / Temperature / Flooding / Drought / Climate change adaptation / Maize / Cereal products / Agricultural sector / Agricultural policy / Agricultural production Record No:H049086
Smith, D. Mark; Matthews, J. H.; Bharati, Luna; Borgomeo, Edoardo; McCartney, Matthew; Mauroner, A.; Nicol, Alan; Rodriguez, D.; Sadoff, Claudia; Suhardiman, Diana; Timboe, I.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Anisha, N. 2019. Adaptation’s thirst: accelerating the convergence of water and climate action. Background paper prepared for the 2019 report of the Global Commission on Adaptation. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Global Commission on Adaptation (GCA). 42p. More... | Fulltext (1.39 MB)
Technological changes / Uncertainty / Resilience / Insurance / Drought / Flooding / Risk assessment / Hydrological cycle / Participation / Institutions / UNFCCC / Sustainable Development Goals / International agreements / Investment / Funding / Financing / Economic impact / Infrastructure / Water resources / Policies / Strategies / Frameworks / Decision making / Water governance / Water management / Climate change adaptation Record No:H049446
The flood-based farming systems in the Ayeyarwady Delta in Myanmar are changing. Change describes the modification of the flood pattern which is constituted by depth and duration of flooding and is the determining factor for rice cultivation. Flood-induced crop loss poses the major challenge to the farmers in the delta. To understand the flood-based farming systems in the Ayeyarwady Delta, the random forest algorithm was applied to generate rice suitability location models and to create suitability maps. Thus, correlations were observed between the developed definitions for the three rice growing areas based on quantitative interviews with farmers and the physical factors obtained from the input datasets mainly remote sensing data concerning surface water and vegetation. To underpin the information of the generated suitability maps, human-water dynamics in the Ayeyarwady Delta are exemplified in terms of the pluralistic water research (PWR) framework (EVERS ET AL. 2017). Socio-economic and hydro-climatic drivers control this system and besides determine the suitable location of the three rice growing areas. This concept facilitates an understanding of the relationships and feedbacks of the human-water dynamics and is able to analyse flood risk mitigation in the Ayeyarwady Delta.
Uncertainty / Models / Socioeconomic environment / Market access / Farmers / Crop yield / Salinity / Soils / Rivers / Rain / Monsoon climate / Hydroclimatology / Surface water / Land use / Flooded land / Biodiversity / Extreme weather events / Climate change / Deltas / Floodplains / Flooded rice / Farming systems Record No:H049445
Young, W. J.; Anwar, Arif; Bhatti, Tousif; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Davies, S.; Garthwaite, W. R. III; Gilmont, M.; Leb, C.; Lytton, L.; Makin, Ian; Saeed, B. 2019. Pakistan: getting more from water. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank 191p. (Water Security Diagnostics) More... | Fulltext (9.43 MB)
This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water. The report highlights the complex water issues that Pakistan must tackle to improve water security and sheds new light on conventional assumptions around water. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development. The report assesses current water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. It identifies unmitigated water-related risks, as well as opportunities where water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The report analyzes how the performance and architecture of the water sector are related to broader economic, social, and environmental outcomes. It models alternative economic trajectories to identify where intervention can lead to a more water-secure future. A consideration of water sector architecture and performance and how these determine outcome leads to recommendations for improving aspects of sector performance and adjusting sector architecture for better outcomes. The sector performance analysis considers (a) management of the water resource, (b) delivery of water services, and (c) mitigation of water-related risks. The description of sector architecture considers water governance, infrastructure, and financing.
Models / Monitoring / Political aspects / Sediment / Dams / Reservoirs / Rivers / Planning / Risk reduction / Flood control / Climate change / Sanitation / Income / Financing / Economic aspects / Investment / Infrastructure / Law reform / Legal frameworks / Environmental sustainability / Nexus / Energy / Hydropower / Water supply / Irrigated farming / Irrigated sites / Irrigation systems / Institutional reform / Water extraction / Water quality / Water demand / Water balance / Water allocation / Water availability / Water productivity / Agricultural water use / Groundwater management / Water policy / Water governance / Water management / Water resources / Water security Record No:H049423
Deltas / Uncertainty / Models / Farmers / Forecasting / Hydrometeorology / Flooding / Hydrological factors / High yielding varieties / Farming systems / Flooded rice / Agricultural production Record No:H049431
Anarbekov, Oyture; Gaypnazarov, Norboy; Akramov, Isomiddin; Gafurov, Zafar; Djumaboev, Kakhramon; Solieva, Umida; Khodjaev, Shovkat; Yuldashev, Tulkin; Akramov, Bekzod; Murzaeva, Makhliyo. 2019. Assessment of the current situation of the Aksu River Basin in Kashkadarya Region: analytical report. In Russian. Project report prepared under the European Union Programme on Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Rural Areas in Uzbekistan. Component 1: National policy framework for water governance and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Tashkent, Uzbekistan: European Union; Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. 58p. (Also in English/Uzbek) More...
Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Land resources / Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Irrigation systems / Agricultural development / Strategies / Stakeholders / Socioeconomic environment / Rural areas / Water quality / Water use / Water supply / Drinking water / Groundwater / Planning / Development policies / Water governance / Legal frameworks / Sustainability / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / River basin development Record No:H049426
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 23 log units as expected. Significantly higher levels of pathogen contamination were detected in the gut and skin of fish from the WFP than the NWFP. Heavy metal concentrations in all samples fell within the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) permissible limits except for iron and cadmium. There were significantly higher heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver than the muscle. Even though iron recorded the highest concentrations in fish tissue, the concentrations (0.12.0 mg kg-1) were below the expected daily nutritional requirement (12 mg) for humans and pose no toxicological risk. However, catfish from WFP would require precautionary measures such as cooking/grilling prior to consumption to avoid pathogen infection.
Health hazards / Sediment / Chemicophysical properties / Pathogens / Microbiological analysis / Fish ponds / Wastewater / Risk assessment / Heavy metals / Biological contamination / African catfish / Aquaculture Record No:H048447
Himalayan river basin is marked by a complex topography with limited observational data. In the context of increasing extreme events, this study aims to characterize drought events in the Karnali River Basin (KRB). Firstly, historical data for 34-years (19812014) from ten different stations were analyzed to compute following drought indices: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), Standardized Streamflow Index (SFI), and Palmer Hydrological Drought Severity Index (PHDI). Among them, SPI is able to capture the drought duration and intensity fairly well with the others. Secondly, SPI was used to analyse the drought of the entire basin. The SPI analysis showed occurrence of major drought events in the recent years: 198485, 198788, 199293, 199495, 200409, and 2012. The winter drought of 1999, 2006, 200809 were widespread and the monsoon drought is increasing its frequency. No particular pattern of drought was observed from the historical data; however, yield sensitivity index revealed that precipitation pattern and anomaly is influencing crop yield in the area. Being the first study revealing prevalence of the drought in KRB, it can provide a basis for prioritizing interventions focused on drought management in the region.
Meteorological stations / Temperature / Monsoon climate / Extreme weather events / Crop yield / Crop production / Precipitation / River basins / Climate change / Hydrometeorology / Drought Record No:H049419
The Himalayas are highly susceptible to the impacts of climate change, as it consequently increases the vulnerability of downstream communities, livelihoods and ecosystems. Western Nepal currently holds significant potential as multiple opportunities for water development within the country are underway. However, it is also identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, with both an increase in the occurrence of natural disasters and exacerbated severity and impacts levels. Regional climate model (RCM) projections indicate warmer weather with higher variability in rainfall for this region. This paper combines bio-physical and social approaches to further study and understand the current climate shocks and responses present in Western Nepal. Data was collected from 3660 households across 122 primary sampling units across the Karnali, Mahakali and Mohana River basins along with focus group discussions, which provided a rich understanding of the currently perceived climatic shocks and related events. Further analysis of climatology was carried out through nine indices of precipitation and temperature that were found to be relevant to the discussed climate shocks. Results show that 79% of households reported experiencing at least one type of climate shock in the five-year period and the most common occurrence was droughts, which is also supported by the climate data. Disaggregated results show that perception varies with the region and among the basins. Analysis of climatic trends further show that irregular weather is most common in the hill region, although average reported frequency of irregular weather is higher in the mountain. Further analysis into the severity and response to climatic shocks suggest an imminent need for better adaptation strategies. This study’s results show that a vast majority of respondents lack proper access to knowledge and that successful adaptation strategies must be adapted to specific regions to meet communities’ local needs.
Climate variability and change impacts are manifesting through declining rainfall totals and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts, floods and heatwaves. These environmental changes are affecting mostly rural populations in developing countries due to low adaptive capacity and high reliance on natural systems for their livelihoods. While broad adaptation strategies exist, there is need to contextualise them to local scale. This paper assessed rainfall, temperature and water stress trends over time in Capricorn District, South Africa, using Standardized Precipitation Index, Thermal Heat Index, and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy of water stress. Observed rainfall and temperature data from 1960 to 2015 was used to assess climatic variations, and NDVI was used to assess water stress from 2000 to 2019. Results show a marked increase in drought frequency and intensity, decreasing rainfall totals accompanied by increasing temperatures, and increasing water stress during the summer season. Long-term climatic changes are a basis to develop tailor-made adaptation strategies. Eighty-one percent of the cropped area in Capricorn District is rainfed and under smallholder farming, exposing the district to climate change risks. As the intensity of climate change varies both in space and time, adaptation strategies also vary depending on exposure and intensity. A combination of observed and remotely sensed climatic data is vital in developing tailor-made adaptation strategies.
Vegetation index / Heat stress / Agricultural production / Farmers / Smallholders / Strategies / Risk reduction / Resilience / Water stress / Temperature / Rain / Drought / Remote sensing / Assessment / Climate change adaptation Record No:H049413
Diarrhoea caused by waterborne pathogens still has a large burden of disease. We introduce a modelling and scenario analysis framework that enables better understanding of sources of and possible future changes in the disease burden due to environmental change and management implementation. The state-of-the-art research that can contribute to the development of the framework at the large scale is analysed, together with research gaps and opportunities for future research. Priorities have been identified and these include implementation of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment and application of the models in scenario analyses. The credibility of the model outputs should be central in the analysis, for example by developing stochastic models. Implementation of the framework contributes towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
Risk reduction / Sustainable Development Goals / Rivers / Environmental impact assessment / Environmental health / Public health / Health hazards / Diarrhoea / Concentrates / Pathogens / Water quality / Waterborne diseases Record No:H048983
Floods account for a majority of disasters, especially in South Asia, where they affect 27 million people annually, causing economic losses of over US$1 billion. Climate change threatens to exacerbate these risks. Risk transfer mechanisms, such as weather index insurance (WII) may help buffer farmers against these hazards. However, WII programs struggle to attract the clients most in need of protection, including marginalized women and men. This risks re-enforcing existing inequalities and missing opportunities to promote pro-poor and gender-sensitive development. Key questions, therefore, include what factors constrain access to WIIs amongst heterogeneous communities, and how these can be addressed. This paper contributes to that end through primary data from two WII case studies (one in India, the other in Bangladesh) that identify contextual socio-economic and structural barriers to accessing WII, and strategies to overcome these. More significantly, this paper synthesizes the case study findings and those from a review of the literature on other WII initiatives into a framework to promote a systematic approach to address these challenges: an important step forward in moving from problem analysis to remedial action. The framework highlights actions across WII product design, implementation and post-implementation, to minimize risks of social exclusion in future WII schemes.
While water pollution is starting to receive the attention it deserves, the contribution of agriculture requires greater consideration as current agricultural practices have an unprecedented impact on water quality. This paper reviews knowledge in selected areas of agricultural water pollution (AWP) and identifies future research needs. These include source attribution, emerging contaminants, costs and incentives for adoption of pollution reduction measures. Future research priorities include identification and testing of locally appropriate markers; modelling the effects of contaminants on biota and pathways of microbial contaminants; harmonization of data collection and calculation of economic costs of AWP across countries and projects; and how to better share relevant knowledge to incentivize improved agricultural practices.
Best practices / Livestock production / Costs / Pollution control / Contaminants / Water quality / Water pollution / Agricultural practices Record No:H048969
Amarnath, Giriraj; Pani, Peejush; Alahacoon, Niranga; Chockalingam, J.; Mondal, S.; Matheswaran, K.; Sikka, Alok; Rao, K. V.; Smakhtin, Vladimir. 2019. Development of a system for drought monitoring and assessment in South Asia. In Mapedza, Everisto; Tsegai, D.; Bruntrup, M.; McLeman, R. (Eds.). Drought challenges: policy options for developing countries. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. pp.133-163. (Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research Volume 2)[DOI] More...
Crop yield / Agriculture / Vegetation index / Remote sensing / Land cover / Land use / Weather forecasting / Satellite observation / Precipitation / Rain / Temperature / Assessment / Monitoring / Drought Record No:H049369
Population growth / Living standards / Policy / Monitoring / Early warning systems / Rain / Precipitation / Temperature / Developing countries / Weather hazards / Resilience / Adaptation / Risk / Drought Record No:H049367
Globally, many populations face structural and environmental barriers to access safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Among these populations are many of the 200 million pastoralists whose livelihood patterns and extreme environmental settings challenge conventional WASH programming approaches. In this paper, we studied the Afar pastoralists in Ethiopia to identify WASH interventions that can mostly alleviate public health risks, within the populationapos;s structural and environmental living constraints. Surveys were carried out with 148 individuals and observational assessments made in 12 households as part of a Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment. The results show that low levels of access to infrastructure are further compounded by risky behaviours related to water containment, storage and transportation. Additional behavioural risk factors were identified related to sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry. The Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment visually interprets the seriousness of the risks against the difficulty of addressing the problem. The assessment recommends interventions on household behaviours, environmental cleanliness, water storage, treatment and hand hygiene via small-scale educational interventions. The framework provides an approach for assessing risks in other marginal populations that are poorly understood and served through conventional approaches.
Households / Villages / Human behaviour / Water storage / Water purification / Drinking water / Pathogens / Faecal pollution / Health hazards / Public health / Communities / Pastoralists / Risk assessment / Hygiene / Sanitation / Water supply Record No:H049505
Groundwater quantity and quality may be affected by climate change through intricate direct and indirect mechanisms. At the same time, population growth and rapid urbanization have made groundwater an increasingly important source of water for multiple uses around the world, including southern Africa. The present study investigates the coupled human and natural system (CHANS) linking climate, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a rapidly growing peri-urban area in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana, which relies on the transboundary Ramotswa aquifer for water supply. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicated that droughts like the one in 20132016 are increasing in likelihood in the area due to climate change. Key informant interviews showed that due to the drought, people increasingly used pit latrines rather than flush toilets. Nitrate, fecal coliforms, and caffeine analyses of Ramotswa groundwater revealed that human waste leaching from pit latrines is the likely source of nitrate pollution. The results in conjunction indicate critical indirect linkages between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality, and water security in the area. Improved sanitation, groundwater protection and remediation, and local water treatment would enhance reliable access to water, de-couple the community from reliance on surface water and associated water shortage risks, and help prevent transboundary tension over the shared aquifer.
Case studies / Human wastes / Caffeine / Faecal coliforms / Pit latrines / Drought / Rainfall / Aquifers / Contamination / Denitrification / Nitrates / Environmental protection / Environmental factors / Ecological factors / Water pollution / Wastewater treatment / Monitoring / Drinking water / Water security / Water supply / Water quality / Groundwater management / Sanitation / Climate change Record No:H049051
Drought is a noteworthy cause of low agricultural profitability and of crop production vulnerability, yet in numerous countries of Africa little to no consideration has been paid to readiness for drought calamity, particularly to spatial evaluation and indicators of drought occurrence. In this study, biophysical and socio-economic data, farmers’ community surveys and secondary data from remote sensing on soil characteristics and water demand were used to evaluate the predictors of drought in inland valley rice-based production systems and the factors affecting farmers’ mitigation measures. The study intervened in three West African countries located in the Sudan-Sahel zone, viz. Burkina Faso, Mali and Nigeria. Significant drying trends occurred at latitudes below 1130apos; whilst significant wetting trends were discerned at latitude above 1130apos;. Droughts were more frequent and had their longest duration in the states of Niger and Kaduna located in Nigeria and in western Burkina Faso during the period 19952014. Among 21 candidate predictors, average annual standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and duration of groundwater availability were the most important predictors of drought occurrence in inland valleys rice based-production systems. Land ownership and gender affected the commitment of rice farmers to use any mitigation measure against drought. Drought studies in inland valleys should include climatic water balance and groundwater data. Securing property rights and focusing on women’s association would improve farmers’ resilience and advance drought mitigation measures.
s participation / Womenapos / Gender / Remote sensing / Socioeconomic environment / Land ownership / Water balance / Water availability / Groundwater / Evapotranspiration / Precipitation / Soil properties / Crop production / Farmers / Rice fields / Agricultural production / Landscape / Valleys / Drought Record No:H049050
Farmers in Minor Irrigation Systems (MIS) experience many difficulties due to severe seasonal or year-round absolute water scarcity that affects their livelihoods. In order to address this problem, the resilience of the vulnerable communities needs to be enhanced through smart investments and appropriate adaptation strategies. Since there is no well-established method for assessing the resilience of the farmers in MIS, this study was aimed to develop a framework and prospective methodology to assess resilience and factors determining the resilience to shocks and stresses of MIS. A structured questionnaire survey was carried out among 188 households belong to eight farmer organizations under 16 MIS located in three Agrarian Service Divisions in the IL3 agro-ecological region in Kurunegala District. The resilience of farming was measured using adaptive capacity or the risk management strategies used at household levels related to farming practices using 20 indicators. Analysis of factors was performed with the principle component method and rotated (from Varimax with Kaiser Normalization technique) factor loadings were extracted to compute resilience index. Using the empirical equation derived from the study, the resilience of MIS was quantitatively determined. The results showed that there is an adequate space to enhance the resilience of farming in MIS by introducing and adapting various risk management strategies. It appears that capacity of the tank, accessibility of services and the trust of farmers both on farmer organizations and the agency officials are some of the key factors which govern the resilience of farming in MIS.
Case studies / Socioeconomic environment / Tanks / Farming systems / Living standards / Risk management / Communities / Irrigation systems / Small scale systems / Farmers / Water scarcity / Water shortage Record No:H048927
In the Ganges basin, 8268.6 km2 of irrigation command area is waterlogged following monsoon rains. In this study, vertical drain (VD) (L × D, 7 × 1 m) filled with drainage gravel (6.5 m) and coarse sand (0.5 m) is installed in farmer’s agricultural field to minimize the duration of seasonal waterlogging and tested in Mukundpur village, Vaishalli District, Bihar, India. At the experimental site, inundation of rainfall and runoff from surrounding areas along with the seepage from an earthen canal start in September and remain till February, every year which prevents timely planting of wheat in November-end/December. Drainage due to percolation and recharge to groundwater is constrained by 6.4-m thick clay layer, below 0.5-m root-zone, and the groundwater level, which rises to the surface level. VDs were installed to provide a path and allow inundated water to recharge the aquifer, as groundwater level recedes. Groundwater level drop, floodwater infiltration rate, groundwater discharge, and VD capability were estimated through field data. Results show that VDs connected the floodwater to groundwater and transferred the floodwater to the aquifer when groundwater level started to recede. The site was fully drained by the end of December, permitting farmers to plant wheat in January providing cool nights at germination, thus increasing yields.
Flow discharge / Canals / Fluctuations / Rain / Monsoon climate / Soil sampling / Infiltration / Farmers / Drainage / Vertical movement / Agricultural land / Seasonal changes / River basins / Floodplains / Aquifers / Groundwater / Water table / Water levels / Waterlogging Record No:H048907
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Unver, O.; De Souza, M.; Turral, H.; Burke, J. 2018. Setting the scene. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.3-13. More... | Fulltext (544 KB)
Aquatic environment / Sustainable development / Costs / Water scarcity / Water quality / Livestock / Aquaculture / Crops / Agricultural wastes / Water pollution Record No:H048856
Groundwater use in India, and many developing countries, is linked to livelihood and well-being of village communities. It is, therefore, important to characterise groundwater behaviour and resilience and identify strategies that will help to improve the sustainability of groundwater supplies. The concept of Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) has been widely used for analysing rainfall drought. In this study, we adapt SPI to understand watertable fluctuations and assess resilience of groundwater supplies vis--vis rainfall variability from one year to the next. The modified SPI, called Groundwater Resilience Index (GRI), represents a normalized continuous watertable elevation variability function. The index is applied to two districts, viz., Udaipur and Aravalli in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India, respectively, to assess its usefulness. To evaluate the association of rainfall variability with groundwater depth fluctuation, SPI was also calculated. The study showed that GRI varies less than SPI, indicating that groundwater availability is less variable than the rainfall in both districts. This means that groundwater increases reliability of water supply for irrigation in both districts. The estimated SPI and GRI at 6-month intervals for the study period show that even though the groundwater is not stressed (normal condition in 75% of the months observed), there is variation in resilience of the aquifer system to drought and extreme events. Overall, the study indicated that the proposed GRI can be a useful tool for understanding watertable fluctuations and assessing groundwater resilience, especially to prioritise areas for groundwater recharge when funds for recharge works are limited.
Rural communities / Aquifers / Water supply / Water use / Water table / Precipitation / Rain / Drought / Climate change / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management Record No:H048871
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Albers, J. 2018. On-farm and off-farm responses. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.179-203. More... | Fulltext (692 KB)
Riparian zones / Constructed wetlands / Aquaculture / Pesticides / Grazing systems / Livestock farms / Nutrient management / Organic fertilizers / Resource recovery / Erosion control / Water management / Good agricultural practices / On-farm research / Water pollution Record No:H048864
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Turral, H. 2018. Policy responses. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.159-178. More... | Fulltext (488 KB)
Economic aspects / Awareness raising / Good agricultural practices / Agreements / Cooperative activities / Pesticides / Regulations / Monitoring / Water quality / Food wastes / Sustainability / Diet / Food consumption / Water pollution / Water policy Record No:H048863
Xie, H.; Matranga, M.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Alberts, J. 2018. The role of models. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.139-156. More... | Fulltext (556 KB)
Uncertainty / Ecological factors / Nutrients / Pollutants / River basins / Water pollution / Water policy / Simulation models / Water quality Record No:H048862
Zandaryaa, S.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier. 2018. Organic matter, pathogens and emerging pollutants. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.125-138. More... | Fulltext (680 KB)
Livestock / Aquatic environment / Public health / Water quality / Surface water / Wastewater / Agricultural wastes / Pollutant load / Pathogens / Organic matter / Water pollution Record No:H048861
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Albers, J. 2018. Sediment. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.111-123. More... | Fulltext (604 KB)
Rivers / Reservoirs / Chemical contamination / Turbidity / Sediment yield / Aquatic environment / Surface water / Erosion / Soils / Agriculture / Sediment pollution Record No:H048860
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Turral, H. 2018. Agricultural pollution sources and pathways. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.41-51. More... | Fulltext (656 KB)
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Turral, H.; Burke, J. 2018. Global drivers of water pollution from agriculture. In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.15-38. More... | Fulltext (1.47 MB)
Aquaculture / Livestock production / Pesticide application / Fertilizer application / Irrigated farming / Intensification / Cropping systems / Farming systems / Population growth / Income / Diet / Food consumption / Agricultural wastes / Water pollution Record No:H048857
Current patterns of agricultural expansion and intensification are bringing unprecedented environmental externalities, including impacts on water quality. While water pollution is slowly starting to receive the attention it deserves, the contribution of agriculture to this problem has not yet received sufficient consideration.
We need a much better understanding of the causes and effects of agricultural water pollution as well as effective means to prevent and remedy the problem. In the existing literature, information on water pollution from agriculture is highly dispersed. This repost is a comprehensive review and covers different agricultural sectors (including crops, livestock and aquaculture), and examines the drivers of water pollution in these sectors as well as the resulting pressures and changes in water bodies, the associated impacts on human health and the environment, and the responses needed to prevent pollution and mitigate its risks.
Economic aspects / Good agricultural practices / Reservoirs / Lakes / Eutrophication / Erosion control / Sediment / Water policy / Environmental health / Public health / Freshwater / Irrigation water / Soil salinization / Salts / Phosphorus / Nitrogen / Nutrient management / Livestock production / Aquaculture / Pesticide application / Fertilizer application / Intensification / Farming systems / Models / Water quality / Food wastes / Pathogens / Organic matter / Pollutants / Risk management / Groundwater / Surface water / Population growth / Food consumption / Agricultural wastewater / Agricultural waste management / Water pollution Record No:H048855
Catchment areas / Risk management / Ecosystem services / Flood control / Flooding / Drought / Climate change / Water storage / Water resources / Water management / Sustainable development / Natural resources Record No:H048854
Bernhardt, E. M.; Zandaryaa, S.; Arduino, G.; Jimenez-Cisneros, B.; Payne, J.; Zadeh, S. M.; McClain, M.; Irvine, K.; Acreman, M.; Cudennec, C.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Dickens, Chris; Cohen-Shacham, E.; Fedotova, T.; Cox, C.; Bertule, M.; Coates, D.; Connor, R.; Simmons, E.; Gastelumendi, J.; Gutierrez, T. 2018. NBS [Nature-based solutions] for managing water quality. In WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018: nature-based solutions for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.52-62. More... | Fulltext (31.02 MB)
Infrastructure / Riparian zones / Land management / Wetlands / Socioeconomic environment / Agriculture / Environmental health / Ecosystem services / Sustainable development / Water conservation / Water pollution / Water quality / Water management / Natural resources Record No:H048853
Slope / River basins / Disease control / Disease transmission / Irrigation / Sustainable Development Goals / Health hazards / Dam construction / Reservoir operation / Water management / Water security / Water level / Water storage / Malaria / Mosquito-borne diseases Record No:H048781
After a hiatus through the 1990s and the early part of this century, rising energy demand, new private sector financing options and countries pursuing food security, modernization and economic growth have spurred a new era of large dam development. Currently an estimated 3700 dams are planned or under construction globally (Zarfl et al.,  77, 161170). Many of the challenges faced in the context of the water-energy-food nexus are brought into sharp focus by large dam construction. Dams can safeguard food production, provide an important source of income and relatively cheap electricity, and can have direct and indirect benefits for poor people. Too often, however, they have created significant and poorly mitigated environmental and social costs (WCD,  London: Earthscan Publications Ltd). Adverse impacts on ecosystem services caused by dam construction can have profound implications for the health, resilience and livelihoods of the poor. This article explores the challenges facing decision makers with regards to building resilience and navigating risk within the water-energy-food nexus and dams. It draws from two progressive case studies, one in Africa and one in Asia, to highlight lessons learned from nexus approaches including the need for meaningful participation, transparency in decision making, and valuing ecosystem services. The case studies examined contain relevant lessons for global agreements including the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement because unlike the Millennium Development Goals, they are expected to address interlinkages and tradeoffs across the nexus. The implications of the increasing trend of public private partnerships to finance, build, and operate hydropower dams is discussed. The article concludes by demonstrating that although mitigating impacts across the nexus and social-ecological resilience presents challenges and requires overcoming complexity, the need to tackle these is greater than ever.
Case studies / Rivers / Flooding / Social impact / Environmental impact / Decision making / Income / Food security / Energy / Dam construction / Resilience / Ecosystem services / Hydropower Record No:H048124
Wastewater irrigation is a common livelihood practice in many parts of the developing world. With the continuous irrigation supply, groundwater systems in these regions perceive adverse impacts due to inadequate infrastructure to treat the wastewater. The current study area, Musi River irrigation system, is one such case study located in the peri-urban Hyderabad of South India. The Musi River water, which is used for irrigation, is composed of untreated and secondary treated wastewater from Hyderabad city. Kachiwani Singaram micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad is practicing wastewater irrigation for the last 40 years. The current quality of (untreated) wastewater used for irrigation is expected to have adverse impacts on the local aquifers, but detailed investigations are lacking. To elucidate the groundwater quality dynamics and seasonality of the wastewater irrigation impacts on the peri-urban agricultural system, we analyzed the groundwater quality on a monthly basis for one hydrological year in the wastewater and groundwater irrigated areas, which exist next to each other. The spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality in the watershed was analyzed with respect to wastewater irrigation and seasonality using multivariate statistical analysis, multi-way modeling and self-organizing maps. This study indicates the significance of combining various statistical techniques for detailed evaluation of the groundwater processes in a wastewater irrigated agricultural system. The results suggest that concentrations of the major ionic substances increase after the monsoon season, especially in wastewater irrigated areas. Multi-way modeling identified the major polluted groundwaters to come from the wastewater irrigated parts of the watershed. Clusters of chemical variables identified by using self-organizing maps indicate that groundwater pollution is highly impacted by mineral interactions and long-term wastewater irrigation. The study recommends regular monitoring of water resources and development of sustainable management strategies to mitigate the aquifer pollution in wastewater irrigation systems.
Case studies / Monsoon climate / Periurban agriculture / Irrigated land / Aquifers / Irrigation water / River basins / Models / Statistical analysis / Multivariate analysis / Periurban areas / Water pollution / Water quality / Groundwater / Irrigation systems / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H048766
The discourse on the need for water, energy, and food security has dominated the development agenda of southern African countries, centred on improving livelihoods, building resilience, and regional integration. About 60% of the population in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) live in rural areas relying mainly on rainfed agriculture, lacking access to clean water and energy, yet the region is endowed with vast natural resources. The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is a conceptual framework that presents opportunities for greater resource coordination, management, and policy convergence across sectors. This is particularly relevant in the SADC region as resources are transboundary and supports efforts linked to regional integration and inclusive socio-economic development and security. We conducted an appraisal of WEF-related policies and institutions in SADC and identified linkages among them. The present ‘silo’ approach in resource management and allocation, often conducted at the national level, contributes to the region’s failure to meet its development targets, exacerbating its vulnerabilities. The lack of coordination of WEF nexus synergies and trade-offs in planning often threatens the sustainability of development initiatives. We highlighted the importance of the WEF nexus to sustainably address the sectoral coordination of resources through harmonised institutions and policies, as well as setting targets and indicators to direct and monitor nexus developments. We illustrate the significance of the nexus in promoting inclusive development and transforming vulnerable communities into resilient societies. The study recommends a set of integrated assessment models to monitor and evaluate the implementation of WEF nexus targets. Going forward, we propose the adoption of a regional WEF nexus framework.
Assessment / Models / Policies / Institutions / Regional development / SADC countries / Agricultural production / Poverty / Living standards / Sustainable Development Goals / River basins / International waters / Resilience / Climate change / Nexus / Food security / Energy resources / Water availability / Water resources Record No:H048729
Risk reduction / Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Socioeconomic environment / Supply chain / Market economies / Business models / Farmers / Water reuse / Water quality / Water pollution / Wastewater irrigation / Wastewater treatment Record No:H048694
Hanjra, Munir A.; Rao, Krishna C.; Danso, G. K.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Drechsel, Pay. 2018. Wastewater as a commodity driving change - Business Model 23. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.745-759. More... | Fulltext (1.16 MB)
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Power from agro-waste - Business Model 6. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.215-221. More... | Fulltext (928 KB)
Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Risk reduction / Business models / Supply chain / Agroindustry / Farmers / Energy generation / Agricultural waste management Record No:H048643
Critical information on a flood-affected area is needed in a short time frame to initiate rapid response operations and develop long-term flood management strategies. This study combined rainfall trend analysis using Asian PrecipitationHighly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE) gridded rainfall data with flood maps derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and multispectral satellite to arrive at holistic spatio-temporal patterns of floods in Sri Lanka. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data were used to map flood extents for emergency relief operations while eight-day Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data for the time period from 2001 to 2016 were used to map long term flood-affected areas. The inundation maps produced for rapid response were published within three hours upon the availability of satellite imagery in web platforms, with the aim of supporting a wide range of stakeholders in emergency response and flood relief operations. The aggregated time series of flood extents mapped using MODIS data were used to develop a flood occurrence map (20012016) for Sri Lanka. Flood hotpots identified using both optical and synthetic aperture average of 325 km2 for the years 20062015 and exceptional flooding in 2016 with inundation extent of approximately 1400 km2. The time series rainfall data explains increasing trend in the extreme rainfall indices with similar observation derived from satellite imagery. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using multi-sensor flood mapping approaches, which will aid Disaster Management Center (DMC) and other multi-lateral agencies involved in managing rapid response operations and preparing mitigation measures.
Catchment areas / Risk management / Monsoon climate / River basins / Economic situation / Natural disasters / Flood control / Flooding / Mapping / Rain / Radar satellite / Satellite observation / Satellite imagery Record No:H048581
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Biogas from kitchen waste - Business Model 4. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.142-151. More... | Fulltext (908 KB)
Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Organic wastes / Supply chain / Models / Business management / Food wastes / Household consumption / Household wastes / Biogas Record No:H048636
Financing / Models / Business management / Health hazards / Supply chain / Organic fertilizers / Agricultural waste management / Environmental impact / Solid wastes / Municipal wastes / Renewable energy / Briquettes Record No:H048629
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Briquettes from agro-waste - Business Model 1. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.52-60. More... | Fulltext (952 KB)
Health hazards / Renewable energy / Risk reduction / Models / Business management / Supply chain / Briquettes / Crop residues / Agricultural waste management Record No:H048627
Equity / Social aspects / Food chains / Risk management / Sustainable Development Goals / Environmental health / Environmental management / Organic matter / Nutrients / Resource recovery / Sanitation / Waste management / Economic aspects / Models / Business management Record No:H048697
Rao, Krishna C.; Gebrezgabher, Solomie. 2018. Energy recovery from organic waste - Section II. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.34-313. More... | Fulltext (10.3 MB)
Otoo, Miriam; Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Drechsel, Pay; Rao, Krishna C.; Fernando, Sudarshana; Pradhan, S. K.; Hanjra, Munir A.; Qadir, M.; Winkler, M. 2018. Defining and analyzing RRR business cases and models. In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.17-31. More... | Fulltext (0.99 MB)
Environmental impact assessment / Health hazards / Risk reduction / Cost recovery / Public sector / Private sector / Energy recovery / Organic matter / Nutrients / Water reuse / Financing / Wastewater treatment / Waste management / Assessment / Case studies / Models / Business management / Resource recovery Record No:H048624
Recent developments in Environmental Flow (E-flow) frameworks advocate holistic, regional scale, probabilistic E-flow assessments that consider flow and non-flow drivers of change in socio-ecological context as best practice. Regional Scale ecological risk assessments of multiple sources, stressors and diverse ecosystems that address multiple social and ecological endpoints, have been undertaken internationally at different spatial scales using the relative-risk model since the mid 1990apos;s. With the recent incorporation of Bayesian belief networks into the relative-risk model, a robust regional scale ecological risk assessment approach is available that can contribute to achieving the best practice recommendations of E-flow frameworks. PROBFLO is a regional scale, holistic E-flow assessment method that incorporates the relative-risk model and Bayesian belief networks (BN-RRM) into a transparent probabilistic modelling tool that addresses uncertainty explicitly. PROBFLO has been developed to holistically evaluate the socio-ecological consequences of historical, current and future altered flows in the context of non-flow drivers and generate E-flow requirements on regional scales spatial scales. The approach has been implemented in two regional scale case studies in Africa where its flexibility and functionality has been demonstrated. In both case studies the evidence based outcomes facilitated informed environmental management decision making, in the context of social and ecological aspirations. This paper presents the PROBFLO approach as applied to the Senqu River catchment in Lesotho and further developments and application in the Mara River catchment in Kenya and Tanzania. The ten BN-RRM procedural steps incorporated in PROBFLO are demonstrated with examples from both case studies. Outcomes allowed stakeholders to consider sustainable social and ecological E-flow trade-offs between social and ecological endpoints. PROBFLO can be incorporated into adaptive management processes and contribute to the sustainable management of the use and protection of water resources.
Case studies / Uncertainty / Mapping / Stakeholders / Catchment areas / Decision making / Best practices / Water management / Water resources / Ecological factors / Risk assessment / Environmental management / Environmental sustainability / Environmental impact assessment / Environmental flows Record No:H048063
The residents of the Ganges and Mekong River deltas face serious challenges from rising sea levels, saltwater intrusion, pollution from upstream sources, growing populations, and infrastructure that no longer works as planned. In both deltas, scientists working for nearly two decades with communities, local governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have demonstrated the potential to overcome these challenges and substantially improve people’s livelihoods. There are cost-effective solutions to improving the totality of ecosystem services and market opportunities for young women and men.
Land use / Diversification / Intervention / Agroecology / Participatory rural appraisal / Crop production / Equity / Water pollution / Water institutions / Water management / Youth / Women’s participation / Ecosystem services / Living standards / Local government / Infrastructure / Salt water intrusion / Sea level / Deltas / Rivers / Community involvement / Local communities / Intensification / Sustainability Record No:H048502
Climate induced extreme events such as floods and droughts are often disastrous in incidences and affects Indian economy often. Low per capita surface water storage (225 m3/capita1), few sites for additional storages facilities and depleting groundwater aquifers reduce the resilience of the communities to alleviate the day-to-day short age and larger seasonal shocks. India has a long history of storing and recharging runoff waters through community participation. Ongoing such programs are focused on drought-prone or socio-economically weak areas and exclude the flood prone zones. The present study aims to improve the groundwater resources availability through diverting flows from rivers or canals at times when these flows pose flood risk and recharging the groundwater through suitable artificial recharge structures. This method addresses the issue of groundwater depletion as well as reducing the flood risks. A geo-hydrological analysis in spatial platform using data available in public domain and detailed ground survey, a site was identified in Jiwai Jadid village of Milk Block of Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. A community owned pond was retrofitted with recharge wells and associated infrastructure to draw excess monsoon water from a nearby flood-prone river. The preliminary results show a positive impact on groundwater table and water quality. However, to achieve the full benefit of the method it is required to implement it in larger scale. Ongoing government programs that are focused on livelihood improvement and natural resources management are the best options to scale up such effect in regional scale.
Canals / Community involvement / Aquifers / Water table / Water quality / Water resources / Water storage / Drought / Underground storage / Seasonal variation / Aquifers / Flooding / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater depletion Record No:H048500
Resource recovery and reuse (RRR) of domestic and agro-industrial waste has the potential to contribute to a number of financial, socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, despite these benefits and an increasing political will, there remain significant barriers to build the required up-front capital which is discouraging private sector engagement. A systematic analysis and understanding of the enabling environment, public and private funding sources, risk-sharing mechanisms and pathways for cost recovery can help to identify opportunities to improve the viability of RRR solutions. This report looks at regulations and policies that remove disincentives for RRR, public and private funding sources for capital and operational costs, risk mitigation options through blending and structuring finance, and options for operational cost recovery.
Energy recovery / Communities / Equity / Water management / Waste management / Environmental management / Cost benefit analysis / State intervention / Payment for ecosystem services / Carbon markets / Value chain / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Risk management / Agreements / Grants / Loans / Funding / Stakeholders / Regulations / Development policies / Developing countries / Credit policies / Market economies / Incentives / Investment / Cost recovery / Financing / Economic development / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H049025
Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Land resources / Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Irrigation systems / Agricultural development / Strategies / Stakeholders / Socioeconomic environment / Rural areas / Water quality / Water use / Water supply / Drinking water / Groundwater / Planning / Development policies / Water governance / Legal frameworks / Sustainability / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / River basin development Record No:H049441
Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Rural areas / Land resources / Agricultural development / Socioeconomic environment / Stakeholders / Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Planning / Infrastructure / Water use / Indicators / Water quality / Groundwater / Water supply / Drinking water / Strategies / Development policies / Water governance / River basin development / Legal frameworks / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / Irrigation systems Record No:H049440
Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Rural areas / Land resources / Agricultural development / Socioeconomic environment / Stakeholders / Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Planning / Infrastructure / Water use / Indicators / Water quality / Groundwater / Water supply / Drinking water / Strategies / Development policies / Water governance / River basin development / Legal frameworks / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / Irrigation systems Record No:H049439
Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Rural areas / Land resources / Agricultural development / Socioeconomic environment / Stakeholders / Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Planning / Infrastructure / Water use / Indicators / Water quality / Groundwater / Water supply / Drinking water / Strategies / Development policies / Water governance / River basin development / Legal frameworks / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / Irrigation systems Record No:H049438
Biodiversity / Ecosystems / Land resources / Risk analysis / Natural disasters / Irrigation systems / Agricultural development / Strategies / Stakeholders / Socioeconomic environment / Rural areas / Water quality / Water use / Water supply / Drinking water / Groundwater / Planning / Development policies / Water governance / Legal frameworks / Sustainability / Integrated management / Water management / Water resources / River basin development Record No:H049427
Underground taming of floods for irrigation (UTFI) is a new approach for mitigating flood impacts through targeted floodwater storage in depleted aquifers for irrigating crops in the dry season. UTFI not only fosters the much desired conjunctive use and management of water resources but also provides the environmental services that are of high socioeconomic value. UTFI interventions are individually established at the local scale (e.g. village pond, check dam) but to achieve more substantial positive benefits at the scale of meso watersheds (10 s of km2) or sub-basins (1001,000 s of km2) in the flood-prone river basins requires area-based implementation. Given the nature and scale required, UTFI needs to be managed at the community level with the help of appropriate institutional arrangements taking into account both the upstream and downstream locations. This paper reviews the existing institutional approaches and proposes an institutional framework that can help to mainstream UTFI management in the context of South Asia. The proposed model is centred on the existing formal institutions and also integrates non-market (participatory) and market (payment for ecosystem services) instruments that can provide winwin strategies for water resource management to downstream and upstream communities.
Downstream / Upstream / Watersheds / Aquifers / Living standards / Water management / Sustainability / Corporate culture / River basins / Regulations / Social legislation / Environmental services / Payment for Ecosystem Services / Learning / Participatory communication / Flood irrigation / Drought / Groundwater depletion Record No:H048452
This paper provides an overview of policy responses to arsenic in groundwater in rural Bangladesh to assess their role and potential effectiveness in reducing exposure. With 97% of the country consuming groundwater for drinking, there is a continuing crisis of tens of millions of people exposed to elevated levels of arsenic. An examination of the number of people protected through two major remediation efforts suggests that recent progress may not be sufficient to keep up with the increasing population or to resolve the crisis during this century. Recent developments in remedial options are examined to identify their potential role in an evolving policy and research agenda. There appears to be growing agreement about future research and policy responses that can scale remedial options and make them widely accessible. These include: (1) the need for a reliable and affordable programme of arsenic testing and retesting; (2) attention to risks from other soluble contaminants and pathogens; (3) explicit priority setting across locations, time and to address fairness; and (4) development of value chains to ensure remedial options are supported over time.
Supply chain / Purification / Filtration / Household consumption / Wells / Pathogens / Rural areas / Drinking water / Water supply / Socioeconomic environment / Health hazards / Public health / Research policy / Contamination / Pollutants / Arsenic compounds / Groundwater Record No:H048450
Capturing inundation extent by floods is indispensable for decision making for mitigating hazard. Satellite images have commonly been used for flood mapping, but there are limitations such as unavailability due to satellite’s orbital period or cloud cover. Additionally, it would also be beneficial for policy makers to figure out the impact of water management measures such as water storage options on flood mitigation and irrigation water strengthening. Utilization of flood inundation models would support providing information for these demands. In this study, the rainfallrunoff inundation (RRI) model was applied in a flood-prone basin in eastern Sri Lanka, and its applicability was discussed. The RRI model was capable of simulating discharge and inundation extent during flood events, although it should be noted that the model had been calibrated targeting only the flooding period. Satellite-observed rainfall data corrected with a scale factor were able to be used as the model input to simulate long-term trends in runoff just as well as when gauged rainfall data were applied. The calibrated model was also capable of evaluating flood mitigation effects of existing and proposed water storage options by simulating discharge with and without flood capture operations. By reproducing long-term inflow to the storage facilities using satellite rainfall data, it was possible to determine that water would reach the maximum level of the proposed storage facilities even during low-rainfall years.
Disaster risk reduction / Satellite observation / Hydrography / Estimation / Water storage / Water management / Reservoirs / Discharges / River basins / Performance evaluation / Calibration / Models / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Flood control Record No:H048446
Drechsel, Pay. 2018. Consumption. In Karg, H.; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Atlas of West African urban food systems: examples from Ghana and Burkina Faso. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.60-65. More... | Fulltext (956 KB)
Fruits / Animal products / Cereals / Vegetables / Agroecological zones / Willingness to pay / Health hazards / Food safety / Malnutrition / s participation / Womenapos / Diet / Meal patterns / Household consumption / Food consumption Record No:H049013
The use of wastewater to produce food crops particularly vegetables is very prevalent in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This practice may pose health risks to farm workers and consumers. Hence, the study was designed to evaluate farmers’ perceptions on irrigation water quality, health risks and health risk mitigation measures in four wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming sites in Addis Ababa. Data were collected on farm through 263 individual interviews and 12 focus group discussions. The findings showed that despite differences in levels of knowledge and awareness on health risks, farmers appear informed about the contamination of their irrigation water. The difference in perception to quality consideration of Akaki River/irrigation water is highlighted by the result of KruskalWallis H test analysis which shows significant mean value (1.33) of positive perception toward the water quality by male than female farmers. Interestingly, significant difference (p lt; 0.05) in mean values of awareness toward problems of eating unwashed vegetables is also found between male and female farmers where females seemed to be more aware. Conversely, no significant difference was found in mean value of perception and awareness toward vegetables quality. Among the perceived health risks, skin problems were top-rated health risk while eye burn, sore feet and abdominal pains were rated low across the four farming sites. Although statistically not significant, perception toward consumption-related health risk differed with gender: females assigned relatively high mean score. Irrespective of the farming site and gender differences, the most accepted health risk reduction measures were health promotion programs and cessation of irrigation before harvesting. In view of crop restriction measures, females assigned significantly (p = 0.044) low mean score to planting non-food produce. Akaki-Addis farmers suitability perceptions of planting non-food produce and non-raw eaten crops were significantly (p lt; 0.001) higher than the other farming sites. Therefore, effective site and gender-specific educational programs have the potential for clarifying farmers and consumers’ risks and risk management perceptions and improving practical knowledge, which in turn may help identify adoption barriers, opportunities and incentives.
Educational courses / Capacity building / Vegetable growing / Wastewater irrigation / Risk reduction / Risk management / Health hazards / Contamination / Water pollution / Irrigation water / Farmer participation Record No:H048408
There is a strong link between gender and energy in view of food preparation and the acquisition of fuel, especially in rural areas. This is demonstrated in a range of case studies from East and West Africa, where biochar, human waste and other waste resources have been used to produce briquettes or biogas as additional high-quality fuel sources. The synthesis of the cases concludes that resource recovery and reuse for energy offers an alternative to conventional centralized grid projects which, while attractive to investors and large-scale enterprises, do not necessarily provide job opportunities for marginalized communities. Reusing locally available waste materials for energy production and as soil ameliorant (in the case of biochar) in small enterprises allows women and youth who lack business capital to begin modest, locally viable businesses. The case studies offer concrete examples of small-scale solutions to energy poverty that can make a significant difference to the lives of women and their communities.
Case studies / Research and development / Community involvement / Gasifiers / Biodigesters / Farmers organizations / Living standards / Empowerment / Investment / Biomass / Biochar / Biogas / Economic impact / Health hazards / Production factors / Supply chain / Refugees / Households / Urban areas / Sanitation / Marketing / Business enterprises / Briquettes / Fuels / Excreta / Human wastes / Waste management / Heating / Cooking / Renewable energy / Energy resources / Energy demand / Energy generation / Poverty / Equity / Role of women / Gender / Bioenergy / Resource management / Resource recovery Record No:H048999
In the Gash Delta of Eastern Sudan, spate irrigation (flood-recession farming) contributes substantially to rural livelihoods by providing better yields than rainfed dryland farming. However, spate irrigation farmers are challenged by the unpredictability of flooding. In recent decades, the number of farmers practicing spate irrigation has decreased, due to varying rainfall intensity and frequency, insufficient infrastructure and farmers’ limited capacity to manage such variations. One solution that may help farmers face such challenges is for them to access real-time water-related information by using smart Information and Communication a Technology (ICT). This paper shows how integrating remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), flood-forecasting models and communication platforms can, in near real time, alert smallholder farmers and relevant government departments about incoming floods, using the Gash basin of Sudan as an example. The Ministry of Water Resources of Sudan used the findings of this study to transform farmers’ responses to flood arrival from being ‘reactive’, to planning for the flood event. Intensive on-site and institutional efforts to build the capacity of farmers, farmer organizations, development departments and officers of the Ministry helped to develop the initiative from simply sending ‘emergency alerts’ to enabling stakeholders to visually see the flood event unfolding in the region and to plan accordingly for storing water, operating spate-irrigation systems and undertaking cropping activities. The research, initially conducted on a 60 × 60 km site, was later extended to the entire Gash basin. The paper outlines how to develop tools that can monitor plot-specific information from satellite measurements, and supply detailed and specific information on crops, rather than providing very general statements on crop growth. Farmers are able to use such tools to optimize their farm profits by providing water to their crops in the right place, at the right time and in the right quantity. Finally, the work demonstrates the high potential of combining technology, namely remote sensing data and simple a agro-meteorological model with limited parameters, for large-scale monitoring of spate irrigation systems and information sharing to advise farmers as to how to apply this information to their managerial decisions.
Case studies / Rain / Farmers / Biomass / Water use / Monitoring / Crop yield / Crop production / Information and Communication Technologies (icts) / River basins / Smallholders / Weather data / Weather forecasting / Geographical information systems / Remote sensing / Flooded land / Flood irrigation / Irrigation methods Record No:H048976
Water and nutrition are linked in multiple ways, but few of these interlinkages are well understood. What is, for example, the exact relationship between water pollution and health or between water resource management and nutrition? Even less is known about the interactions across these various linkages. The importance of better understanding these connections has been highlighted as we pursue the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which challenge mankind to meet both water security as well as food and nutrition security goals, while also improving water-based ecosystems. It has become increasingly clear that progress toward these goals can only be achieved if measures in the food and nutrition space (SDG 2) do not constrain progress on water (SDG 6) and if measures undertaken to support targets under one of these SGDs also support the outcomes of the other. This paper provides an overview of waternutrition linkages as reflected in the SDGs, and it identifies key gaps in these linkages and suggests a way forward to support the achievement of both water and nutrition goals and targets.
Irrigation water / Risk management / Communities / Ecosystem services / Wastewater treatment / Public health / Landscape / Equity / Economic aspects / Policy making / Climate change / Drinking water / Agricultural systems / Sustainable agriculture / Diet / Food production / Food security / Sanitation / Waterborne diseases / Water availability / Water use / Water pollution / Water security / Water quality / Water supply / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Nutrition / Sustainable Development Goals / Learning / Research and development Record No:H048974
The Ganges basin faces considerable spatial and temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Lack of water storage infrastructure has led to this mismatch, wherein there are limited options to store flood water during the wet season and limited groundwater and surface water resources during the dry season. In this current study, a semi-coupled hydrological modeling framework is used to test scenarios that can help bridge this imbalance. A hydrological model (SWAT), groundwater model (MODFLOW) and flood inundation model (HEC-RAS) were applied to the Ramganga basin in India (*19,000 km2) to understand the baseline hydrologic regime and to test scenarios with distributed managed aquifer recharge (MAR) interventions, which when applied to at the basin scale to co-address flooding and groundwater depletion has come to be known as Underground Taming of Floods for Irrigation. The scenarios with MAR, which used available basin runoff to recharge groundwater, yielded favorable results in flood reduction and groundwater level improvement throughout the sub-basin. Groundwater levels improved within 5 years of introducing MAR, resulting in a groundwater elevation increase of up to 7 mwhen compared to baseline conditions. The HEC-RAS model indicated that a 20% reduction in basin outflow converted a 15-year flood peak to an 8-year flood peak, a 5-year peak to 3 years and a 2-year peak to 1 year. In addition, this resulted in a 10% reduction in the inundated area in all return periods tested. Therefore, distributed MAR practices can be effective in reducing the negative impacts from larger return period floods and increasing the groundwater levels.
Case studies / Calibration / Soil water / Hydrological factors / Aquifers / Surface water / Dry season / Wet season / River basins / Water levels / Water resources / Water storage / Water availability / Water demand / Groundwater depletion / Models / Flood irrigation / Flooding Record No:H048331
Agricultural planning / Women / Gender / Farmers / Rain / Flooding / Private sector / Water institutions / Water policy / Water pricing / Groundwater / Water use / Water management / Virtual water / Resilience / Climate change / Water security Record No:H049506
The performance of Satellite Rainfall Estimate (SRE) products applied to flood inundation modelling was tested for the Mundeni Aru River Basin in eastern Sri Lanka. Three SREs (PERSIANN, TRMM, and GSMaP) were tested, with the Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation (RRI) model used as the flood inundation model. All the SREs were found to be suitable for applying to the RRI model. The simulations created by applying the SREs were generally accurate, although there were some discrepancies in discharge due to differing precipitation volumes. The volumes of precipitation of the SREs tended to be smaller than those of the gauged data, but using a scale factor to correct this improved the simulations. In particular, the SRE, i.e., the GSMaP yielding the best simulation that correlated most closely with the flood inundation extent from the satellite data, was considered the most appropriate to apply to the model calculation. The application procedures and suggestions shown in this study could help authorities to make better-informed decisions when giving early flood warnings and making rapid flood forecasts, especially in areas where in-situ observations are limited.
Case studies / Forecasting / Precipitation / River basins / Models / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Monitoring / Flooding / Rainfall patterns / Satellite observation Record No:H048310
The Kalu Ganga Basin in Sri Lanka is generally flooded once a year. A network of low-lying lands acts as natural retention and storage that captures floodwater, minimizing damage. An increase in the flood frequency has been observed in recent years. It is commonly perceived that this increase is caused by a rise in the frequency and severity of ‘very wet’ precipitation events. We conclude that land-use changes may have played a larger role in generating floods.
Paddy fields / Satellite imagery / Households / Precipitation / Urbanization / Land use / Environmental impact / Anthropogenic factors / Flooding / Catchment areas / Climate change Record No:H048297
Gender / Energy generation / Food production / Wetlands / Fisheries / Mining / Industrial development / Irrigation systems / Irrigated farming / Urbanization / Agriculture / Ecosystem services / Sustainable agriculture / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Evapotranspiration / Temperature / Drought / Flooding / Climate change / Economic aspects / Groundwater management / Wastewater treatment / International waters / Surface water / Water requirements / Water demand / Water security / Water reuse / Water quality / Water power / Water availability / Water use / Water resources / River basin management Record No:H048269
Zadeh, S. M.; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Antoniou, A.; Qadir, M.; Chilton, J.; Carrion-Crespo, C.; de Souza, M.; Zandaryaa, S.; Medlicot, K. 2017. Agriculture. In United Nations World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nations world water development report. Wastewater: the untapped resource. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. pp.69-77. More... | Fulltext (18.9 MB)
This chapter reviews the main pollutants from agriculture, its associated impacts, and offers some key pollution mitigation options. The chapter also discusses how agriculture can be a beneficial user of wastewater, and how the practice can become safe.
Food chains / Water quality / Groundwater / Environmental impact assessment / Health hazards / Livestock / Aquaculture / On-farm training / Pathogens / Soil organic matter / Sediment / Pesticides / Nutrients / Wastewater treatment / Wastewater irrigation / Pollution prevention / Pollution control / Pollutants / Water pollution / Pollution by agriculture / Agricultural production Record No:H048258
limatic and hydrological changes will likely be intensified in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin by the effects of global warming. The extent of such effects for representative concentration pathways (RCP) climate scenarios is unknown. We evaluated projected changes in rainfall and evapotranspiration and related impacts on water availability in the UBN under the RCP4.5 scenario. We used dynamically downscaled outputs from six global circulation models (GCMs) with unprecedented spatial resolution for the UBN. Systematic errors of these outputs were corrected and followed by runoff modelling by the HBV (Hydrologiska ByrnsVattenbalansavdelning) model, which was successfully validated for 17 catchments. Results show that the UBN annual rainfall amount will change by -2.8 to 2.7% with a likely increase in annual potential evapotranspiration (in 20412070) for the RCP4.5 scenario. These changes are season dependent and will result in a likely decline in streamflow and an increase in soil moisture deficit in the basin.
Land cover / Calibration / Meteorological stations / Soil moisture / Stream flow / Catchment areas / Evapotranspiration / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Intensification / Hydrogeology / Drought / Temperature / Climate change / Water resources / Water availability Record No:H048259
The Bhungroo Irrigation Technology (BIT) is a system designed to infiltrate excess ‘standing’ floodwater to be stored underground and abstracted for irrigation during the dry season. The system was developed in India and piloted in three sites in northern Ghana. This paper documents the implementation of BIT, the operating principles and criteria for selecting appropriate sites for the installation of such systems, as well as the potential benefits complementing existing irrigation systems in Ghana. Essential requirements for the installation of BIT include biophysical features such as land-use type, soil type, surface hydrology and slope of the terrain. The hydrogeological characteristics of the subsoil are also vital, and must exhibit high storage capacity and potential for groundwater accessibility. To be profitable and generate benefits for farmers, the technology needs to be situated in close proximity to markets and must have public acceptance.
Costs / Local communities / Crop production / Seasonal cropping / Farmland / Farmers / Food security / Hydraulic conductivity / Hydrological factors / Geology / Soil types / Soil properties / Sloping land / Land use / Socioeconomic environment / Environmental impact / Filtration / Irrigation methods / Irrigation systems / Artificial recharge / Dry season / Floodplains / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater extraction / Water quality / Water drilling / Waterlogging / Water use / Water acquisitions / Water storage / Aquifers Record No:H048222
Food wastes / Pathogens / Organic matter / Sediment / Salts / Pollutants / Nutrients / Aquaculture / Pesticides / Inorganic fertilizers / Crop production / Cropping systems / Farming systems / Intensification / Food consumption / Food production / Livestock production / Environmental health / Agriculture / Water quality / Water pollution Record No:H048244
Hirji, R.; Nicol, Alan; Davis, R. 2017. South Asia climate change risks in water management. : Washington, DC, USA: World Bank; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 96p. (Climate Risks and Solutions: Adaptation Frameworks for Water Resources Planning, Development and Management in South Asia) More... | Fulltext (923 KB)
Mapping / Domestic water / Irrigation water / Financing / Participation / Education / Communication / Infrastructure / Integrated management / Planning / Sedimentation / Erosion / Landslides / Flooding / Drought / Socioeconomic environment / Monsoon climate / Hydrology / Uncertainty / Risk management / Water institutions / Water power / Water quality / Water policy / Water supply / Water demand / Water use / Water management / Water resources / Climate change adaptation Record No:H048847
Groundwater from the shallow aquifers of the Vientiane Plain, Laos is used for domestic needs including to some extent for drinking and for household gardening. The objective of this study is to assess the groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation activities and to determine the processes that lead to the presence of major ions in groundwater. Twenty groundwater samples were collected from a village on the Plain in December 2014, January 2015, and May 2015, and analysed for major ions and selected suite of minor ions and heavy metals. Groundwater is largely acidic, fresh and soft in nature. Geochemistry showed dominant CaMgHCO3 and mixed CaNaHCO3 groundwater. Sodium impacts the suitability of water for irrigation to some extent. Hydrogeochemical processes identified and verified through factor analysis indicate weathering, carbonate dissolution, ion exchange, and anthropogenic sources including salinisation, due to irrigation and use of fertilizers as sources for the occurrence of major ions at such concentrations in this area. Only concentrations of lead and iron were above the permissible limits with arsenic, copper, zinc, mercury, and uranium found to be within safe limits. Background sample (groundwater) collected 5 km from the study area and the bottled water sample were all within suitable limits for drinking. This study is the first to provide a local-level assessment of geochemical processes in groundwater of this area indicating that the groundwater does not pose any threat to human health if used for drinking based on major ions, minor ions and a suite heavy metals except for iron and lead.
Health hazards / Mercury / Zinc / Copper / Arsenic / Iron / Pollutants / Heavy metals / Plains / Aquifers / Irrigation water / Domestic water / Drinking water / Water level / Water quality / Groundwater / Toxicity / Chemical composition / Geology Record No:H047651
Co-composted dewatered faecal sludge (FS) with organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a high potential to be used as an agricultural resource in Sri Lanka. In addition to options for cost recovery in waste management, closing the nutrient and carbon cycles between urban and rural areas, substitution of mineral fertilizers, reduced pollution. and the restoration of degraded arable land are possible with important benefits. Up to now little is known about the usage of FS-MSW as fertilizer and it needs to be studied in order to achieve a better understanding and generate application recommendations. The aim of these experiments has been to evaluate the possibility of substituting mineral fertilization. Two field experiments were conducted on sandy loam to assess the effects of MSW compost and FS-MSW co-compost, its pelletized forms, and mineral-enriched FS-MSW on crop growth. As a short-term crop Raphanus sativus “Beeralu rabu” (radish) was studied for 50 days in a randomized complete block design (RCDB). Results show that, under drought conditions, FS-MSW co-compost increased the yield significantly, while MSW and FS-MSW compost enabled the highest survival rate of the plants. Similarly, the second field trial with a long-term crop, Capsicum anuum “CA-8” (capsicum), was planted as RCBD, using the same treatments, for a cultivation period of 120 days. Results display that during a drought followed by water saturated soil conditions co-compost treatments achieved comparable yields and increased the survival rate significantly compared to the control, fertilized with urea, triple super phosphate, and muriate of potash. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) revealed that pelletizing decreased the monetary benefits if only fertilizer value is considered. It can be concluded that, under drought and water stress, co-compost ensures comparable yields and enables more resistance, but might not be economical viable as a one-crop fertilizer. These findings need to be validated with further trials under different climate regimes and soils.
This Research Report presents the first comprehensive overview of the multiple climate hazard risks, and the proposed key issues and challenges facing the South Asian region. This report suggests methods for mapping such risks and estimating their impacts on people and agriculture in South Asia. Regional, country-wise and sub-national assessment of five climate-related risks floods, droughts, extreme rainfall, extreme temperature and sea-level rise is carried out. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard, sensitivity and adaptive capacity maps, and follows the vulnerability assessment framework of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas susceptible to extreme risk. There is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive risk assessment capturing multiple climate hazards for the entire South Asian region and the need for a common framework for risk assessment. While this approach is well grounded in theories and integration of various spatial data including remote sensing data to derive hazard information, there is a clear need for linking additional elements from the ground at a finer scale among various sectors in developing comprehensive risk assessment information for a disaster risk management plan and promoting risk financing strategies.
Land cover / Socioeconomic environment / Risk management / Population / Impact assessment / Agriculture / Tsunamis / Sloping land / Coastal area / Water levels / Sea level / Temperature / Erosion / Rain / Drought / Flooding / Mapping / Weather hazards / Natural disasters / Climate change adaptation Record No:H048140
Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the foodenergywaterhealth (FEWhealth) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only lt;1% of the nutrients are able to be captured in urban agriculture, limited by the small proportion of effluent divertible to urban agriculture due to land constraints. Thus, water treatment plus reuse in urban farms can enhance GHG mitigation and also directly save groundwater; however, very large amounts of land are needed to extract nutrients from dilute effluents. Third, although energy use for wastewater treatment results in pathogen indicator organism concentrations in irrigation water to be reduced by 99.9% (three orders of magnitude) compared to the untreated case, crop pathogen content was reduced by much less, largely due to environmental contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.
Models / Case studies / Infrastructure / Nutrients / Escherichia coli / Irrigation water / Groundwater / Greenhouse gas emissions / Effluents / Life cycle assessment / Nexus / Health hazards / Water quality / Energy consumption / Food production / Urban agriculture / Water reuse / Wastewater treatment plants Record No:H049799
Storing excess rainwater underground can become key in mitigating the frequency and magnitude of flood events. In this context, assessment of depleted groundwater storage that can be refilled in water surplus periods is imperative. The study uses Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to identify variations in groundwater storage in the monsoonal Ramganga River basin (tributary of the Ganges, with an area of 32,753 km2) in India, over the nine-year period of 20022010. Results indicate that basin groundwater storage is depleting at the rate of 1.6 bill. m3 yr 1 . This depleted aquifer volume can be used to store floodwater effectively up to 76% of the rainfall on average across the Ramganga with a maximum of 94% in parts of the basin. However, the major management challenge is to find and introduce technical and policy interventions to augment recharge rates to capture excess water, at required scales.
Case studies / Discharges / Runoff / Soil moisture / Aquifers / Monsoon climate / Rain / River basins / Flooding / Water levels / Water resources / Water storage / Groundwater depletion / Groundwater recharge Record No:H047532
Achieving water security has emerged as a major objective in Africa, yet an analytical or diagnostic framework for assessing water security in African countries is not known to exist. This paper applies one key dimension of the 2016 Asian Development Bankapos;s (ADB) Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) to assess levels of water security for productive economies in countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Economic aspects of water security cover four areas: economic activities in the broad sense, agriculture, electricity, and industry. Water security in each area is measured through application of a set of indicators; results of indicator application are then aggregated to determine economic water security at a country-level. Results show that economic water security in SADC is greatest in the Seychelles and South Africa, and lowest in Madagascar and Malawi. Opportunities for strengthening economic water security in the majority of SADC countries exist through improving agricultural water productivity, strengthening resilience, and expanding sustainable electricity generation. More profoundly, this paper suggests that there is clear potential and utility in applying approaches used elsewhere to assess economic water security in southern Africa.
SADC countries / Indicators / Gross national product / Resilience / Drought / Water stress / Water supply / Water resources / Industrial uses / Electricity generation / Agricultural production / Economic aspects / Water productivity / Water security Record No:H048773
Runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River basin (GRB) contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the potential for subsurface storage (SSS) in the Ganges basin to mitigate floods in the downstream areas and increase the availability of water during drier months. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate “sub-basin” water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basinwise unmet water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analysis reveals that some of the unmet water demand in the subbasin can be met provided it is possible to capture the runoff in sub-surface storage during the monsoon season (June to September). Some of the groundwater recharge is returned to the stream as baseflow and has the potential to increase dry season river flows. To examine the impacts of groundwater recharge on flood inundation and flows in the dry season (October to May), two groundwater recharge scenarios are tested in the Ramganga sub-basin. Increasing groundwater recharge by 35 and 65 % of the current level would increase the baseflow during the dry season by 1.46 billion m3 (34.5 % of the baseline) and 3.01 billion m3 (71.3 % of the baseline), respectively. Analysis of pumping scenarios indicates that 80 000 to 112 000 ha of additional wheat area can be irrigated in the Ramganga sub-basin by additional SSS without reducing the current baseflow volumes. Augmenting SSS reduces the peak flow and flood inundated areas in Ramganga (by up to 13.0 % for the 65 % scenario compared to the baseline), indicating the effectiveness of SSS in reducing areas inundated under floods in the sub-basin. However, this may not be sufficient to effectively control the flood in the downstream areas of the GRB, such as in the state of Bihar (prone to floods), which receives a total flow of 277 billion m3 from upstream sub-basins.
Flood control / Soil water / Soil management / Agriculture / Water demand / Water availability / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / River basin management / Flooding / Upstream / Monsoon climate / Runoff water / Surface water Record No:H048136
Background: Between 1955 and 2011 there were marked fluctuations in suicide rates in Sri Lanka; incidence increased six-fold between 1955 and the 1980s, and halved in the early 21st century. Changes in access to highly toxic pesticides are thought to have influenced this pattern. This study investigates variation in suicide rates across Sri Lanka’s 25 districts between 1955 and 2011. We hypothesised that changes in the incidence of suicide would be most marked in rural areas due to the variation in availability of highly toxic pesticides in these locations during this time period.; Methods: We mapped district-level suicide rates in 1955, 1972, 1980 and 2011. These periods preceded, included and postdated the rapid rise in Sri Lanka’s suicide rates. We investigated the associations between district-level variations in suicide rates and census-derived measures of rurality (population density), unemployment, migration and ethnicity using Spearman’s rank correlation and negative binomial models.; Results: The rise and fall in suicide rates was concentrated in more rural areas. In 1980, when suicide rates were at their highest, population density was inversely associated with area variation in suicide rates (r = -0.65; p lt; 0.001), i.e. incidence was highest in rural areas. In contrast the association was weakest in 1950, prior to the rise in pesticide suicides (r = -0.10; p = 0.697). There was no strong evidence that levels of migration or ethnicity were associated with area variations in suicide rates. The relative rates of suicide in the most rural compared to the most urban districts before (1955), during (1980) and after (2011) the rise in highly toxic pesticide availability were 1.1 (95% CI 0.5 to 2.4), 3.7 (2.0 to 6.9) and 2.1 (1.6 to 2.7) respectively.; Conclusions: The findings provide some support for the hypothesis that changes in access to pesticides contributed to the marked fluctuations in Sri Lanka’s suicide rate, but the impact of other factors cannot be ruled out.
Epidemiology / Temporal variation / Poisoning / Pesticides / Suicide / Social phenomena / Social change / Social behaviour / Socioeconomic environment Record No:H048135
Background: Wastewater irrigation for vegetable production is a highly prevalent practice in Addis Ababa and a number of articles have been published on wastewater-irrigated soils and vegetables contaminated with heavy metals. However, to the best of our knowledge, an insight into assessment of human health risks associated with the consumption of vegetable crops grown on wastewater-irrigated soils is non-existent in the city. Long-term effect of wastewater irrigation on the build-up of heavy metals in soils and selected vegetable crops in Addis Ababa urban vegetable farming sites (10) was evaluated. By calculating estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and target hazard quotients (THQs) of metals, health risk associated with the consumption of the analyzed vegetables was also evaluated.; Results: The heavy metal concentrations in irrigation water and soils did not exceed the recommended maximum limits (RMLs). Moreover, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in all analyzed vegetables were lower than the RML standards. In contrast, Pb concentrations were 1.43.9 times higher. Results of two way ANOVA test showed that variation in metals concentrations were significant (p lt; 0.001) across farming site, vegetable type and site x vegetable interaction. The EDI and THQ values showed that there would be no potential health risk to local inhabitants due to intake of individual metal if one or more of the analyzed vegetables are consumed. Furthermore, total target hazard quotients (TTHQs) for the combined metals due to all analyzed vegetables were lower than 1, suggesting no potential health risk even to highly exposed local inhabitants.; Conclusions: There is a great respite that toxic metals like Pb and Cd have not posed potential health risk even after long term (more than 50 years) use of this water for irrigation. However, intermittent monitoring of the metals from irrigation water, in soil and crops may be required to follow/prevent their build-up in the food chain.
Farming systems / Elements / Crops / pH / Soil organic matter / Soils / Irrigation water / Vegetable growing / Urban areas / Wastewater irrigation / Health hazards / Public health / Heavy metals Record No:H048133
The study was to assess the: (i) effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii) economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of fertiliser for cabbage production. To meet these objectives, participatory field trials were conducted at Dzorwulu, Accra. Four different treatments (Urine alone, Urine + dewatered faecal sludge (DFS), Urine + poultry droppings (PD), NPK (15-15-15) + PD) were applied in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with soil alone as control. Each treatment was applied at a rate of 121 kgNha-1 corresponding to the Nitrogen requirement of cabbage in Ghana. Growth and yield parameters, plant nutrient uptake, and soil chemical characteristics were determined using standard protocols. There were no significant differences between treatments for cabbage head weight, or total and marketable yields. However, unmarketable yield from NPK + PD was 1 to 2 times higher (p lt; 0.05) than those from Urine + PD, Urine + DFS, and Urine alone. Seasonal effect on yields was also pronounced with higher (p lt; 0.001) cabbage head weight (0.95 kg) and marketable yields (12.7 kgha-1) in the dry season than the rainy season (0.42 kg and 6.27 kgha-1). There was higher (p lt; 0.005) phosphorous uptake in cabbage from Urine + PD treated soil than those from other treatments. Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) uptake in the dry season was significantly higher than the rainy season. Soils treated with Urine + DFS and Urine + PD were high in total N content. Urine + PD and Urine + DFS treated soils gave fairly high yield than PD + NPK with a net gain of US$1452.0 and US$1663.5, respectively. The application of urine in combination with poultry droppings has the potential to improve cabbage yields, nutrient uptake, and soil nitrogen and phosphorous content.
The chapter discusses how adopting a holistic methodology that acknowledges socio-logical factors, including community participation, public involvement, social perception, attitudes, gender roles and public acceptance, would lead to improvements in wastewater management practice. It highlights the social dimension as a tool, a lens through which wastewater management and reuse can take on new dimensions. In this way, this chapter aims to shift the focus from perceiving wastewater as a nuisance that needs disposal, toward a resource not to be wasted, which can contribute to food security, human and environmental health, access to energy as well as water security.
Health hazards / Environmental health / Public health / Water demand / Water security / Food security / Waste disposal / Gender / Water reuse / Wastewater treatment / Community involvement / Public participation / Social participation / Sociology Record No:H048125
Using biophysical and social analysis methods, this paper evaluated agricultural practices under changing climate in the Koshi Basin and assessed adaptation options. Agricultural trend analysis showed that in the recent three to four decades, the total cultivated area had declined in all parts of the basin except in the Nepal Mountain Region. Household survey results also confirmed such decline and further revealed shifts towards non-agricultural activities. Climate trend analysis showed changes in the frequency of wet and dry days in study districts, implying an increasing chance of flood and drought events. Household surveys further revealed that, in general, people perceived a decline in agricultural water availability and an increase in drought and flood events. The direct impacts of these changes were reduced crop yield, increased fallow lands, displacement of people from settlement areas, sedimentation of cultivable land and damage to properties. Household surveys showed that despite the perceived impacts on agriculture and livelihoods, only limited adaptation options are currently practised. Adaptation efforts are constrained by several factors, including: finance; technical knowledge; lack of awareness about adaptation options; lack of collective action; unclear property rights; and ineffective role of state agencies.
Temperature / River basins / Downstream / Upstream / Communities / Diversification / Risk management / Living standards / Land use / Crop yield / Drought / Floodplains / Households / Highlands / Cultivated land / Agricultural production / Agricultural practices / Water scarcity / Water availability / Climate change adaptation Record No:H048038
Public sector / Private sector / Risk reduction / Sustainability / Management techniques / Watershed management / Water conservation / Soil conservation / Fodder plants / Income / Living standards / Land degradation / Land management / Land use / Community involvement / Local communities / State intervention / Governance / Guidelines / Youth / Women / Gender / Natural resources management / Energy sources / Renewable energy / Habitats / Woodlands / Milk production / Livestock production / Smallholders / Stakeholders / Economic situation / Ecosystems / Capacity building / Learning / Research and development Record No:H048081
The government of Bangladesh is increasingly paying attention to the safe collection and disposal of fecal sludge from pit latrines in rural areas. In this paper, we report on current sludge disposal practices from single-pit latrines, by conducting a survey of 1,091 households with pit latrines in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh. Almost all households were using their pits, and 90% reported that hiring pit emptiers to empty the pit for reuse was the dominant pit management practice. However, 90% of households also reported that the sludge from these pits would be disposed of in the vicinity of their homes, by digging wide and shallow troughs in the soil to absorb the sludge. These results indicate an urgent need to design an organized service that safely transports fecal sludge away for treatment. The National Committee for Fecal Sludge Management, constituted by the government of Bangladesh, is using these results to design policy for sludge management.
Environmental health / Health hazards / Public health / Transport infrastructure / Household wastes / Rural areas / Sanitation / Pit latrines / Waste management / Waste disposal / Faecal sludge Record No:H048079
Motivation: Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood.; Methods: In this paper we calculate the actual cost of sludge management from onsite latrines, and identify the contributions that latrine owners are willing to make to finance the costs. A spreadsheet-based model is used to identify a cost-effective transport option, and to calculate the cost per household. Then a double-bound contingent valuation method is used to elicit from pit-latrine owners their willingness-to-pay to have sludge transported away. This methodology is employed for the case of a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh called Bhaluka, a unit of administration at which sludge management services are being piloted by the Government of Bangladesh.; Results: The typical sludge accumulation rate in Bhaluka is calculated at 0.11 liters/person/day and a typical latrine will need to be emptied approximately once every 3 to 4 years. The costs of emptying and transport are high; approximately USD 13 per emptying event (circa 14% of average monthly income); household contributions could cover around 47% of this cost. However, if costs were spread over time, the service would cost USD 4 per year per household, or USD 0.31 per month per householdcomparable to current expenditures of rural households on telecommunications.; Conclusion: This is one of few research papers that brings the costs of waste management together with financing of that cost, to provide evidence for an implementable solution. This framework can be used to identify cost effective sludge management options and private contributions towards that cost in other (context-specific) administrative areas where onsite sanitation is widespread.
Maintenance costs / Households / State intervention / Financing / Health hazards / Environmental impact assessment / Pit latrines / Latrines / Rural areas / Transport infrastructure / Sanitation / Waste treatment / Waste management / Faecal sludge Record No:H048078
Development partners and public investors assume that spate irrigation reduces household poverty and malnutrition. This article examines whether the poverty profiles of smallholder farmers and the nutritional outcomes of their children have improved as a result of using spate irrigation. The study areas were in two regional states in Ethiopia. Twenty-five users each, both from traditional and modern spate irrigation schemes, and an equal number of non-users responded to a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measures of 122 children under five were measured using a hanging scale and stadiometer. The results indicated that all poverty indices were significantly lower for the spate irrigation users compared to non-users, and were even lower for modern spate compared to traditional spate systems. Our results did not show gender differences, using sex of the household head as a crude measure of gender, in poverty profiles. Stochastic dominance tests showed that the poverty comparisons between users, traditional and modern, and non-users are statistically robust. It can be concluded that the use of spate irrigation can significantly reduce poverty, and modernizing spate systems further increases its poverty-reduction impact. However, anthropometric measures indicated that use of spate irrigation did not have significant nutritional effects, suggesting the need for nutrition-sensitive interventions, such as nutrition education and awareness and multisectoral collaboration.
Water management / Food consumption / Food security / Smallholders / Public investment / Households / Flood irrigation / Supplemental irrigation / Irrigation systems / Malnutrition / Nutrition / Indicators / Poverty Record No:H048061
Building climate resilience, defined as the ability to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover from climate change in a timely and efficient manner, is becoming a major priority of development across multiple sectors. However, there is still no consensus on how resilience should be assessed despite the release of numerous theoretical papers on the topic. Various measurement frameworks and recommendations have emerged, but their applicability is yet to be critically assessed. Using a comprehensive review and a systematic selection approach, we review resilience assessment tools developed for the context of climate change and agricultural development, and their linkages to theoretical frameworks, with a particular focus on the choice of indicators and the scale and methods of measurement. Fifteen tools originating from diverse organizations were selected and evaluated according to a measurement framework. Our study finds that, while some of the tools remain embedded in classical approaches, by simply adding a resilience lens to previous tools and by recycling indicators, others demonstrate a true attempt to re-think in order to account for resilience dimensions. We conclude that for the use of resilience assessment tools, a major challenge is to ensure that simple and operational tools can address complexity. Full baseline should comprise both quantitative and qualitative data collection, and include more systemic indicators as well as indicators of stability and shocks. Changes should be tracked with regular monitoring and evaluation using simple tools based on key variables that capture short-term adaptive processes and changes in states, at the appropriate system level. Clear pathways to human well-being, including transformation, should be discussed through system-oriented approaches, to discard potential undesired resilient states. Finally, robust outcome and impact records from the use of these tools are needed to demonstrate whether the resilience concept is useful over time in driving development into more desirable paths.
Assessment / Research organizations / Nongovernmental organizations / Development organizations / International organizations / Disaster risk management / Food security / Economic evaluation / Indicators / Transformation / Climate change / Monitoring / Adaptation / Agricultural development Record No:H048037
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) time-series Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) products are regularly used for vegetation monitoring missions and climate change analysis. However, satellite observation is affected by the atmospheric condition, cloud state and shadows introducing noise in the data. MODIS state flag helps in understanding pixel quality but overestimates the noise and hence its usability requires further scrutiny. This study has analyzed MODIS MOD09A1 annual data set over Sri Lanka. The study presents a simple and effective noise mapping method which integrates four state flag parameters (i.e. cloud state, cloud shadow, cirrus detected, and internal cloud algorithm flag) to estimate Cloud Possibility Index (CPI). Usability of CPI is analyzed along with NDVI for noise elimination. Then the gaps generated due to noise elimination are reconstructed and performance of the reconstruction model is assessed over simulated data with five different levels of random gaps (1050%) and four different statistical measures (i.e. Root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and mean absolute percentage error). The sample-based analysis over homogeneous and heterogeneous pixels have revealed that CPI-based noise elimination has increased the detection accuracy of number of growing cycle from 4560% to 8595% in vegetated regions. The study cautions that usage of time-series NDVI data without proper cloud correction mechanism would result in wrong estimation about spatial distribution and intensity of drought, and in our study 50% of area is wrongly reported to be under drought though there was no major drought in 2014.
At IWMI, researching underlying economic and social trends helps us understand why people migrate. They also explain the impact of remittances and loss of agricultural labor, as well as consequences of migration on gender roles and food and water security. For instance, communities with higher levels of income inequality, or relative deprivation, may experience greater levels of out-migration compared to consistently low-income communities. In addition, migration changes intra-household gender-labor composition, which can change the access of smallholders to water resources, affecting the functioning of community-based institutions and consequently household and local food security. IWMI also focuses on circular economy, a strategy to recover and reuse waste, to boost food security and understand how interventions can encourage refugee and host communities to retain scarce resources.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Urban & rural transformation
As agricultural opportunities fluctuate in rural areas, migration, particularly to urban areas, is an adaptation technique to secure incomes and alternative livelihoods. Income generated by migrants is often sent back to family as remittances to support communities at home. At IWMI, we assess linkages between rural and urban areas, as well as the role of agricultural knowledge systems and food and water security. We recognize there are complex push and pull factors such as individual aspirations, economic opportunity, social norms, climate variability and government policies which drive migration and affect rural communities, particularly youth. Our work follows a ‘positive migration’ philosophy, framing migration as an adaptation technique and socio-economic choice (in many cases) rather than a problem to be solved, and focuses on establishing safer, more regular migration by supporting changes to migration governance in sending regions.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Covid-19 disruption & adaptation
Covid-19 has caused a rupture in migration logistics and exposed inequities in the migration system, yet drivers of movement remain. Government lockdowns and closed borders due to the pandemic curtailed movement for migrants, posing complex problems for migrant hosting and origin countries. There have been significant economic shocks, with a sharp decline in unemployment for migrants and an inability to send money home through remittances to support family. Some migrants face social stigma for returning home without an income, particularly if families relied on loans to support their journeys. Consequences have been severe for informal migrants who lack government protection in their host countries. Migrants, particularly those living in crowded, lower-income neighborhoods, have been experiencing stigmatization related to the spread of Covid-19. We look at the impacts of Covid-19 on migration governance and rural areas across seven countries,development planning in Ghana, migration challenges in Southeast Asia, and community-based disaster management and resilience building in South Africa.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Water, climate change and agrarian stress
Migration, water and climate stress are inextricably linked to rural development. Water stress and climate variability can act as a driver of fragility, intensifying pre-existing political, social, economic and environmental challenges. Initiatives designed to address migration-related challenges must tackle inequalities and the exclusion of women, youth and marginalized groups; governance opportunities to better manage water and natural resources and technology and innovations to help communities escape socio-ecological precarity and thrive despite climate challenges. IWMI intends to build climate resilience by implementing projects which tackle gender-power inequalities in the face of dynamic, economic-social-ecological challenges. Our work brings together affected communities, institutional stakeholders and social actors to manage water in response to climate variability and agrarian stress, striving to address complex physical and social variables.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender, intersectionality and social inclusion
It is critical to center gender and intersectional identities when unpacking migration phenomena. Gender as a social construct guides social norms and relations, including the decision-making processes and mechanisms leading to migration. We recognize that the intersections between race, age, class, sex, caste and region shape the migrant experience.
IWMI strives to offer transformative approaches and solutions for women, youth and marginalized groups, regarding them as equal partners in our work rather than passive end-users. For example, within communities that experience male out migration, socio-political systems are restructured to make women, youth and other groups active agents in their own agri-food transformation. Migration patterns contribute to the feminization of agriculture, and women may experience a greater burden of responsibility coupled with an increased ability to access and control resources and policies to build sustainable livelihoods. Acknowledging social complexities helps researchers and communities understand migration trends and address structural power imbalances to build a more equitable world.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Farmer-led irrigation development is about much more than installing a pump in a field. It requires access to financing, labor, energy, and input and output markets, so that investments in irrigation translate into sustainable returns. IWMI uses a systemic approach to understand the farming system as well as the factors in the enabling environment that prevent women, men and youth from engaging in and benefitting equitably from farmer-led irrigation. We partner with farmers and the public and private sectors to test contextually relevant innovation bundles that combine irrigation technology such as solar pumps with financing mechanisms like pay-as-you-own or pay-as-you-go, agricultural inputs and agronomic techniques. We also look at ways to improve on-farm water management and nutrient use efficiency and reduce evapotranspiration through digital advances and agricultural extension. We integrate the scaling of innovation bundles into agricultural value chains to enhance the impacts on farmers’ irrigation investments, incomes and livelihoods.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender and social inclusion
The barriers facing women and men in accessing irrigation technologies are not the same. Neither are the benefits. Social, cultural and religious norms influence inter- and intra-household power relations. These, in turn, affect access to resources such as land, credit, information and training. IWMI carries out cross-dimensional analysis of gender and social inclusion in policy, financing, livelihood assets and access, institutional approaches and interventions as well as gender-based technology preferences. For example, we work with farmers, financial institutions and the private sector to address gender-based constraints in credit scoring and enhance women’s purchasing power. But benefitting from farmer-led irrigation does not stop at accessing and adopting technologies; enabling women and resource-poor farmers to participate in input and output markets is equally important to ensure that investments in irrigation result in improved nutrition and economic empowerment. Other ways we enhance gender and social inclusion include tackling agency issues around financial management and literacy, livelihood diversity and social capital as well as access to infrastructure, extension services and market linkages.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Population pressure and increasing water competition in a changing climate require us to take stock of the availability and use of water across scales. Water availability not only influences farmers’ commercial prospects but also irrigation-related enterprises and agri-businesses. Greater water scarcity could jeopardize irrigation and agricultural markets while excessive water use can lead to declining ecosystems, water quality and soil health. IWMI advises development partners and the public and private sectors on all aspects of water resource availability and use through a variety of advanced modeling and remote-sensing products and tools, including Water Accounting+, solar irrigation mapping and internet of things. These are complemented by multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the potential of irrigation expansion, taking into consideration environmental flows. With our private sector partners, we are leveraging converging technologies, such as sensors on solar pumps that capture usage data, to encourage better resource management and governance.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Adaptive scaling and partnerships
The ability of farmers to engage in or expand irrigation depends on the prevailing socioeconomic, ecological and political contexts, which are often complex, non-linear and changeable. Overcoming systemic barriers to farmer-led irrigation development while taking advantage of existing opportunities requires scaling processes to be adaptive. This means diverse actors feed off, adapt to, support, cooperate, compete and interact with each other, forming different multi-actor networks and engaging in collective action to undertake various functions in the scaling ecosystem. IWMI works with farmers and public and private sector partners to co-design and pilot contextually relevant innovation bundles and their scaling pathways or strategies, influence policies and accelerate the transition to scale of innovations with demonstrated early impact.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
A lack of affordable credit, particularly for women and resource-poor farmers, is one of the main barriers to expanding farmer-led irrigation in low- and middle-income countries. But credit alone is not enough. Financing for irrigation equipment must be embedded in a wider financing ecosystem that bundles credit with inputs and services, market information and access, and technology such as digital payment. In several countries, irrigation equipment suppliers are stepping in to provide financing directly to farmers. In doing so, they increase their own risk. To address this issue, IWMI works with farmers, private companies, finance institutions and development partners such as the World Bank Group to analyze whether credit-scoring tools are inclusive. We also help to identify gaps in the financing ecosystem and de-risk the private sector from testing innovative end-user financing mechanisms that take into account farming system typologies, financial and social capital and crop seasonality.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas: