Displaying 863 publications
Akpoti, Komlavi; Obahoundje, S.; Mortey, E. M.; Diawuo, F. A.; Antwi, E. O.; Gyamfi, S.; Domfeh, M. K.; Kabo-bah, A. T. 2023. Technological advances in prospecting sites for pumped hydro energy storage.
In Kabo-Bah, A. T.; Diawuo, F. A.; Antwi, E. O. (Eds.). Pumped hydro energy storage for hybrid systems. London, UK: Academic Press. pp.105-118. [DOI] More...
This chapter provides a survey of pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) in terms of the factors considered in the site selection process: geographic, social, economic, and environmental. Due to the number and complexity of factors considered for this purpose, a multicriteria decision-making model is often used during the selection process. From our study, it is observed that the implementation of a PHES project may come with several environmental concerns, that is land and water requirements, impacts on the fishery industry, aquatic habitat, cultural, historical as well as natural. However, we also observed that many of these concerns are being addressed with improvement in PHES technology.
Models / Water requirements / Aquatic habitats / Environmental impact / Environmental factors / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Pumping / Reservoirs / Technological changes / Storage / Renewable energy / Energy demand / Hydroelectric power
Negash, E. D.; Asfaw, Wegayehu; Walsh, C. L.; Mengistie, G. K.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru. 2023. Effects of land use land cover change on streamflow of Akaki Catchment, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sustainable Water Resources Management,
9(3):78. [DOI] More...
Evaluation of the hydrological impact of urbanization-induced land use land cover (LULC) changes for medium to large catchments is still an important research topic due to the lack of evidence to conclude about how local changes translate to impacts across scales. This study aims to provide evidence on the effects of LULC change on the streamflow of the Akaki catchment that hosts Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Since the comparative performance of classification algorithms is poorly understood, we compared the performance of one parametric and five non-parametric machine learning methods for LULC mapping using Landsat imageries. To investigate the effect of LULC changes on streamflow, a semi-distributed HEC-HMS model was calibrated and validated using daily discharge data at multiple sites. Findings of this study showed that: (i) the accuracy of classification and regression tree (CART) was superior to the other classifiers, (ii) from 1990 to 2020, urban and forest cover increased at the expense of agricultural and bare land, (iii) the performance of the HEC-HMS model was acceptable at all stations during both the calibration and validation periods, and (iv) the mean annual and main rainy seasonal streamflow of the catchment experienced significant increases due to LULC change but the simulated streamflow changes highly varied with the type of LULC classifier. This study contributes to the limited evidence on how catchments, with rapidly developing cities are prone to hydrological regime changes that need to be recognized, understood and quantified, and incorporated into urban planning and development.
Models / Machine learning / Hydrological factors / Reservoirs / Rivers / Urbanization / Stream flow / Catchment areas / Land cover change / Land use change
Alaminie, A.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Padhee, Suman; Ghosh, Surajit; Tilahun, S.; Mekonnen, M.; Assefa, G.; Seid, Abdulkarim; Zimale, F.; Jury, M. 2023. Application of advanced Wflow_sbm Model with the CMIP6 climate projection for flood prediction in the data-scarce: Lake-Tana Basin, Ethiopia [Abstract only].
Paper presented at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria and Online, 24-28 April 2023. 1p. [DOI] More...
Climate models / Hydrological modelling / Climate change / Flood forecasting
Bogale, A. G.; Adem, A. A.; Mekuria, Wolde; Steenhuis, T. S. 2023. Application of geomorphometric characteristics to prioritize watersheds for soil and water conservation practices in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Geocarto International,
38(1):2184502. [DOI] More...
This study employed geomorphometric analysis to characterize the four major watersheds (Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Rib, and Megech) of Lake Tana sub-basin, Ethiopia, and prioritize the watersheds for the implementation of SWC practices using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Also, the study analyzed streamflow and sediment data recorded at the outlets of each watershed to associate the geomorphometric prioritization result with recordings of the watersheds. Geomorphometric analysis results indicated that the Rib watershed is the most susceptible watershed for soil erosion and should be prioritized for the implementation of SWC practices. The analysis of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration suggest that the Rib watershed had the second maximum sediment yield (14.3 t ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other three watersheds. This is because of the low streamflow response of the watershed compared with the Gumara watershed which had the highest sediment yield (18.9 t ha-1 yr-1).
Lakes / Resuspended sediments / Soil erosion / Remote sensing / Geographical information systems / Water conservation / Soil conservation / Watersheds
Fantaye, S. M.; Wolde, B. B.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Taye, Meron Teferi. 2023. Estimation of shallow groundwater abstraction for irrigation and its impact on groundwater availability in the Lake Tana Sub-basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
46:101365. [DOI] More...
Study region: Lake Tana sub-basin of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia.
Study focus: Groundwater use for small-scale irrigation is increasing in the Lake Tana sub-basin. However, the abstraction amount and its impact are not well understood. In this study, a new methodological approach was utilized to estimate the irrigation water abstraction amount, which is based on groundwater level monitoring before, during, and at the end of the irrigation season (2021/2022). The monitoring was conducted on 361 hand-dug wells distributed throughout the sub-basin, which is subdivided into East, Southwest, and North zones.
New hydrological insights for the region: Groundwater abstraction for irrigation and associated groundwater level decline estimates are 10.6 × 106 m3 and 2.43 m in the East, 4.2 × 106 m3 and 3.23 m in the Southwest, and 0.6 × 106 m3 and 1.32 m in the North. These abstractions account for 103%, 97%, and 62% of the mean annual groundwater recharge in the East, Southwest, and North zones, respectively. Groundwater is overexploited in the East and Southwest zones although, at the sub-basin scale, the amount of groundwater used for irrigation is small compared to the renewable groundwater resource. However, if groundwater-based irrigation continues to expand especially in the East and Southwest zones, groundwater scarcity at the local scales will worsen. Adaptive management strategies are required to minimize the potential adverse effects on groundwater resources.
Dry season / Wells / Lakes / Sediment / Aquifers / Irrigated land / Water supply / Surface water / Water use / Small-scale irrigation / Water levels / Monitoring / Groundwater table / Groundwater recharge / Water availability / Shallow water / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater extraction
Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Geremew, Y.; Wassie, S.; Fekadu, A. G.; Taye, Meron Teferi. 2023. Filling streamflow data gaps through the construction of rating curves in the Lake Tana Sub-basin, Nile Basin. Journal of Water and Climate Change,
14(4):1162-1175. [DOI] More...
In recent decades, streamflow data remain inaccessible for most river gauges in Ethiopia due to a lack of updated stage–discharge relationships, also called rating curves. In this study, researchers and hydrologic technicians collaborated to fill the recent streamflow data gaps at three gauging stations in the Lake Tana sub-basin of the Nile River. We conducted extensive field campaigns to improve the coverage of stage–discharge measurements for rating curve development. We evaluated the rating curve uncertainty during the time of its establishment and the sensitivity of the rating curves to sample size. The stage–discharge measurements conducted by the hydrological agency during the period 2016–2020 were found inadequate in number and coverage to establish reliable rating curves. Hence, converting recent water level measurements to discharge data was made possible using the rating curves developed in this study. The converted discharge data will be accessible to researchers to investigate the sub-basin’s hydrology. Our study emphasizes the need to improve the stage–discharge measurement frequency to keep up with the frequent change in the morphology of the rivers’ channels. The study demonstrated that collaboration between the data provider and data users can improve streamflow data availability and accessibility, which has become an increasing global challenge.
Collaboration / Hydrology / Catchment areas / Lakes / Rivers / Tributaries / Monitoring / Water levels / Discharges / Stream flow
Chunga, B. A.; Marx, W.; Cai, Xueliang; de Clercq, W.; Watson, A.; Malota, M. 2023. Water allocation using system dynamic modelling in the aquaculture integrated with small-scale irrigation systems in Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,
129:103355. [DOI] More...
The agricultural sector is faced with numerous challenges including climate change and water scarcity in many developing countries. In order to address scarcity and improve water use efficiency for rural farmers, fish farming is being integrated with small-scale irrigation. However, there are challenges in how to allocate water between the two farming enterprises. This study explored the capabilities of system dynamics to allocate water between a fish pond and a crop field in Chingale, Malawi using a system dynamic software, Vensim PLE. For soil water and pond water, a simple water balance structure was built and connected to the crop growth structure. Simulations run for 125 days corresponding to the maize growth period. Model results are similar to the actual yield (about 3.5 ton/ha for hybrid) and biomass production (about 7 ton/ha) in the area. Results also show it was possible to maintain pond water depth at recommended depths for raising fish: fish stocking (1 m), operation of the pond (1.5–2.0 m) and harvesting of the fish (less than 1.2 m) throughout the maize growing period. While the study did not comprehensively build and simulate fish growth, the use of such simple tools would benefit rural farmers with few resources. Based on the promising capabilities and the results of the tool it is recommended that further comprehensive analysis to fully incorporate all key sub-components affecting crop and fish growth be carried out.
Climate change / Farmers / Rural areas / Rainfall / Water resources / Crop yield / Biomass production / Water-use efficiency / Water depth / Soil water balance / Crop production / Maize / Fish ponds / Decision support systems / Small-scale irrigation / Aquaculture / Modelling / Water allocation
Oke, Adebayo Olubukola; Cofie, Olufunke O.; Merrey, D. J. 2023. The link between small reservoir infrastructure and farmer-led irrigation: case study of Ogun Watershed in southwestern Nigeria.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 28p. (IWMI Working Paper 206) [DOI] More...
Small water infrastructure in Nigeria needs to be utilized more efficiently. There are over 900 small reservoirs across the country. Many of these have yet to be put to productive use within the Ogun watershed in the Ogun Osun River Basin. This study investigates the challenges and opportunities for improving the use of small reservoirs for farmer-led irrigation in a sustainable way. The 20 small reservoirs investigated showed varying degrees of degradation of the hydraulic structures, poor embankment maintenance evidenced by the observed erosion, overgrown shrubs, spillway cracks and failures, and siltation of the reservoir. Poor water management and irrigation practices due to weak technical capacity are also observed. There needs to be a precise governance arrangement or policy supporting water use in such a situation. The economic interests and considerations of the farmers determine the irrigation activities around the reservoirs. Regulations and management of the reservoirs were based on what was considered appropriate by the farmers. With the increasing interest in the use of small reservoirs as water sources for farmer-led irrigation in Nigeria, increased capacity building and training, access to agricultural inputs, finance, and the transformation of commodity associations to water users’ associations would contribute to improving the productivity of small reservoirs.
Case studies / Social inclusion / Women / Gender / Sustainable livelihoods / Farm inputs / Domestic water / Rural areas / Finance / Public-private partnerships / Stakeholders / Water users / Capacity development / Smallholders / Pumping / Water conveyance / Spillways / Embankments / Irrigation management / Irrigation schemes / Crop production / Water supply / Socioeconomic aspects / Marketing / Farming systems / Agronomy / Irrigation practices / Agricultural practices / Governance / Institutions / Water management / Maintenance / Hydraulic structures / Water productivity / Storage capacity / Dams / River basins / Watersheds / Small-scale irrigation / Infrastructure / Reservoirs / Farmer-led irrigation
Foudi , S.; McCartney, Matthew; Markandya, A.; Pascual, U. 2023. The impact of multipurpose dams on the values of nature’s contributions to people under a water-energy-food nexus framing. Ecological Economics,
206:107758. [DOI] More...
The paper proposes a probabilistic approach to the assessment of the impacts of multipurpose dams. It is framed around the notion of Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP) in the setting of the Water-Energy-Food nexus. The socio-ecological context of the Tana River Basin in Kenya and the construction of two multipurpose dams are used to highlight co-produced positive and negative NCP under alternative river regimes. These regimes produce both damaging floods that ought to be controlled and beneficial floods that ought to be allowed. But the river regime that results from hydropower generation and flood risk reduction may not be the one that is most conducive to food and feed-based NCP. The approach relates the economic value of river-based NCP coproduction to the probability of flooding to derive the expected annual value of NCP and a NCP value-probability curve. The relation between NCP flows and flood characteristics is tested and estimated based on regression analyses with historical data. Results indicate that the net economic value of key NCP associated with multipurpose dams for local people and associated social equity effects largely depend on the frequency of flood events and on the way impacts are distributed across communities, economic sectors and time.
Communities / Ecological factors / Social aspects / Hydroelectric power generation / Hydrology / Floods / Economic value / River basins / Equity / Ecosystem services / Natural environment / Nexus approaches / Food systems / Energy / Water resources / Reservoirs / Dams
Akpoti, K.; Higginbottom, T. P.; Foster, T.; Adhikari, R.; Zwart, Sander J. 2022. Mapping land suitability for informal, small-scale irrigation development using spatial modelling and machine learning in the Upper East Region, Ghana. Science of the Total Environment,
803:149959. [DOI] More...
Small-scale irrigation has gained momentum in recent years as one of the development priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, farmer-led irrigation is often informal with little support from extension services and a paucity of data on land suitability for irrigation. To map the spatial explicit suitability for dry season small-scale irrigation, we developed a method using an ensemble of boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy machine learning models for the Upper East Region of Ghana. Both biophysical predictors including surface and groundwater availability, climate, topography and soil properties, and socio-economic predictors which represent demography and infrastructure development such as accessibility to cities and proximity to roads were considered. We assessed that 179,584 49,853 ha is suitable for dry-season small-scale irrigation development when only biophysical variables are considered, and 158,470 27,222 ha when socio-economic variables are included alongside the biophysical predictors, representing 77-89% of the current rainfed-croplands. Travel time to cities, accessibility to small reservoirs, exchangeable sodium percentage, surface runoff that can be potentially stored in reservoirs, population density, proximity to roads, and elevation percentile were the top predictors of small-scale irrigation suitability. These results suggested that the availability of water alone is not a sufficient indicator for area suitability for small-scale irrigation. This calls for strategic road infrastructure development and an improvement in the support to farmers for market accessibility. The suitability for small-scale irrigation should be put in the local context of market availability, demographic indicators, and infrastructure development.
Socioeconomic aspects / Population density / Reservoirs / Forecasting / Dry season / Soil properties / Land cover / Land use / Water availability / Groundwater / Semiarid zones / Food security / Machine learning / Modelling / Land suitability / Small scale systems / Farmer-led irrigation
Kibret, K. S.; Haileslassie, Amare; Mekuria Bori, Wolde; Schmitter, Petra. 2022. Multicriteria decision-support system to assess the potential of exclosure-based conservation in Ethiopia. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems,
37(S1):S88-S102. (Special issue: Restoring Degraded Landscapes and Fragile Food Systems) [DOI] More...
Land degradation is a global challenge that affects lives and livelihoods in many communities. Since 1950, about 65% of Africa’s cropland, on which millions of people depend, has been affected by land degradation caused by mining, poor farming practices and illegal logging. One-quarter of the land area of Ethiopia is severely degraded. As part of interventions to restore ecosystem services, exclosures have been implemented in Ethiopia since the 1980s. But the lack of tools to support prioritization and more efficient targeting of areas for large-scale exclosure-based interventions remains a challenge. Within that perspective, the overarching objectives of the current study were: (i) to develop a Geographic Information System-based multicriteria decision-support tool that would help in the identification of suitable areas for exclosure initiatives; (ii) to provide spatially explicit information, aggregated by river basin and agroecology, on potential areas for exclosure interventions and (iii) to conduct ex-ante analysis of the potential of exclosure areas for improving ecosystem services in terms of increase in above-ground biomass (AGB) production and carbon storage. The results of this study demonstrated that as much as 10% of Ethiopia’s land area is suitable for establishing exclosures. This amounts to 11 million hectares (ha) of land depending on the criteria used to define suitability for exclosure. Of this total, a significant proportion (0.5–0.6 million ha) is currently under agricultural land-use systems. In terms of propriety river basins, we found that the largest amount of suitable area for exclosures falls in the Abay (2.6 million ha) and Tekeze (2.2 million ha) river basins, which are hosts to water infrastructure such as hydropower dams and are threatened by siltation. Ex-ante analysis of ecosystem services indicated that about 418 million tons of carbon can be stored in the AGB through exclosure land use. Ethiopia has voluntarily committed to the Bonn Challenge to restore 15 million ha of degraded land by 2025. The decision-support tool developed by the current study and the information so generated go toward supporting the planning, implementation and monitoring of these kinds of local and regional initiatives.
Models / Erosion / Agroecology / Carbon sequestration / Biomass / Water conservation / Lakes / Watersheds / River basins / Ecosystem services / Land use planning / Decision support systems / Exclosures / Land degradation / Soil conservation
Ghansah, B.; Foster, T.; Higginbottom, T. P.; Adhikari, R.; Zwart, Sander J. 2022. Monitoring spatial-temporal variations of surface areas of small reservoirs in Ghana’s Upper East Region using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery and machine learning. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,
125:103082. [DOI] More...
Small reservoirs are one of the most important sources of water for irrigation, domestic and livestock uses in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana. Despite various studies on small reservoirs in the region, information on their spatial-temporal variations is minimal. Therefore, this study performed a binary Random Forest classification on Sentinel-2 images for five consecutive dry seasons between 2015 and 2020. The small reservoirs were then categorized according to landscape positions (upstream, midstream, and downstream) using a flow accumulation process. The classification produced an average overall accuracy of 98% and a root mean square error of 0.087 ha. It also indicated that there are currently 384 small reservoirs in the UER (of surface area between 0.09 and 37 ha), with 20% of them newly constructed between the 2016-17 and 2019-20 seasons. The study revealed that upstream reservoirs have smaller sizes and are likely to dry out during the dry season while downstream reservoirs have larger sizes and retain substantial amounts of water even at the end of the dry season. The results further indicated that about 78% of small reservoirs will maintain an average of 54% of their water surface area by the end of the dry season. This indicates significant water availability which can be effectively utilized to expand dry season irrigation. Overall, we demonstrate that landscape positions have significant impact on the spatial-temporal variations of small reservoirs in the UER. The study also showed the effectiveness of remote sensing and machine learning algorithms as tools for monitoring small reservoirs.
Machine learning / Satellite imagery / Climate variability / Remote sensing / Reservoirs
Madushanka, G. A. T.; Nandalal, K. D. W.; Muthuwatta, Lal P. 2022. Hydrological modelling for reservoir operation: application of SWAT model for Kalu Ganga Catchment, Sri Lanka. Engineer: Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka,
55(3):29-41. [DOI] More...
Kalu Ganga, a major tributary of Amban Ganga, is one of the perennial rivers of Sri Lanka. Also, Amban Ganga is a major tributary of Mahaweli Ganga. The Kalu Ganga starts from Knuckles mountains, and about 90% of the catchment is covered with forests. The Government of Sri Lanka constructed Kalu Ganga and Moragahakanda Reservoirs in 2014 to increase the water availability in Mahaweli Basin to improve the agricultural and drinking water benefits in several provinces. This study used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate the hydrology of the Kalu Ganga catchment and estimate the daily streamflow series of the Kalu Ganga. The long-term mean annual flow of the Kalu Ganga at the dam site would be 196 MCM (equivalent to 6.24 m3/s) with a standard deviation of 57.5 MCM and coefficient of variation of 0.29. The mean annual catchment rainfall is 2763 mm, streamflow is 59%, and evapotranspiration is 33% of the rainfall. The Kalu Ganga catchment hydrology is dominated by the wet season rainfall, which governs the Kalu Ganga flow, where 89% of the annual flow volume is produced. Further, 67% of the flow volume is produced from November to January. The model results show that 89% of the annual average of streamflow is generated as baseflow, a feature of a perennial river. The high baseflow fraction is hydrologically favourable for the water availability of the catchment as this shows the utilizable quantity of water is high.
Parameters / Soil types / Land use / Rain / Stream flow / Water availability / Rivers / Catchment areas / Hydrological modelling / Reservoir operation
Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Seo, S. N. 2022. An analysis of Sri Lankan and Indian water projects under the Green Climate Fund.
In Seo, S. N. (Ed.). Handbook of behavioral economics and climate change. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp.368-385. [DOI] More...
This chapter reviews and analyzes the Indian and Sri Lankan projects funded by the Green Climate Fund, emphasizing the Sri Lankan water projects. The GCFapos;s Sri Lanka projects focuses on water resources and security in two regions: The Northeastern village irrigation with village tanks project and the Knuckles Mountain Range water project. We provide an initial analysis of these projects concerning several indicators: efficient public intervention, water and agricultural impacts, paddy yield impacts, and socio-political institutions.
Rain / Farmers / Rice / Agricultural productivity / Tanks / Villages / Irrigation systems / River basins / Climate change adaptation / Water security / Investment / Public sector / Project evaluation / Water management
Tanoh, Rebecca; Nikiema, Josiane; Asiedu, Zipporah; Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Cofie, Olufunke. 2022. The contribution of tipping fees to the operation, maintenance, and management of fecal sludge treatment plants: the case of Ghana. Journal of Environmental Management,
303:114125. [DOI] More...
Globally, collection of tipping fees is being promoted as a solution to sustain the operation of fecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs). Currently, there are six large-scale FSTPs in Ghana, of which five were in operation in June 2017. In Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale, fecal sludge (FS) is co-treated with landfill leachate using waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). In Tema and Accra, FS is treated using WSPs and a mechanical dewatering system coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The focus of this study is FSTPs and to assess how, and if, the tipping fees set by the municipalities could enable cost recovery to sustain their long-term operation. Using a questionnaire survey to interview plant managers from the public and private sectors, and directors of waste management departments, we found that the overall average operation, maintenance and management (OMamp;M) costs per 1000 m3 of treated waste (FS or FS + leachate) in 2017 were USD89 in Kumasi, USD150 in Tamale, USD179 in Tema, USD244 in Sekondi-Takoradi and USD1,743 in Accra. There were important disparities between FSTPs due to their scale, age, and level of treatment and monitoring. Currently, most FSTPs charge tipping fees that range between USD310 and USD530/1000 m3 of FS, averaging USD421 98/1000 m3 of FS discharged at FSTPs. Our study also showed that the OMamp;M costs of large-scale intensive FSTPs cannot be sustained by relying solely on tipping fees. However, there could be potential to cover the routine expenditures associated with operating smaller FSTPs that relying on WSP technologies.
Developing countries / Cost recovery / Stabilization ponds / Waste management / Public-private partnerships / Maintenance / Treatment plants / Faecal sludge
Pavelic, Paul; Hoanh, Chu Thai; D’haeze, D.; Vinh, B. N.; Viossanges, Mathieu; Chung, D. T.; Dat, L. Q.; Ross, A. 2022. Evaluation of managed aquifer recharge in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
44:101257. [DOI] More...
Study region: Dak Lak province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam
Study focus: Intensification of agriculture has resulted in unsustainably high levels of groundwater use in the Central Highlands. High monsoonal rainfall provides opportunities to boost groundwater storage through managed aquifer recharge (MAR), yet experience with MAR in the region is absent. In response, five farm-scale pilots were implemented in collaboration with local farmers whereby runoff from roofs and fields was recharged into shallow dug wells. The pilots were closely monitored over three years.
New hydrological insights for the region: MAR pilots exhibited large contrasts in performance, with volumes recharged ranging from 5 to 530 m3 per year. Pilot sites with cleaner roof runoff water performed best, whilst those using more turbid water from unpaved roads performed worst. Water quality analyses did not identify parameters of major concern for irrigation. Field data and modelling indicate that the size of the recharge water plumes are small relative to the high groundwater velocities making the recharge water difficult to recover from the recharge well in this setting. Water is however contained locally, providing potential for improved water availability within the local area. Farmer attitudes towards MAR vary in response to the technical performance and a range of socioeconomic factors. These findings may provide insights for researchers or practitioners from other regions where groundwater dependence is high but experience in MAR is lacking.
attitudes / Farmersapos / Pilot projects / Irrigation water / Water storage / Monitoring / Water quality / Runoff / Rain / Groundwater level / Climate resilience / Highlands / Groundwater management / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers
Fenta, H. M; Hussein, M. A.; Tilahun, S. A.; Nakawuka, Prossie; Steenhuis, T. S.; Barron, Jennie; Adie, A.; Blummel, M.; Schmitter, Petra. 2022. Berken plow and intercropping with pigeon pea ameliorate degraded soils with a hardpan in the Ethiopian highlands. Geoderma,
407:115523. [DOI] More...
Closing the yield gap and enhancing efficiency in rainfed maize production systems in Ethiopia requires urgent action in increasing the productivity of degraded agricultural land. The degradation of land through continuous compaction and decline in the organic matter has resulted in a wide-spread formation of a hardpan that restricts deep percolation, prevents plant root development, and, ultimately can lead to increased erosion. Studies exploring practical low-cost solutions to break the hardpan are limited in Ethiopia. The main objective was to evaluate soil mechanical (i.e. modified plow or Berken plow) or biological intervention (i.e. intercropping with pigeon pea) effectiveness to enhance soil water management and crop yield of rainfed maize systems whilst reducing soil erosion and runoff. Five farm fields, each including four plots with different tillage treatments, were monitored during two rainy seasons in 2016 and 2017. The treatments were: (i) farmers practice under conventional (CT) tillage; plots tilled three times using an oxen driven local plow Maresha, (ii) no-till (NT), (iii) Berken tillage (BT), plots tilled three times using an oxen pulled Berken plow, and (iv) biological (CT + Bio), taprooted pigeon pea intercropped with maize on plots conventionally tilled. Results showed that mean tillage depth was significantly deeper in the BT (28 cm) treatment compared to CT and CT + Bio (18 cm) treatments. Measured soil penetration resistance significantly decreased up to 40 cm depth under BT and maize roots reached 1.5 times deeper compared to roots measured in the CT treatment. Under BT, the estimated water storage in the root zone was estimated at 556 mm, 1.86 times higher compared to CT, 3.11 times higher compared to NT and 0.89 times higher compared to CT + Bio. The positive effects on increased water storage and root development resulted in an average increase in maize grain (i.e. 15%, 0.95 t ha- 1 ) and residual above ground biomass (0.3%, 6.4 t ha- 1 ) leading to a positive net benefit of 138 USD ha- 1 for the BT treatment compared to the CT treatment. The negative net benefit obtained under CT and CT+Bio was mainly related to the high labor cost related to plowing, weeding, planting, and fertilizer application whilst in the NT this was related to the significantly lower maize yields. The positive effects in the BT treatment, and to some extent the CT+Bio treatment show great potential for smallholder rainfed maize systems where degraded soils with hardpans and high variability in rainfall prevail.
Watersheds / Sediment / Infiltration / Soil chemicophysical properties / Crop yield / Economic analysis / Farmers / Smallholders / Highlands / Water storage / Runoff / Rainfed farming / Tillage / Soil moisture / Hardpans / Soil analysis / Soil degradation / Soil penetration resistance / Pigeon peas / Maize / Intercropping / Agricultural production
Alam, Mohammad Faiz; Pavelic, Paul; Villholth, Karen G.; Sikka, Alok; Pande, S. 2022. Impact of high-density managed aquifer recharge implementation on groundwater storage, food production and resilience: a case from Gujarat, India. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
44:101224. [DOI] More...
Study region: The study region is the Kamadhiya catchment (1150 km2 ), located in the Saurashtra region of the western state of Gujarat, India. The region has seen intensive development of check dams (CDs) for groundwater recharge with an estimated 27,000 CDs constructed up until 2018.
Study focus: The impact of CDs on groundwater storage, food production and resilience are assessed for Kamadhiya catchment by estimating and comparing changes, across periods of low and high CD development, in potential recharge from CDs, rainfall trends, and irrigation demand. The analysis is carried out for the period from 1983 to 2015.
New hydrological insights for the region: Groundwater storage gains observed following CD development can partly be attributed to an increase in high rainfall years after several drought years. Groundwater demand for irrigation has increased substantially, outweighing increase in groundwater recharge from CDs. This deficit in supply relative to demand is greatest in dry years, and when considered together with the low inter-annual carry-over storage of the region’s hardrock aquifers, means that CDs capacity to enhance groundwater storage and mitigate the negative impacts of drought remains limited. Findings suggest that a standalone focus on MAR, unless complemented by greater emphasis on management of water demand and groundwater resources more broadly, may not be sufficient to achieve the long-term goals of sustainable groundwater and concurrently expanding agricultural crop production.
Catchment areas / Groundwater extraction / Drought / Irrigation water / Check dams / Resilience / Food production / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge
Oke, A.; Traore, K.; Nati-Bama, A. D.; Igbadun, H.; Ahmed, B.; Ahmed, F.; Zwart, Sander. 2022. Technologies d’irrigation petite chelle et de gestion de l’eau pour la transformation agricole Africaine. In French.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 179p. (Also in English) [DOI] More...
Learning activities / Training materials / Capacity development / Business models / Investment / Cost analysis / Solar energy / Irrigation efficiency / Maintenance / Irrigation equipment / Water use efficiency / Water requirements / Crop production / Techniques / Water conservation / Moisture conservation / Soil moisture / Land levelling / Tillage / Contour cultivation / Sensors / Soil water content / Wetting front / Irrigation scheduling / Irrigation systems / Drip irrigation / Sprinkler irrigation / Furrow irrigation / Border irrigation / Basin irrigation / Surface irrigation / Irrigation methods / Pipes / Conveyance structures / Dams / Embankments / Ponds / Water harvesting / Runoff water / Tube wells / Groundwater / Shallow water / Pumping / Water supply / Water resources / Land resources / Farmer-led irrigation / Smallholders / Agricultural transformation / Technology / Water management / Small-scale irrigation
Oke, A.; Traore, K.; Nati-Bama, A. D.; Igbadun, H.; Ahmed, B.; Ahmed, F.; Zwart, Sander. 2022. Small-scale irrigation and water management technologies for African agricultural transformation.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 166p. (Also in French) [DOI] More...
Learning activities / Training materials / Capacity development / Business models / Investment / Cost analysis / Solar energy / Irrigation efficiency / Maintenance / Irrigation equipment / Water use efficiency / Water requirements / Crop production / Techniques / Water conservation / Moisture conservation / Soil moisture / Land levelling / Tillage / Contour cultivation / Sensors / Soil water content / Wetting front / Irrigation scheduling / Irrigation systems / Drip irrigation / Sprinkler irrigation / Furrow irrigation / Border irrigation / Basin irrigation / Surface irrigation / Irrigation methods / Pipes / Conveyance structures / Dams / Embankments / Ponds / Water harvesting / Runoff water / Tube wells / Groundwater / Shallow water / Pumping / Water supply / Water resources / Land resources / Farmer-led irrigation / Smallholders / Agricultural transformation / Technology / Water management / Small-scale irrigation
Obahoundje, S.; Diedhiou, A.; Dubus, L.; Alamou, E. A.; Amoussou, E.; Akpoti, Komlavi; Ofosu, Eric Antwi. 2022. Modeling climate change impact on inflow and hydropower generation of Nangbeto Dam in West Africa using multi-model CORDEX ensemble and ensemble machine learning. Applied Energy,
325:119795. [DOI] More...
Climate change (CC) poses a threat to renewable hydropower, which continues to play a significant role in energy generation in West Africa (WA). Thus, the assessment of the impacts of climate change and climate variability on hydropower generation is critical for dam management. This study develops a framework based on ensemble climate models and ensemble machine learning methods to assess the projected impacts of CC on inflow to the reservoir and hydropower generation at the Nangbeto Hydropower plant in WA. Inflow to reservoir and energy generation for the future (2020–2099) is modeled using climate models output data from Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment to produce a publicly accessible hydropower dataset from 1980 to 2099. The bias-adjusted ensemble mean of eleven climate models for representative concentration pathways (RC4.5 and RCP8.5) are used. The added value of this approach is to use fewer input data (temperature and precipitation) while focusing on their lagged effect on inflow and energy. Generally, the model output strongly correlates with the observation (1986–2005) with a Pearson correlation of 0.86 for energy and 0.82 for inflow while the mean absolute error is 2.97% for energy and 9.73% for inflow. The results reveals that both inflow and energy simulated over the future periods (2020–2039, 2040–2059, 2060–2079, and 2080–2099) will decrease relative to the historical period (1986–2005) for both RCPs in the range of (2.5–20.5% and 1–8.5% for inflow and energy, respectively), at annual, monthly and seasonal time scales. Therefore, these results should be considered by decision-makers when assessing the best option for the energy mix development plan.
Energy generation / Forecasting / Datasets / Machine learning / Precipitation / Temperature / Climate variability / Reservoirs / Hydroelectric power generation / Hydropower / River basins / Dams / Modelling / Climate change
Worako, A. W.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, T.; Woldesenbet, T. A. 2022. Error propagation of climate model rainfall to streamflow simulation in the Gidabo Sub-basin, Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes Basin. Hydrological Sciences Journal,
67(8):1185-1198. [DOI] More...
This study assesses bias error of rainfall from climate models and related error propagation effects to simulated streamflow in the Gidabo sub-basin, Ethiopia. Rainfall is obtained from a combination of four global and regional climate models (GCM-RCMs), and streamflow is simulated by means of the Hydrologiska Byrns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV-96) rainfall-runoff model. Five bias correction methods were tested to reduce the rainfall bias. To assess the effects of rainfall bias error propagation, percent bias (PBIAS), difference in coefficient of variation (CV), and 10th and 90th percentile indicators were applied. Findings indicate that the bias of the uncorrected rainfall caused large errors in simulated streamflow. All five bias correction methods improved the HBV-96 model performance in terms of capturing the observed streamflow. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that the magnitude of the error propagation varies subject to the selected performance indicator, bias correction method and climate model.
Rain / Stream flow / Climate change / Hydrological modelling / Errors / Climate models
Li, D.; Lu, X.; Walling, D. E.; Zhang, T.; Steiner, J. F.; Wasson, R. J.; Harrison, S.; Nepal, Santosh; Nie, Y.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Shugar, D. H.; Koppes, M.; Lane, S.; Zeng, Z.; Sun, X.; Yegorov, A.; Bolch, T. 2022. High Mountain Asia hydropower systems threatened by climate-driven landscape instability. Nature Geoscience,
15(7):520-530. [DOI] More...
Global warming-induced melting and thawing of the cryosphere are severely altering the volume and timing of water supplied from High Mountain Asia, adversely affecting downstream food and energy systems that are relied on by billions of people. The construction of more reservoirs designed to regulate streamflow and produce hydropower is a critical part of strategies for adapting to these changes. However, these projects are vulnerable to a complex set of interacting processes that are destabilizing landscapes throughout the region. Ranging in severity and the pace of change, these processes include glacial retreat and detachments, permafrost thaw and associated landslides, rock–ice avalanches, debris flows and outburst floods from glacial lakes and landslide-dammed lakes. The result is large amounts of sediment being mobilized that can fill up reservoirs, cause dam failure and degrade power turbines. Here we recommend forward-looking design and maintenance measures and sustainable sediment management solutions that can help transition towards climate change-resilient dams and reservoirs in High Mountain Asia, in large part based on improved monitoring and prediction of compound and cascading hazards.
Lakes / Reservoirs / Dams / Resilience / Erosion / Sediment load / Rain / Floods / Extreme weather events / Snowmelt / Glaciers / Landscape / Mountains / Climate change / Hydropower
Taye, Meron Teferi; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Genet, A.; Geremew, Y.; Wassie, S.; Abebe, B.; Alemayehu, B. 2022. Data quality deterioration in the Lake Tana Sub-basin, Ethiopia: scoping study to provide streamflow and water withdrawal data.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 32p. (IWMI Working Paper 204) [DOI] More...
This working paper was prepared under a research project from the Future Leaders – African Independent Research (FLAIR) fellowship programme – focusing on understanding hydrological changes in the Lake Tana sub-basin, Ethiopia, due to water abstraction, land use and climate change. FLAIR is funded by the UK government’s Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) through The Royal Society, UK. The study was jointly conducted by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and staff of the Abbay Basin Development Office (ABDO). The paper provides information on the deterioration of streamflow data quality in the sub-basin. It demonstrates how to support the sub-basin by generating primary data and compiling current water abstraction data that are relevant for development planning. The project showed the possibility of conducting such activities with limited financial resources and time constraints but with strong collaboration. This work also demonstrated the need for a data alliance among stakeholders in the sub-basin.
Models / Climatic data / Alliances / Data management / River basin institutions / Partnerships / Stakeholders / Planning / Water management / Water resources / Farmer-led irrigation / Irrigated farming / Rainfed agriculture / Livestock / Hydropower / Industry / Domestic water / Drinking water / Rural settlement / Urban areas / Water supply / Small scale systems / Irrigation schemes / Water use / Water availability / Surface water / Data collection / Water level measurement / Flow measurement / Monitoring / Water extraction / Stream flow / Lakes / Data quality / Hydrological data
Sarkar, T.; Karunakalage, Anuradha; Kannaujiya, S.; Chaganti, C. 2022. Quantification of groundwater storage variation in Himalayan amp; Peninsular river basins correlating with land deformation effects observed at different Indian cities. Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy,
52(1):1-56. [DOI] More...
Groundwater is a significant resource that supports almost one-fifth population globally, but has been is diminishing at an alarming rate in recent years. To delve into this objective more thoroughly, we calculated interannual (2002–2020) GWS (per grid) distribution using GRACE amp; GRACE-FO (CSR-M, JPL-M and SH) Level 3 RL06 datasets in seven Indian river basins and found comparatively higher negative trends (-20.10 1.81 to -8.60 1.52 mm/yr) in Basin 1–4 than in Basin 5–7 (-7.11 0.64 to -0.76 0.47 mm/yr). After comparing the Groundwater Storage (GWS) results with the CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations) derived SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) drought index, we found that GWS exhausts analogously in the same period (2005–2020) when SPI values show improvement (~ 1.89–2), indicating towards wet condition. Subsequently, the GWSA time series is decomposed using the STL (Seasonal Trend Decomposition) (LOESS Regression) approach to monitor long-term groundwater fluctuation. The long term GWS rate (mm/yr) derived from three GRACE amp; GRACE-FO solutions vary from -20.3 5.52 to -13.19 3.28 and the GWS mass rate (km3 /yr) lie in range of -15.17 4.18 to -1.67 0.49 for basins 1–3. Simultaneously, in basin 4–7 the GWS rate observed is -8.56 8.03 to -0.58 7.04 mm/yr, and the GWS mass rate differs by -1.71 0.64 to -0.26 3.19 km3 /yr. The deseasonalized GWS estimation (2002–2020) states that Himalayan River basins 1,2,3 exhibit high GWS mass loss (-260 to -35.12 km3 ), with Basin 2 being the highest (-260 km3 ). Whereas the Peninsular River basin 4,6,7 gives moderate mass loss value from -26.72 to -23.58 km3 . And in River basin 5, the GWS mass loss observed is the lowest, with a value of -8 km3 . Accordingly, GPS (Global Positioning System) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data are considered to examine the land deformation as an effect due to GWS mass loss. The GPS data acquired from two IGS stations, IISC Bengaluru and LCK3 Lucknow, negatively correlates with GWS change, and the values are ~ -0.90 to ~-0.21 and ~-0.7 to -0.4, respectively. Consequently, correlation between GWS mass rate (km3 /yr) and the SAR (Sentinel-1A, SBAS) data procured from Chandigarh, Delhi, Mehsana, Lucknow, Kolkata and Bengaluru shows ~ 72 – 48% positively correlated area (PCA). The vertical velocity ranges within ~ -94 to -25 mm/yr estimated from PCA. There is an increase in population (estimated 2008–2014) in Basin 1 amp; 2. Likewise, the correlation coefficient ( ) between GWS change and the irrigational area is positive in all seven basins indicating significant depletion in GWS due to an uncalled hike in population or irrigational land use. Similarly, the positive linear regression (R 2 ) in Basins 1–3 also indicates high depletion in GWS. But basins 4–7 observe negative linear regression even after increasing population, which implies a control on the irrigational land use, unable to determine the GWS change at local scale a
Models / Time series analysis / Aquifers / Rain / Drought / Precipitation / SAR (radar) / Global positioning systems / Towns / Observation / River basins / Water storage / Groundwater
McCartney, Matthew; Rex, William; Yu, Winston; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; von Gnechten, Rachel. 2022. Change in global freshwater storage.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 25p. (IWMI Working Paper 202) [DOI] More...
Freshwater in both natural and man-made stores is critical for socioeconomic development. Globally, cumulative reduction in terrestrial water storage from 1971 to 2020 is estimated to be of the order of 27,079 Bm3. Although insignificant in comparison to the total volume stored, the decrease in ‘operational’ water stored (i.e., the proportion of water storage that is sustainably utilizable by people) is estimated to be of the order of 3% to 5% since 1971. In many places, both natural and man-made water storage are declining simultaneously, exacerbating water stress. Conjunctive use of different water stores is a prerequisite for water security and it is vital that natural water stores are fully integrated, alongside man-made water infrastructure, in future water resources planning and management.
Ecosystem services / Hydropower / Irrigation / Water use / Satellite observation / Sedimentation / Estimates / Water budget / Water management / Water supply / Climate change / Anthropogenic changes / Resilience / Water security / Sea level / Soil moisture / Paddy fields / Wetlands / Lakes / Dams / Reservoirs / Water depletion / Groundwater / Permafrost / Glaciers / Water storage / Freshwater resources
Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Bangira, T.; Sibanda, M.; Cofie, Olufunke. 2022. Use of drones to monitor water availability and quality in irrigation canals and reservoirs for improving water productivity and enhancing precision agriculture in smallholder farms.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Initiative on West and Central African Food Systems Transformation 36p. More...
The report provides a methodology protocol for measuring temporal and spatial changes in water quantity and quality using drone imagery. The procedure is informed by the need for effective and sustainable water resource use to enhance water productivity under climate change. It is based on a literature review that allows the identification of appropriate processes, materials, and procedures for water monitoring, including mapping spatial and temporal dynamics of reservoirs, measurement of water quality parameters, and flood mapping of irrigation canals.
Parameters / Water levels / Mapping / Floods / Remote sensing / Imagery / Unmanned aerial vehicles / Smallholders / Precision agriculture / Water productivity / Reservoirs / Irrigation canals / Monitoring / Water quality / Water availability
Eriyagama, Nishadi; Smakhtin, V.; Udamulla, L. 2022. Sustainable surface water storage development: measuring economic benefits and ecological and social impacts of reservoir system configurations. Water,
14(3):307. (Special issue: Relationship of Energy and Water Resource Availability) [DOI] More...
This paper illustrates an approach to measuring economic benefits and ecological and social impacts of various configurations of reservoir systems for basin-wide planning. It suggests indicators and examines their behavior under several reservoir arrangement scenarios using two river basins in Sri Lanka as examples. A river regulation index is modified to take into account the volume of flow captured by reservoirs and their placement and type. Indices of connectivity illustrate that the lowest river connectivity in a basin results from a single new reservoir placed on the main stem of a previously unregulated river between the two locations that command 50% and 75% of the basin area. The ratio of the total affected population to the total number of beneficiaries is shown to increase as the cumulative reservoir capacity in a river basin increases. An integrated index comparing the performance of different reservoir system configurations shows that while results differ from basin to basin, the cumulative effects of a large number of small reservoirs may be comparable to those with a few large reservoirs, especially at higher storage capacities.
Equity / Sustainability / River basins / Water reservoirs / Social impact / Ecological factors / Economic benefits / Water storage / Surface water
Akhtar, F.; Nawaz, R. A.; Hafeez, Mohsin; Awan, Usman Khalid; Borgemeister, C.; Tischbein, B. 2022. Evaluation of GRACE derived groundwater storage changes in different agro-ecological zones of the Indus Basin. Journal of Hydrology,
605:127369. [DOI] More...
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has recently been identified as a useful tool for monitoring changes in groundwater storage (GWS), especially in areas with sparse groundwater monitoring networks. However, GRACE’s performance has not been evaluated in the highly heterogeneous Indus Basin (IB) to date. The objective of this study was thus (i) to evaluate GRACE’s performance in two distinctively different agroecological zones of the IB, and (ii) to quantify the trend of groundwater abstraction over 15 years (i.e., from 2002 to 2017). To capture this heterogeneity at the IB, the two different agro-ecological zones were selected: i) the Kabul River Basin (KRB), Afghanistan, and ii) the Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) command area in Pakistan. The groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) for both regions were extracted from random pixels. The results show a correlation (R2 ) of 0.46 for LBDC and 0.32 for the KRB, between the GWSA and in-situ measurements. The results further reveal a mean annual depletion in GWSA of - 304.2 749 and - 301 527 mm at the LBDC and the KRB, respectively. Overall, a net GWS depletion during 2002–2017 at the LBDC and KRB was 4.87 and 4.82 m, respectively. The GWSA’s response to precipitation analyzed through cross-correlation shows a lag of 4 and 3 months at the KRB and the LBDC, respectively. The GWSA’s poor correlation with the in-situ measurements particularly in the mountainous region of the KRB is driven by the 4 months lag time unlike in the LBDC (i.e. 3 months); besides, the observations wells are sparse and limited. The complex geomorphology and slope of the landscape also cause discrepancies in the correlation of the in-situ measurements and the GRACE-derived changes in GWS at the two different agroecological zones of the IB. The spatially averaged GWSA in monthly time steps is another reason for the lower correlation between GRACE-based GWSA estimates and point-based in-situ measurements. Therefore, care must be taken while using GRACE’s output in regions with heterogeneous geomorphologic features.
Satellite observation / Trends / Precipitation / Aquifers / Water extraction / River basins / Agroecological zones / Water storage / Groundwater depletion
Amoah, Philip; Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Drechsel, Pay. 2021. Safe and sustainable business models for water reuse in aquaculture in developing countries.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 46p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 20) [DOI] More...
Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production. From an aquaculture entrepreneur’s perspective, the combination of fish farming and wastewater treatment in common waste stabilization ponds allows significant savings on capital (pond infrastructure) and running costs (wastewater supporting fish feed). On the other hand, the treatment plant owner will have the benefit of a partner taking over plant maintenance. Given the importance of food safety and related perceptions, the report is focusing on innovative business models where the marketed fish is not in direct contact with the treated wastewater, but only the brood stock or fish feed. The financial analysis of the presented systems shows profitable options for the fish farmer, operational and in part capital cost recovery for the treatment plant, and as the treatment plant operators can stop charging households a sanitation fee, eventually a triple-win situation for both partners and the served community.
Case studies / Environmental impact / Socioeconomic impact / Risk assessment / Public health / Water quality / Food safety / Nutrients / Fish feeding / Cost recovery / Circular economy / Financial analysis / Fisheries value chains / Markets / Nongovernmental organizations / Public-private partnerships / Stabilization ponds / Treatment plants / Infrastructure / Integrated systems / Fishery production / Wastewater treatment / Developing countries / Sustainability / Business models / Wastewater aquaculture / Water reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery
Mekuria, Wolde; Getnet, Kindie; Yami, M.; Langan, Simon; Amare, D. 2021. Perception of communities when managing exclosures as common pool resources in northwestern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development,
32(1):35-48. [DOI] More...
Understanding the different perceptions of the local community regarding the use and management of common pool resources, such as exclosures, could better support targeted interventions by government and development partners. Here, we report on a study conducted in the Gomit watershed, northwestern Ethiopia, using a survey and key informant interviews, to examine community perceptions on (a) the biophysical condition (i.e., challenge of land degradation and restoration), (b) the action situations (userapos;s access to and control over resources and decision-making processes involved in taking actions in managing the exclosure), (c) actorsapos; interactions (formal and informal institutions involved in the management of exclosures), and (d) perceived outcomes (benefits and tradeoffs of managing exclosures). Many people in the Gomit watershed recognize land degradation as a serious problem and believe that exclosures support restoration of degraded landscapes and improve ecosystem services. Informal institutions play a key role in managing exclosures by improving benefit sharing and mobilizing the local community for collective action. However, some community members have concerns about recent expansion of exclosures because of (a) limited short-term derived benefits, (b) reductions in fuelwood availability, (c) increased degradation of remaining communal grazing lands, and (d) poor participation of marginalized groups in decision making. Addressing such concerns through the promotion of short-term benefits of exclosures and increasing community participation in decision-making and benefit sharing is crucial. The study provides evidence to support government and development partners on the establishment and management of exclosures through identifying the benefits and drawbacks as perceived by different sectors of the community.
Households / Living standards / Decision making / Women / Gender / Nongovernmental organizations / Government agencies / Sustainability / Vegetation / Grazing lands / Common lands / Ecosystem services / Watersheds / Public opinion / Local communities / Erosion / Land degradation / Natural resources management / Exclosures
Suhardiman, Diana; Scurrah, N.; Ayemyaing, N. 2021. Scalar politics, power struggles and institutional emergence in Daw Lar Lake, Myanmar. Journal of Rural Studies,
87:32-44. [DOI] More...
This paper looks at scalar politics, power struggles, and institutional emergence in Daw Lar Lake in Karen state, Myanmar. It brings to light tensions between centralized and decentralized approaches in the country’s natural resource governance, and how these are manifested in the current legal stalemate with regard to the formal management status of the lake. Building on earlier research on legal pluralism and critical institutionalism, we look at: 1) how the current legal stalemate with regard to the formal management status of the lake is rooted in ongoing bureaucratic struggles between different government agencies; 2) local communities’ strategies to develop and implement their own vision of lake governance through the formation of the Daw Lar Lake Interim Committee; and 3) the extent to which the Interim Committee is able to mediate diverse and often competing local uses and claims to natural resources at (inter) village level, which are based on a mix of customary and ‘official’ legal entitlements and normative orderings. From a policy perspective, we highlight the need to identify pathways for collective action among and across different groups of resource users, as the latter will be crucial in addressing ongoing resource competition, managing cross-sectoral livelihood impacts and ensuring sustainable lake management.
Social aspects / Strategies / Households / Farmers / Livelihoods / Villages / Local communities / Land use / Water scarcity / Fisheries law / Community involvement / Government agencies / Bureaucracy / Legal pluralism / Institutions / Politics / Governance / Natural resources management / Lakes / Water management
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2021. Integrated water solutions for climate change adaptation in West Africa.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 4p. (IWMI Water Issue Brief 16) [DOI] More...
Digital innovation / Participatory approaches / Water use efficiency / Water scarcity / Infrastructure / Water storage / Early warning systems / Disaster risk management / Drought / Flooding / Extreme weather events / Water management / Integrated management / Climate change mitigation / Climate change adaptation
Kibret, S.; McCartney, Matthew; Lautze, Jonathan; Nhamo, Luxon; Yan, G. 2021. The impact of large and small dams on malaria transmission in four basins in Africa. Scientific Reports,
11:13355. [DOI] More...
Expansion of various types of water infrastructure is critical to water security in Africa. To date, analysis of adverse disease impacts has focused mainly on large dams. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of both small and large dams on malaria in four river basins in sub-Saharan Africa (i.e., the Limpopo, Omo-Turkana, Volta and Zambezi river basins). The European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) Yearly Water Classification History v1.0 data set was used to identify water bodies in each of the basins. Annual malaria incidence data were obtained from the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) database for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. A total of 4907 small dams and 258 large dams in the four basins, with 14.7million people living close (lt; 5 km) to their reservoirs in 2015, were analysed. The annual number of malaria cases attributable to dams of either size across the four basins was 0.9–1.7 million depending on the year, of which between 77 and 85% was due to small dams. The majority of these cases occur in areas of stable transmission. Malaria incidence per kilometre of reservoir shoreline varied between years but for small dams was typically 2–7 times greater than that for large dams in the same basin. Between 2000 and 2015, the annual malaria incidence showed a broadly declining trend for both large and small dam reservoirs in areas of stable transmission in all four basins. In conclusion, the malaria impact of dams is far greater than previously recognized. Small and large dams represent hotspots of malaria transmission and, as such, should be a critical focus of future disease control efforts.
Population density / Infrastructure / Water reservoirs / Risk / Vector-borne diseases / River basins / Dams / Disease transmission / Malaria
Coates, D.; Connor, R.; Dickens, Chris; Villholth, Karen; Dhot, N.; O’Brien, G. 2021. Valuation of hydraulic infrastructure.
In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021: valuing water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.43-54. More...
Environmental factors / Social aspects / Decision making / Risk assessment / Resilience / Cost benefit analysis / Economic viability / Water supply / Water storage / Aquifers / Reservoirs / Dams / Valuation / Infrastructure / Hydraulic structures
Mozzi, G.; Pavelic, Paul; Alam, Mohammad F.; Stefan, C.; Villholth, Karen G. 2021. Hydrologic assessment of check dam performances in semi-arid areas: a case study from Gujarat, India. Frontiers in Water,
3:628955. [DOI] More...
In semi-arid India, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is often used to enhance aquifer storage, and by implication, water security, and climate resilience, by capturing surface runoff, mainly through check dams implemented at the community level. Despite their extensive use, the design of these structures typically does not follow a systematic method to maximize performance. To aid in the improvement of check dam design parameters and location siting, we develop a dynamic tool, which integrates the daily water balance of a check dam with analytical infiltration equations to assess check dam performance measured as temporal dynamics of storage, infiltration, and evaporation. The tool is implemented in R environment and requires meteorological and hydrogeological data, as well as check dam geometry and nearby well-abstractions, if any. The tool is applied to a case study in Saurashtra in Gujarat, where field visits were conducted. Simulations show that typical check dams in the area are able to store a volume between three and seven times their storage capacity annually. Infiltration volumes highly depend on hydroclimatic and hydrogeological conditions, as well as the formation of a clogging layer, highlighting the importance of site selection and periodic maintenance. The tool is validated with data from a previous study in Rajasthan, where daily water balance parameters were monitored. Validation results show an average R 2 of 0.93 between the simulated and measured water levels. The results are adequate to suggest that the tool is able to assist in check dam planning in semi-arid environments.
Case studies / Rain / Precipitation / Weather data / Wells / Water extraction / Water levels / Water balance / Groundwater table / Evaporation / Infiltration / Runoff / Assessment / Hydrogeology / Semiarid zones / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Groundwater management / Water storage / Dams
Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif; Ashraf, M.; Anwar, Arif A. 2021. Soil erosion and sediment load management strategies for sustainable irrigation in arid regions. Sustainability,
13(6):3547. (Special issue: Sustainable Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Engineering Applications) [DOI] More...
Soil erosion is a serious environmental issue in the Gomal River catchment shared by Pakistan and Afghanistan. The river segment between the Gomal Zam dam and a diversion barrage (~40 km) brings a huge load of sediments that negatively affects the downstream irrigation system, but the sediment sources have not been explored in detail in this sub-catchment. The analysis of flow and sediment data shows that the significant sediment yield is still contributing to the diversion barrage despite the Gomal Zam dam construction. However, the sediment share at the diversion barrage from the sub-catchment is much larger than its relative size. A spatial assessment of erosion rates in the sub-catchment with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) shows that most of the sub-catchment falls into very severe and catastrophic erosion rate categories (gt;100 t h-1y -1 ). The sediment entry into the irrigation system can be managed both by limiting erosion in the catchment and trapping sediments into a hydraulic structure. The authors tested a scenario by improving the crop management factor in RUSLE as a catchment management option. The results show that improving the crop management factor makes little difference in reducing the erosion rates in the sub-catchment, suggesting other RUSLE factors, and perhaps slope is a more obvious reason for high erosion rates. This research also explores the efficiency of a proposed settling reservoir as a sediment load management option for the flows diverted from the barrage. The proposed settling reservoir is simulated using a computer-based sediment transport model. The modeling results suggest that a settling reservoir can reduce sediment entry into the irrigation network by trapping 95% and 25% for sand and silt particles, respectively. The findings of the study suggest that managing the sub-catchment characterizing an arid region and having steep slopes and barren mountains is a less compelling option to reduce sediment entry into the irrigation system compared to the settling reservoir at the diversion barrage. Managing the entire catchment (including upstream of Gomal Zam dam) can be a potential solution, but it would require cooperative planning due to the transboundary nature of the Gomal river catchment. The output of this research can aid policy and decision-makers to sustainably manage sedimentation issues in the irrigation network.
Canals / Reservoirs / Catchment areas / Rivers / Crop management / Normalized difference vegetation index / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation / Strategies / Sustainability / Arid zones / Modelling / Sediment transport / Irrigation systems / Sediment yield / Soil erosion
Eriyagama, Nishadi; Smakhtin, V.; Udamulla, L. 2021. Sustainable surface water storage development pathways and acceptable limits for river basins. Water,
13(5):645. [DOI] More...
This paper addresses the questions of acceptable upper limits for storage development and how best to deploy storage capacity in the long-term planning of built surface water storage in river basins. Storage-yield curves are used to establish sustainable storage development pathways and limits for a basin under a range of environmental flow release scenarios. Optimal storage distribution at a sub-basin level, which complies with an identified storage development pathway, can also be estimated. Two new indices are introduced—Water Supply Sustainability and Environmental Flow Sustainability—to help decide which pathways and management strategies are the most appropriate for a basin. Average pathways and conservative and maximum storage limits are illustrated for two example basins. Conservative and maximum withdrawal limits from storage are in the range of 45–50% and 60–65% of the mean annual runoff. The approach can compare the current level of basin storage with an identified pathway and indicate which parts of a basin are over- or under-exploited. A global storage–yield–reliability relationship may also be developed using statistics of annual basin precipitation to facilitate water resource planning in ungauged basins.
Models / Case studies / Precipitation / Dams / Runoff / Water extraction / Environmental flows / Strategies / Sustainability / Planning / Reservoirs / River basin management / Water yield / Water supply / Water storage / Surface water
Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Sikka, Alok; Mandave, Vidya; Panda, R. K.; Gorantiwar, S.; Ambast, S. K. 2021. Improving economic water productivity to enhance resilience in canal irrigation systems: a pilot study of the Sina Irrigation System in Maharashtra, India. Water Policy,
23(2):447-465. [DOI] More...
This paper proposes scenarios to achieve more crop per drop and irrigation for all in water-scarce irrigation systems, with a particular reference to India. It uses economic water productivity (EWP) and water cost curve for EWP as tools to reallocate irrigation consumptive water use (CWU) and identify economically viable cropping patterns. Assessed in the water-scarce Sina irrigation system in Maharashtra, India, the method shows that drought-tolerant annual crops such as fruits and/or fodder should be the preferred option in irrigated cropping patterns. Cropping patterns with orchard or fodder as permanent fixtures will provide sustainable income in low rainfall years. Orchards in combination with other crops will increase EWP and value of output in moderate to good rainfall years. Governments should create an enabling environment for conjunctive water use and allocation of CWU to achieve a gradual shift to high-value annual/perennial crops as permanent fixtures in cropping patterns.
Reservoir storage / Monsoons / Rain / Water scarcity / Drought tolerance / Water use / Benefit-cost ratio / Water costs / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater irrigation / Water allocation / Cropping patterns / Resilience / Canals / Irrigation systems / Economic analysis / Water productivity
Chapman, D. V.; Warner, S.; Dickens, Chris. 2021. Approaches to water monitoring.
In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 11p. (Online first). (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals) [DOI] More...
Citizen science / Indicators / Goal 6 Clean water and sanitation / Sustainable Development Goals / Observation / Groundwater / Lakes / Rivers / Water resources / Assessment / Approaches / Monitoring / Water quality
Sey, S. E.; Agbo, N. W.; Edziyie, R.; Amoah, Philip; Yeboah-Agyepong, M.; Nsiah-Gyambibi, R.; Abbas, S. 2021. Consumer preference, growth and profitability of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) grown in treated and aerated wastewater fed ponds in Kumasi, Ghana. Heliyon,
7(3):E06424. [DOI] More...
Recycling of wastewater provides a substantial solution to the global issue of water scarcity and high water use in aquaculture. However, this sustainable way of wastewater use has not been given much attention and exploration. This study focused on the consumer preference for fish grown in treated wastewater as well as the effect of aeration on the growth performance and economic benefit of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) grown in treated wastewater. Two hundred (200) respondents from two communities (Chirapatre and Gyinyase) near the wastewater treatment plant in Kumasi were interviewed to determine their willingness to accept and pay for African catfish grown in treated wastewater. For the growth trial, a total of 600 fish (of average initial weight 39.12g) were stocked in two maturation ponds with 4 h (3:00am–7:00am) of aeration daily. The trial lasted for 12 weeks and variables monitored included the survival, growth performance (weight gain, specific growth rate, and yield) and water quality. Fish cultured in non-aerated wastewater ponds (NWFPs) under similar conditions as in aerated wastewater-fed ponds (AWFPs) served as control. The results indicated most important considerations for consumers in their choice of fish to consume were in order of importance; food safety, freshness of fish, taste and packaging. The proximity of consumers to the treatment plant, the price of fish, religion, and age and whether or not they were fish consumers affected their willingness to pay for African catfish grown in the treated wastewater significantly. For the growth trial, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the aerated ponds were significantly higher than in the NWFPs and this led to more than a doubling of the growth rates in the African catfish grown in the AWFPs (189.10g 11.32) as compared to the NWFPs (90.70g 11.59). The pond aeration improved fish growth significantly (p lt; 0.0098). On economic benefit, the aerated system yielded profits of 618.83 (103.13) as compared to a loss of 104.99 (17.50), which was incurred in the non-aerated ponds. Education of the consumers on the process of wastewater treatment and establishment of food safety guidelines will therefore be recommended to increase consumer interest in consuming fish from the treated wastewater.
Economic aspects / Fish culture / Fishery production / Sewage ponds / Wastewater treatment plants / Cost benefit analysis / Water quality / Food safety / Willingness to pay / Fish consumption / Growth rate / Profitability / Consumer behaviour / Clarias gariepinus / African catfish / Wastewater aquaculture
Mukherjee, A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Aureli, A.; Langan, Simon; Guo, H.; McKenzie, A. A. 2021. Global groundwater: source, scarcity, sustainability, security, and solutions.
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier 676p. More...
Modelling / Machine learning / Technology / River basins / Deltas / Hydrogeology / Cold zones / Arid zones / Urbanization / Sustainable Development Goals / Livelihoods / Drought / Climate change / Monitoring / Environmental control / Desalination / Freshwater / Brackish water / Surface water / Domestic water / Water use efficiency / International waters / Water storage / Agricultural production / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Arsenic / Pollutants / Chemical substances / Contamination / Water quality / Groundwater pollution / Groundwater irrigation / Water governance / Water supply / Water availability / Water security / Sustainability / Water scarcity / Water resources / Groundwater management
Yu, W.; Rex, William; McCartney, Matthew; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; von Gnechten, Rachel; Priscoli, J. D. 2021. Storing water: a new integrated approach for resilient development.
: Stockholm, Sweden: Global Water Partnership (GWP); Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 28p. (GWP Perspectives Paper 13) More...
This paper outlines a new and integrated water storage agenda for resilient development in a world increasingly characterised by water stress and climate uncertainty and variability.; Storing water has long been a cornerstone of socio-economic development, particularly for societies exposed to large climatic variability. Nature has always supplied the bulk of water storage on earth, but built storage has increased significantly, particularly over the twentieth century. Today, numerous countries suffer from water storage gaps and increasingly variable precipitation, threatening sustainable development and even societal stability. There is a growing need to develop more storage types and manage existing storage better. At the same time, the policy, engineering, and scientific communities may not fully recognise the extent of these storage gaps and how best to manage them. There are large and uncertain costs and benefits of different types of storage, and developing storage can be risky and controversial. Although there is consensus that built and natural storage are fundamentally complementary, there is still no pragmatic agenda to guide future integrated water storage development.; This paper argues that water storage should be recognised as a service rather than only a facility. More than volumes of water stored behind a dam or in a watershed, what ultimately matters is the ability to provide different services at a particular time and place with a given level of assurance. Integrated storage systems should be developed and managed to deliver a targeted service standard. This will reduce the costs of new storage development and make the benefits more sustainable.; As this paper demonstrates, there are numerous data gaps pertaining to water storage, as well as a need for greater clarity on some key concepts. This paper does not introduce new data or research but rather provides a review of some of the current knowledge and issues around water storage, and outlines a new, integrated and constructive water storage agenda for the decades to come.
Wetlands / Reservoirs / Glaciers / River basins / Lakes / Dams / Aquifers / Groundwater / Soil moisture / Rainfall patterns / Risk / Water demand / Infrastructure / Water supply / Socioeconomic development / Resilience / Climate change / Sustainable development / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Water storage
Goshime, D. W.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, T.; Absi, R.; Ledesert, B.; Siegfried, T. 2021. Implications of water abstraction on the interconnected Central Rift Valley Lakes Sub-Basin of Ethiopia using WEAP. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
38:100969. [DOI] More...
Study region: Central Rift Valley Lakes sub-basin, Ethiopia.
Study focus: The competition for water is rapidly increasing in Central Rift Valley lakes sub-basin due to the combined effect of various water resources developments. However, the impacts of recent and future water resources development pathways on the water balance of the three interconnected lakes (i.e. Lake Ziway, Langano and Abiyata) are unknown. The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was used to assess the development impacts on water resources of the interconnected lakes. We considered three development pathways that are, recent (2009–2018), short-term (2019–2028) and long-term development (2029–2038). Lake Ziway water inflows from six catchments were estimated using the Hydrologiska Byrns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) rainfall-runoff model. Crop water requirements for irrigation schemes were estimated by the CROPWAT model.
New hydrological insights for the region: WEAP simulations show a total water demand of 102.3 Mm3 under the recent development pathway that increases by 46% and 118% for short-term and long-term development pathways, respectively. This will notably affect the water balance of the interconnected lakes and cause an unmet water demand of 47.9 Mm3 for the long-term (2028–2038). For Lake Ziway and Abiyata, water levels will decrease substantially to cause water scarcity in the long-term, and developments in Lake Ziway will significantly affect water storage in Lake Abiyata storages in Lake Abiyata. Overall, future developments will threaten the water resource of the interconnected lake system.
Models / Environmental flows / Water balance / Stream flow / Catchment areas / Lakes / Water resources development / Water supply / Water demand / Water extraction
Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Bussi, G.; Hirpa, F.; Taye, Meron Teferi; Abebe, Y.; Charles, K. 2021. Natural and anthropogenic sources of salinity in the Awash River and Lake Beseka (Ethiopia): modelling impacts of climate change and lake-river interactions. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
36:100865. [DOI] More...
Study region: Awash River Basin, Ethiopia
Study focus: Many river basins in sub-Saharan Africa have become vulnerable due to the impact from climate change, weak governance and high levels of poverty. One of the primary concerns is the elevated salinity and the degradation of water quality in the Awash River. Located in the Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia, the Awash River has unique hydrochemistry due to water-rock interactions. However, in recent years, increasing anthropogenic activities including the discharge from saline Lake Beseka into the Awash River has caused some concern. This study used an Integrated Catchment Model to simulate chloride concentration in the Awash River Basin by taking both natural and anthropogenic sources of salinity into consideration. Future scenarios of climate change and Lake Beseka discharge were examined to assess the impact to the river water quality.
New hydrologic insights: Results show that Lake Beseka has made significant contribution to the rise of the salinity in the Awash River. If the trend of human interference (e.g. increased irrigation and unregulated water transfer) continues, the river downstream of Lake Beseka could see Cl increases up to 200 % in the near future (2006–2030). The modeling results are essential for generating long term plans for proper utilization of water resources especially in the region where the resources and the economic capacity to meet the water demand is lacking.
Water quality / Water resources / Discharges / Lakes / River basins / Modelling / Anthropogenic factors / Chlorides / Salinity / Climate change
Sikka, Alok K.; Alam, Mohammad Faiz; Pavelic, Paul. 2021. Managing groundwater for building resilience for sustainable agriculture in South Asia. Irrigation and Drainage,
70(3):560-573. (Special issue: Development for Water, Food and Nutrition Security in a Competitive Environment. Selected Papers of the 3rd World Irrigation Forum, Bali, Indonesia) [DOI] More...
South Asiaapos;s heavy reliance on groundwater for irrigated agricultural production supports the livelihoods of tens of millions of smallholder farmers but is being undermined by rampant overexploitation of groundwater. Without major intervention, this is expected to be further exacerbated by growing demand and climate change. Groundwater management, scientific and evidence-based, can make an important contribution to managing unsustainable groundwater use and strengthening the climate resilience of farmers due to groundwaterapos;s unique storage characteristics. This study brings together a set of strategies and solutions to better manage groundwater that cover the augmentation of groundwater recharge through managed aquifer recharge, management of groundwater demand through participatory groundwater management and other methods, and the harnessing synergies of co-dependent sectors. The opportunities, constraints and available evidence for each are analysed and the boundaries, barriers and specificities identified to establish entry points for positive change through policies and implementation programmes.
State intervention / Policies / Participatory management / Farmers / Strategies / Nexus / Energy / Food security / Water supply / Water demand / Water storage / Water use / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater depletion / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Resilience / Climate change adaptation / Sustainable agriculture / Groundwater management
Jha, S. K.; Mishra, V. K.; Verma, C. L.; Sharma, Navneet; Sikka, Alok Kumar; Pavelic, Paul; Sharma, P. C.; Kant, L.; Sharma, Bharat R. 2021. Groundwater quality concern for wider adaptability of novel modes of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) in the Ganges Basin, India. Agricultural Water Management,
246:106659. [DOI] More...
Groundwater (GW) depletion and recurring floods have become a major concern among researchers and planners across the world. To rejuvenate stressed aquifer and moderate flood impacts, a modified version of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) consisting of a cluster of ten recharge wells (RWs) embedded in a community pond with an area of 2625 m2 and utilizing diverted floodwater was tested on a pilot scale in Ramganga sub basin, India. The approach could recharge a maximum of 72426 m3 of floodwater in 78 days during the wet season. The pond intervention minimized clogging of RWs by retaining maximum silt load of 68.01%. Hydro-geochemically, majority of water samples were of Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3type. Ion exchange processes and weathering of carbonate and silicates were the controlling factors, determining water quality of the area. Total dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, cobalt, nickel, mercury, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonical nitrogen were found within the permissible limits as laid down by World Health Organization except arsenic and lead, which seems to be the inherent problem in the area, as evidenced by water quality analysis of farmers tube wells located upstream and down streams of the recharge site. The coliform presence in the 88.23% of sampled GW may thwart from direct use for drinking whereas it was fit for irrigation. Looking the benefits of modified MAR as a proactive GW quality improvement with good aquifer recharge, it is recommended for scaling up of the intervention across the GW stressed parts of the whole Ram Ganga basin and similar hydro-geological regions elsewhere.
Ponds / Wells / Geochemistry / Hydrogeology / Assessment / Silt load / Contamination / Toxic substances / Chemicophysical properties / Chemical composition / Floodwater / Water quality / Aquifers / Groundwater management / Groundwater recharge
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2021. Circular economy solutions to close water, energy and food loops in West Africa.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 4p. (IWMI Water Issue Brief 17) [DOI] More...
Urban areas / Sanitation / Health hazards / Socioeconomic impact / Sustainability / Donors / Capacity development / Public-private partnerships / Ponds / Aquaculture / Organic fertilizers / Faecal sludge / Solid wastes / Business models / Reuse / Resource recovery / Food security / Energy generation / Wastewater / Waste management / Circular economy
Thakur, P. K.; Garg, V.; Kalura, P.; Agrawal, B.; Sharma, V.; Mohapatra, M.; Kalia, M.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Calmant, S.; Ghosh, Surajit; Dhote, P. R.; Sharma, R.; Chauhan, P. 2021. Water level status of Indian reservoirs: a synoptic view from altimeter observations. Advances in Space Research,
68(2):619-640. [DOI] More...
Most of the part of India is already under water-stressed condition. In this regard, the continuous monitoring of the water levels (WL) and storage capacity of reservoirs, lakes, and rivers is very important for the estimation and utilization of water resources effectively. The long term ground observed WL of many of the water bodies is not easily available, which may be very critical for proper water resources management. Satellite radar altimetry is the remote sensing technique, which is being used to study sea surface height for the last three decades. The advancement in radar technology with time has provided the opportunity to exploit the technique to retrieve the WL of inland water bodies. In the current study, an attempt has been made to generate long term time series on WL of around 29 geometrically complicated inland water bodies in India. These water bodies are mainly large reservoirs namely Ban Sagar, Balimela, Bargi, Bhakra, Gandhi Sagar, Hasdeo, Indravati, Jalaput, Kadana, Kolab, Mahi Bajaj, Maithon, Massanjore, Pong, Ramganga, Ranapratap Sagar, Rihand, Sardar Sarovar, Shivaji Sagar, Tilaiya, Ujjani, and Ukai. The WL of these water bodies was retrieved for around two decades using the European Remote-Sensing Satellite – 2 (ERS-2), ENVISAT Radar Altimeter – 2 (ENVISAT RA-2), and Saral-AltiKa altimeters data through Ice-1 retracking algorithm. Further, an attempt has also been made to estimate the WL of gauged/ungauged lakes namely Mansarovar, Pangong, Chilika, Bhopal, and Rann of Kutch over which Saral-AltiKa pass was there. As after July 2016, the SARAL-AltiKa is operating in the drifting orbit, systematic repeated observation of WL data of all reservoirs was not possible. The data of drifted tracks of Saral-AltiKa were tested for WL estimation of Ban Sagar reservoir. As the ERS-2, ENVISAT RA-2 and Saral-AltiKa all were having almost the same passing tracks, a long term WL series of these lakes could be generated from 1997 to 2016. However, at present only Sentinel – 3 is in orbit, the continuous altimeter based WL monitoring of some of these reservoirs (Gandhi Sagar, Nathsagar, Ranapratap, Ujjani, and Ukai) was attempted through Sentinel-3A satellite data from 2016 to 2018. The accuracy of the retrieved WL was than validated against the observed WL. In most of the reservoirs, a systematic bias was found due to the different characteristics and geoid height of each reservoir. The coefficient of determination, R2 , value for a majority of reser voirs was as good as 0.9. In the case of ERS-2, the values of R2 varied for 0.44–0.97 with root mean square error (RMSE) in the range of 0.63–2.72 m. These statistics improved with the ENVISAT RA-2 data analysis, the R2 value reached more than 0.90 for around 11 reservoirs. The highest, 0.99, for Hasdeo and Shivaji Sagar Reservoirs with RMSE of 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. Further, the accuracy improved with the analysis of Saral-AltiKa data. The R2 was always more than 0.9 for each reservoir a
Time series analysis / Altimeters / Satellite observation / Water resources / Inland waters / Lakes / Reservoirs / Estimation / Water levels
Taye, Meron Teferi; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Fekadu, A. G.; Nakawuka, P. 2021. Effect of irrigation water withdrawal on the hydrology of the Lake Tana sub-basin. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
38:100961. [DOI] More...
Study region: The Lake Tana sub-basin, upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia.
Study focus: The Lake Tana sub-basin is one of the agricultural growth corridors for Ethiopia’s ambitious plan to expand irrigation. Despite the booming irrigation activities in the sub-basin, limited information exists on the rate of irrigation expansion and its impact on the water balance of the sub-basin. This study collected and organized smallholder irrigation data in the subbasin to identify the actual irrigated area, the abstracted irrigation water, and its implications on seasonal water availability. The area under small-scale irrigation was estimated through data obtained from ’woredas’ (districts) databases. Crop patterns were obtained through field surveys. Irrigation water abstracted at daily timescale was measured.
New hydrological insights for the Region: In the sub-basin, 38,694 ha was under small-scale irrigation in 2020/21. Surface water is the dominant water source, and it supplies about 80% of irrigation withdrawal. Water abstraction for small-scale irrigation is about 430 MCM per dry season (~50% of dry season flow). The eastern side of the sub-basin faces water shortages as the dry season flow is not sufficient for irrigation. With the prospects of more irrigation expansion, small-scale irrigation water withdrawals pose concerns of water scarcity at local level and to the water balance of the sub-basin. Hence, there is urgent need for adaptive management of the small-scale irrigation effect on the sub-basin’s hydrology.
Farmers / Smallholders / Rivers / Water use / Water requirements / Crop production / Hydroclimatology / Irrigated land / Water scarcity / Water availability / Dry season / Water balance / Small scale systems / Irrigation schemes / Hydrology / Water extraction / Irrigation water
Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aheeyar, Mohamed; Chandrasekharan, Kiran; Ghosh, Surajit; Nakada, Toru. 2021. Adaptation to climate variability in Sri Lanka: a case study of the Huruluwewa Irrigation System in the Dry Zone.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 30p. (IWMI Working Paper 200) [DOI] More...
This paper assesses how the Huruluwewa tank (HWT) irrigation system in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka adapts to climate variability. The lessons learned in the HWT will be helpful for many water-scarce irrigation systems in the country, which bear high climate risks. Recurrent droughts are the bane of agriculture in the Dry Zone, comprising three-fourths of the land area spread over the Northern, North Central and Eastern provinces. In the HWT, the fifteenth largest canal irrigation system in the country, adaptation to climate variability happens on several fronts: changes made by the irrigation management to the water release regime; changes in the cropping patterns practiced by farmers in the command area; and the use of groundwater, which is recharged from rainfall, reservoir storage and canal irrigation, as supplemental irrigation. Such adaptation measures ensure that the available water supply in the reservoir is adequate for 100% cropping intensity over two cropping seasons, even in drought years, and enhances economic water productivity in terms of value per unit of consumptive water use. Moreover, irrigation management should consider groundwater recharge through canal irrigation as a resource, which brings substantial agricultural and economic benefits not only for the command area but also outside the command area. The adaptation patterns implemented in HWT demonstrate how water-scarce irrigation systems can achieve higher economic water productivity, i.e., generate ‘more income per drop’ to enhance climate resilience for people in and outside the canal command areas.
Case studies / Geographical information systems / Remote sensing / Farm income / Farmers / Consumptive use / Crop water use / Diversification / Seasonal cropping / Water policies / Water accounting / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Catchment areas / Water spreading / Reservoirs / Water management / Water scarcity / Resilience / Risk / Rainfall patterns / Drought / Water availability / Water productivity / Irrigation efficiency / Water use efficiency / Crop production / Water depletion / Water supply / Cropping patterns / Land use / Irrigation management / Irrigation canals / Tank irrigation / Arid zones / Irrigation systems / Climate change adaptation / Climate variability
Gonzalez, J. M.; Matrosov, E. S.; Obuobie, E.; Mul, M.; Pettinotti, L.; Gebrechorkos, S. H.; Sheffield, J.; Bottacin-Busolin, A.; Dalton, J.; Smith, D. Mark; Harou, J. J. 2021. Quantifying cooperation benefits for new dams in transboundary water systems without formal operating rules. Frontiers in Environmental Science,
9:596612. [DOI] More...
New dams impact downstream ecosystems and water infrastructure; without cooperative and adaptive management, negative impacts can manifest. In large complex transboundary river basins without well codified operating rules and extensive historical data, it can be difficult to assess the benefits of cooperating, in particular in relation to new dams. This constitutes a barrier to harmonious development of river basins and could contribute to water conflict. This study proposes a generalised framework to assess the benefits of cooperation on the management of new dams in water resource systems that do not have formal sharing arrangements. Benefits are estimated via multi-criteria comparison of historical reservoir operations (usually relatively uncooperative) vs. adopting new cooperative rules which would achieve the best results for riparian countries as evaluated by a water resources simulator and its performance metrics. The approach is applied to the Pwalugu Multipurpose Dam (PMD), which is being built in Ghana in the Volta river basin. The PMD could impact downstream ecosystems and infrastructure in Ghana and could itself be impacted by how the existing upstream Bagre Dam is managed in Burkina Faso. Results show that with cooperation Ghana and Burkina Faso could both increase energy production although some ecosystem services loss would need to be mitigated. The study confirms that cooperative rules achieve higher overall benefits compared to seeking benefits only for individual dams or countries.
Simulation models / Irrigation / Environmental flows / Ecosystem services / Hydropower / Water policies / Reservoir operation / River basins / Infrastructure / International cooperation / Water systems / International waters / Dams
Worako, A. W.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Taye, Meron Teferi. 2021. Streamflow variability and its linkage to ENSO events in the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes Basin. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
35:100817. [DOI] More...
Study Region: The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes basin is found in the main Ethiopian Rift Valley system.
Study Focus: Understanding the hydrological impact of El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is of a paramount importance for society since it substantially affects the environmental and socio-economic conditions. The relation between ENSO indicators (SOI, MEI and Nio3.4) and streamflow magnitude was statistically evaluated with partial correlation, cross correlation, extreme streamflow indices and streamflow deficits to provide empirical evidence on how ENSO phases (La Nia and El Nio) affect streamflow variability. Trends of streamflow and ENSO indicators were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test.
New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Our findings indicate that the partial correlation between the catchment area and ENSO effect on streamflow were not statistically significant at p lt; 0.05 after removing the south-north gradient. The direction of the ENSO effect is spatially inconsistent since El Nio (La Nia) causes positive deviation in some catchments and negative deviation for other catchments. Though statistically insignificant, reduced flow is detected for many catchments during El Nio years. For most catchment, the extreme high flow has a larger magnitude during La Nia than El Nio whereas the extreme low flow has a larger magnitude during El Nio than La Nia years. Overall, the relationship between ENSO and streamflow of the study area is found spatially inconsistent and statistically insignificant for most catchments.
Climate change / Watersheds / Catchment areas / Trends / Indicators / Hydrology / El Nino-Southern Oscillation / River basins / Stream flow
Goshime, D. W.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Absi, R.; Ledesert, B. 2021. Impact of water resource development plan on water abstraction and water balance of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Sustainable Water Resources Management,
7(3):36. [DOI] More...
Lake Ziway is providing water for a wide variety of sectors in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of systematic study that informs the effect of water abstraction on the lake water balance. In the present study, we conducted a Water Abstraction Survey (WAS) to estimate actual water withdrawal from the lake and developed a water balance model of the lake to evaluate the associated impact on the lake water storage and outflow for three development plans. The mean error and root mean square error of the simulated lake water level as compared with observed counterparts were estimated as 0.1 and 0.2 m, respectively, which is smaller than the range of the observed fluctuation of the lake water level under natural condition. Our findings indicate that the actual storage and outflow of Lake Ziway are significantly impacted by the existing water withdrawal. When the future development plans are fully implemented, the annual amount of irrigation and domestic water withdrawal from the lake will reach 95 Mm3 . This will cause the lake water level to drop by 0.94 m, which translates to 38 km2 reductions in the lake surface area. Consequently, the lake will lose 26.5% of its actual storage volume when the future development plan (2029–2038) is implemented as compared to the observed storage between 1986 and 2000. Hence, the current impact of water resources development around the lake is substantially large and will exacerbate in the future. This indicates the need for urgent actions to monitor and manage water abstraction from the lake.
Datasets / Estimation / Water use / Irrigation schemes / Lakes / Water balance / Water extraction / Development plans / Water resources development
Tessema, K. B.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Nakawuka, P. 2021. Vulnerability of community to climate stress: an indicator-based investigation of Upper Gana Watershed in Omo Gibe Basin in Ethiopia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction,
63:102426. [DOI] More...
The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events such as heavy rainfall and droughts are expected to increase with climate change and are predicted to severely affect the agriculture sector. However, drought vulnerability of rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, despite these communities being composed of mainly smallholder farmers whose livelihoods depend on rainfed agriculture. In this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of a rural community in Ethiopia to drought using both primary and secondary data. The primary data was generated from a household survey, whereas the secondary data was obtained from the National Meteorology Agency of Ethiopia and Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation (CHIRP) product. We decomposed vulnerability in to three components which are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to drought based on indices derived from the primary and secondary data. Results show that the average score for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity is nearly equal. High seasonal water variability coupled with severe, frequent, and long drought status increases exposure to drought in the study area. The main factor which affects sensitivity to drought in this community is the land cover. For adaptive capacity, the social capital of the community is low while their physical capital is high. The overall estimated drought vulnerability shows that the community is moderately vulnerable. The community’s exposure and sensitivity analyses show the need to increase the amount of moisture stored within the soil with the adoption of appropriate soil and water conservation techniques. Results also show that the head of the household’s educational level, the number of livestock owned, and annual income affect the community’s adaptive capacity.
Households / Livelihoods / Social capital / Water storage / Runoff / Water availability / Watersheds / Indicators / Exposure / Rain / Drought / Resilience / Rural communities / Vulnerability / Climate change
Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Sikka, Alok; Mandave, Vidya; Panda, R. K.; Gorantiwar, S.; Chandrasekharan, Kiran; Ambast, S. K. 2021. A re-look at canal irrigation system performance: a pilot study of the Sina Irrigation System in Maharashtra, India. Water Policy,
23(1):114-129. [DOI] More...
The general perception of canal irrigation systems in India is one of built infrastructure with low service performance. This paper presents an analytical framework, applied to the Sina medium irrigation system in Maharashtra state of India, to study the performance of an expanded water influence zone (WIZ) including a buffer zone outside the canal command area (CCA) influenced by the irrigation system’s water resources. The framework used satellite-based estimates of land-use and cropping patterns. The results indicate that there is hardly any gap between the irrigation potential created (IPC) and the irrigation potential utilized (IPU) in the CCA. The fraction of consumptive water use (CWU) of irrigation is low in the CCA, but almost one in the WIZ, due to the reuse of return flows in the WIZ. Future investments should focus on increasing economic water productivity ($/m3 ) in order to enhance the resilience of the farming community in the WIZ, which is frequently affected by water scarcity.
Economic aspects / Satellite observation / Estimation / Land use / Irrigated sites / Cropping patterns / Reservoir storage / Water potential / Groundwater irrigation / Water supply / Water scarcity / Performance evaluation / Water productivity / Water use efficiency / Irrigation canals / Irrigation systems
Pavelic, Paul; Sikka, Alok; Alam, Mohammad Faiz; Sharma, Bharat R.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Eriyagama, Nishadi; Villholth, Karen G.; Shalsi, S.; Mishra, V. K.; Jha, S. K.; Verma, C. L.; Sharma, N.; Reddy, V. R.; Rout, S. K.; Kant, L.; Govindan, M.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Brindha, K.; Chinnasamy, P.; Smakhtin, V. 2021. Utilizing floodwaters for recharging depleted aquifers and sustaining irrigation: lessons from multi-scale assessments in the Ganges River Basin, India.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 20p. (Groundwater Solutions Initiative for Policy and Practice (GRIPP) Case Profile Series 04) [DOI] More...
Pragmatic, cost-effective, socially inclusive and scalable solutions that reduce risks from recurrent cycles of floods and droughts would greatly benefit emerging economies. One promising approach known as Underground Transfer of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI) involves recharging depleted aquifers with seasonal high flows to provide additional groundwater for irrigated agriculture during dry periods, while also mitigating floods. It has been identified that there is potential for implementing the UTFI approach across large parts of South Asia. The first pilot-scale implementation of UTFI was carried out in a rural community of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India, and performance of the approach was assessed over three years from a technical, environmental, socioeconomic and institutional perspective. The results are promising and show that UTFI has the potential to enhance groundwater storage and control flooding, if replicated across larger scales. The challenges and opportunities for more wide-scale implementation of UTFI are identified and discussed in this report. In areas with high potential for implementation, policy makers should consider UTFI as an option when making decisions associated with relevant water-related development challenges.
Drought / Rain / Monsoons / Wells / Ponds / River basins / Environmental impact / Irrigated farming / Food security / Livelihoods / Socioeconomic aspects / Community involvement / Stakeholders / Cost benefit analysis / Risk management / Assessment / Pilot projects / Technology / Pumping / Water quality / Water storage / Groundwater table / Flood control / Transfer of waters / Groundwater flow / Sustainable use / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater depletion / Water use / Floodwater / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management
Mekuria, Wolde; Haileslassie, Amare; Tengberg, A.; Zazu, C. 2021. Stakeholders interest and influence and their interactions in managing natural resources in Lake Hawassa Catchment, Ethiopia. Ecosystems and People,
17(1):87-107. [DOI] More...
This study was conducted in Lake Hawassa catchment, Ethiopia where policy programs are aiming to restore degraded lands with participation of local stakeholders. We assessed the system in relation to natural resource management and degradation using the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) conceptual framework and conducted a stakeholder analysis to understand stakeholder interest, influence and interactions amongst the different categories of stakeholders. Data were collected using key informant interviews, field observation and a literature review. Results indicate that the degradation of natural resources in the catchment is attributed to several interlinked socio-economic and biophysical factors. Identified stakeholders include government and non-governmental organizations, local administrative bodies, civil society, the private sector and farmers. Most of the stakeholders have a role in landscape restoration, have similar interests and strategic options, and are flexible and innovative. Moderate to pronounced trust exists among identified stakeholders and could provide an opportunity to achieve better coordination and collective action amongst the different stakeholders. However, considerable differences between stakeholders in power, power resources and influence were detected due to differences in access to information, communication and negotiation skills, practical relevance, and social relations. The costs for empowerment measures could be low, as many of the stakeholders have access to and control of resources and high level of basic competencies. Our findings could guide practitioners and policy makers on whom and how to engage when planning and implementing natural resources management and landscape restoration interventions at catchment level.
Planning / Empowerment / Local communities / Livelihoods / Non-governmental organizations / Conflicts / Decision making / Participatory approaches / Landscape conservation / Land degradation / Stakeholder analysis / Catchment areas / Natural resources management
Rao, Krishna C.; Velidandla, S.; Scott, C. L.; Drechsel, Pay. 2020. Business models for fecal sludge management in India.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 199p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 18: Special Issue) [DOI] More...
Globally, 50% of the population relies on on-site sanitation systems (OSS) such as septic tanks and pit latrines and is, hence, in need of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions. India is a classic example, given that its government built more than 100 million toilets with the majority relying on OSS. With 400 fecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) in various stages of planning, procurement and construction, this report comes at an opportune time to present findings on FSM business models already implemented across India.
Interviews were conducted with a total of 105 Emptying and Transport (Eamp;T) operators in 72 towns and cities across 16 states in India, 22 representatives from municipalities that own emptying vehicles, 18 FSTP operators and more than 30 institutions. In addition, procurement tenders for Eamp;T and FSTPs in 13 states were analyzed.
In total, 18 business models were identified, several with energy or nutrient recovery components. The analysis of Eamp;T operators revealed clear differences that steer a business towards success or failure. The majority of operators still dispose fecal sludge in an unsafe manner, due to the lack of official disposal or treatment sites. In comparison to sewer networks, the capital and operating costs (per capita) of FSTPs were significantly lower. The report provides evidence-based discussions on policies and recommendations for scaling and sustaining FSM.
Case studies / Households / Composting / Biogas / Nutrients / Energy recovery / Taxes / Government procurement / Technology / Risk / Profitability / Benefits / Cost recovery / Operating costs / Investment / Pricing / Marketing / Funding / Financial viability / Nongovernmental organizations / Stakeholders / Public-private partnerships / Urban areas / Treatment plants / Transport / Waste disposal / Toilets / Septic tanks / Solid wastes / Sustainable Development Goals / Hygiene / Sanitation / Desludging / Waste treatment / Value chains / Business models / Waste management / Faecal sludge / Reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery
Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Kumara, I. U.; Fernando, Sudarshana. 2020. Solid and liquid waste management and resource recovery in Sri Lanka: a 20 city analysis.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 83p. More...
Development projects / Sanitation / Households / Local authorities / Municipal authorities / Water supply / Waste landfills / Composting / Desludging / Recycling / Latrines / Faecal sludge / Septic tanks / Sewerage / Waste disposal / Treatment plants / Municipal wastewater / Urban wastes / Urban areas / Resource management / Reuse / Resource recovery / Liquid wastes / Solid wastes / Waste management
Alam, Mohammad Faiz; Pavelic, Paul. 2020. Underground Transfer of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI): exploring potential at the global scale.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 58p. (IWMI Research Report 176) [DOI] More...
This report presents a spatial analysis conducted at global scale to identify areas of high suitability for implementing the Underground Transfer of Floods for Irrigation (UTFI) approach. The study used multiple global spatial datasets, and the related data were arranged under three categories – water supply, water demand and water storage – to assess global UTFI suitability. Among the river basins with high suitability, the Awash in Ethiopia, Ramganga in India (one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River Basin) and Chao Phraya in Thailand were selected for the economic analysis in this study. The results from this study are intended to provide a first step towards identifying the broad areas (at the river basin or country scale) where more detailed investigation would be worthwhile to ascertain the technical and economic feasibility of UTFI, with greater confidence.
Models / Rural areas / Urban areas / Socioeconomic environment / Monsoon climate / Rain / Land use / Crop production / Pumps / Wells / Infrastructure / Groundwater irrigation / Stakeholders / Policies / Food security / Water security / Climate change / Water availability / Surface water / Water management / Water resources / Watershed management / Ecosystem services / Mitigation / Disaster risk reduction / Flood control / Benefit-cost ratio / Cost benefit analysis / Economic analysis / Drought / Water demand / Water supply / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / River basins / Flood irrigation
Hurford, A. P.; McCartney, Matthew P.; Harou, J. J.; Dalton, J.; Smith, D. Mark; Odada, E. 2020. Balancing services from built and natural assets via river basin trade-off analysis. Ecosystem Services,
45:101144. [DOI] More...
Built water infrastructure impacts the balance of services provided by a river and its flow regime. Impacts on both commercial and subsistence activities should be considered in water management decision-making. Various methods used to define mandatory minimum environmental releases do not account for the inherent and often complex trade-offs and synergies which must be considered in selecting a balance of ecosystem and engineered services. This paper demonstrates the value and use of optimised many-objective trade-off analysis for managing resource-systems providing diverse and sometimes competing services. Using Kenya’s Tana River basin as a demonstration it shows controlled releases from multi-reservoir systems can be optimised using multiple performance metrics, representing individual provisioning ecosystem and engineered services at different locations and relating to different time periods. This enables better understanding the interactions between natural and built assets, and selecting river basin interventions that appropriately trade-off their services. Our demonstration shows prioritising Kenya’s statutory minimum environmental ‘reserve’ flows degrades flood-related provisioning services. Low overall flow regime alteration correlates negatively with consistency of hydropower generation, but positively with other provisioning services.
Models / Decision making / Costs / Assets / Fisheries / Floodplains / Flood control / Water management / Water resources / Water storage / Dams / Reservoirs / Infrastructure / Hydropower / Energy generation / Environmental flows / River basins / Ecosystem services
Goshime, D. W.; Absi, R.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Ledesert, B.; Rientjes, T. 2020. Bias-corrected CHIRP [Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation] satellite rainfall for water level simulation, Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering,
25(9):05020024. [DOI] More...
Applicability of satellite rainfall products must be explored since rain gauge networks have limitations to provide adequate spatial coverage. In this study, Climate Hazards InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) satellite-only product was evaluated for rainfall-runoff modeling whereas the simulated runoff served as input to simulate the water levels of Lake Ziway from 1986 to 2014. CHIRP dataset was bias-corrected using power transformation and used as input to Hydrologiska Byrns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model to simulate streamflow of Meki and Katar catchments. Results showed that gauged catchments of Meki and Katar contributed 524 and 855 mm to the annual lake inflow, respectively. The estimated runoff from ungauged catchments is 182 mm that amounts to approximately 8.5% of the total lake inflow over the period 1986–2000. The results of lake level simulation show good agreement from 1986 to 2000, but deteriorating agreement after 2000, which is mainly attributed to errors in water balance terms and human-induced impacts. For the period 1986–2000, the water balance closure error for the lake was 67.5 mm per year, which accounts for 2.9% of the total lake inflow from rainfall and river inflow. This study shows bias correction increases the applicability of CHIRP satellite product for lake water balance studies.
Evapotranspiration / Catchment areas / Precipitation / Rain gauges / Models / Flow discharge / Rivers / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Estimation / Water balance / Simulation / Water levels / Lakes
Eriyagama, Nishadi; Smakhtin, V.; Udamulla, L. 2020. How much artificial surface storage is acceptable in a river basin and where should it be located: a review. Earth-Science Reviews,
208:103294. [DOI] More...
A key question in sustainable development is how much alteration in natural systems, such as river basins, is acceptable? One of the ways by which humans alter a river basin is by building water storage infrastructure. While storage reservoirs deliver numerous benefits, they can also induce social and environmental costs by displacing people, fragmenting river networks and altering downstream flow regimes. In such a context, merely capping total water withdrawal from rivers for human consumption is not sufficient. River basin plans should also identify optimal (acceptable) limits to surface storage capacities, and optimal numbers, degrees of distribution and locations of storage infrastructure. It remains largely unclear, however, whether it is possible to define a hydrologically, ecologically and socially justified ‘surface water storage boundary’ for a river basin. An associated question is what would be the ‘best’ arrangement of this bounding storage capacity in the basins river network (in terms of numbers, sizes and locations of reservoirs) to maximize water storage benefits and minimize environmental and social costs. The main objective of this review is to examine contemporary knowledge on surface water storage development with a focus on tools and approaches that may help to answer the above questions of a ‘surface water storage boundary’ and its ‘optimum arrangement’ for a river basin. In order to achieve this objective, our review introduces two novel concepts: the ‘storage scale’ and the ‘sustainable storage development framework.’ The ‘storage scale’ has four elements – capacity, number, distribution and location – individual scales that help visualize a ‘surface water storage boundary’ and its ‘optimum arrangement’ for a typical river basin. The ‘sustainable storage development framework’ consists of three dimensions – economic benefits, ecosystems and society- and a set of indicators quantifying each dimension. This review shows that optimal levels of the elements of the ‘storage scale’ may be identified using the ‘sustainable storage development framework’.
Indicators / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Sediment / Flooding / Environmental flows / Hydropower / Ecosystem services / Ecological factors / Water supply / Infrastructure / Dams / Reservoirs / Water resources / Sustainable development / River basins / Water storage / Surface water
Cecchi, P.; Forkuor, G.; Cofie, Olufunke; Lalanne, F.; Poussin, J.-C.; Jamin, J.-Y. 2020. Small reservoirs, landscape changes and water quality in Sub-Saharan West Africa. Water,
12(7):1967. [DOI] More...
Small reservoirs (SRs) are essential water storage infrastructures for rural populations of Sub-Saharan West Africa. In recent years, rapid population increase has resulted in unprecedented land use and land cover (LULC) changes. Our study documents the impacts of such changes on the water quality of SRs in Burkina Faso. Multi-temporal Landsat images were analyzed to determine LULC evolutions at various scales between 2002 and 2014. Population densities were calculated from downloaded 2014 population data. In situ water samples collected in 2004/5 and 2014 from selected SRs were analyzed for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) loads, an integrative proxy for water quality. The expansion of crop and artificial areas at the expense of natural covers controlled LULC changes over the period. We found a very significant correlation between SPM loads and population densities calculated at a watershed scale. A general increase between the two sampling dates in the inorganic component of SPM loads, concomitant with a clear expansion of cropland areas at a local scale, was evidenced. Results of the study suggest that two complementary but independent indicators (i.e., LULC changes within 5-km buffer areas around SRs and demographic changes at watershed scale), relevantly reflected the nature and intensity of overall pressures exerted by humans on their environment, and locally on aquatic ecosystems. Recommendations related to the re-greening of peripheral areas around SRs in order to protect water bodies are suggested.
Indicators / Population density / Dry season / Lakes / Vegetation / Farmland / Satellite imagery / Landsat / Watersheds / Anthropogenic factors / Land cover change / Land use change / Water quality / Water reservoirs
Dembele, M.; Ceperley, N.; Zwart, Sander J.; Salvadore, E.; Mariethoz, G.; Schaefli, B. 2020. Potential of satellite and reanalysis evaporation datasets for hydrological modelling under various model calibration strategies. Advances in Water Resources,
143:103667. [DOI] More...
Twelve actual evaporation datasets are evaluated for their ability to improve the performance of the fully distributed mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM). The datasets consist of satellite-based diagnostic models (MOD16A2, SSEBop, ALEXI, CMRSET, SEBS), satellite-based prognostic models (GLEAM v3.2a, GLEAM v3.3a, GLEAM v3.2b, GLEAM v3.3b), and reanalysis (ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55). Four distinct multivariate calibration strategies (basin-average, pixel-wise, spatial bias-accounting and spatial bias-insensitive) using actual evaporation and streamflow are implemented, resulting in 48 scenarios whose results are compared with a benchmark model calibrated solely with streamflow data. A process-diagnostic approach is adopted to evaluate the model responses with in-situ data of streamflow and independent remotely sensed data of soil moisture from ESA-CCI and terrestrial water storage from GRACE. The method is implemented in the Volta River basin, which is a data scarce region in West Africa, for the period from 2003 to 2012.
Results show that the evaporation datasets have a good potential for improving model calibration, but this is dependent on the calibration strategy. All the multivariate calibration strategies outperform the streamflow-only calibration. The highest improvement in the overall model performance is obtained with the spatial bias-accounting strategy (+29%), followed by the spatial bias-insensitive strategy (+26%) and the pixel-wise strategy (+24%), while the basin-average strategy (+20%) gives the lowest improvement. On average, using evaporation data in addition to streamflow for model calibration decreases the model performance for streamflow (-7%), which is counterbalance by the increase in the performance of the terrestrial water storage (+11%), temporal dynamics of soil moisture (+6%) and spatial patterns of soil moisture (+89%). In general, the top three best performing evaporation datasets are MERRA-2, GLEAM v3.3a and SSEBop, while the bottom three datasets are MOD16A2, SEBS and ERA5. However, performances of the evaporation products diverge according to model responses and across climatic zones. These findings open up avenues for improving process representation of hydrological models and advancing the spatiotemporal prediction of floods and droughts under climate and land use changes.
Spatial distribution / Performance evaluation / Datasets / Forecasting / Climatic zones / Soil water content / Water storage / Stream flow / River basins / Evaporation / Remote sensing / Satellites / Strategies / Calibration / Modelling / Hydrology
Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Hazra, A.; Getirana, A.; McNally, A.; Kumar, S. V.; Koster, R. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H.; Jung, H. C.; Narapusetty, B.; Navari, M.; Wang, S.; Mocko, D. M.; Funk, C.; Harrison, L.; Husak, G. J.; Adoum, A.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Roningen, J.; Shaw, M.; Eylander, J.; Bergaoui, K.; McDonnell, Rachael A.; Verdin, J. P. 2020. The NASA hydrological forecast system for food and water security applications. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS),
101(7):E1007-E1025. [DOI] More...
Many regions in Africa and the Middle East are vulnerable to drought and to water and food insecurity, motivating agency efforts such as the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to provide early warning of drought events in the region. Each year these warnings guide life-saving assistance that reaches millions of people. A new NASA multimodel, remote sensing–based hydrological forecasting and analysis system, NHyFAS, has been developed to support such efforts by improving the FEWS NET’s current early warning capabilities. NHyFAS derives its skill from two sources: (i) accurate initial conditions, as produced by an offline land modeling system through the application and/or assimilation of various satellite data (precipitation, soil moisture, and terrestrial water storage), and (ii) meteorological forcing data during the forecast period as produced by a state-of-the-art ocean–land–atmosphere forecast system. The land modeling framework used is the Land Information System (LIS), which employs a suite of land surface models, allowing multimodel ensembles and multiple data assimilation strategies to better estimate land surface conditions. An evaluation of NHyFAS shows that its 1–5-month hindcasts successfully capture known historic drought events, and it has improved skill over benchmark-type hindcasts. The system also benefits from strong collaboration with end-user partners in Africa and the Middle East, who provide insights on strategies to formulate and communicate early warning indicators to water and food security communities. The additional lead time provided by this system will increase the speed, accuracy, and efficacy of humanitarian disaster relief, helping to save lives and livelihoods.
Modelling / Satellite observation / Meteorological factors / Land area / Monitoring / Stream flow / Soil water content / Water storage / Groundwater / Precipitation / Flooding / Drought / Water security / Food security / Early warning systems / Forecasting / Hydrology
Nikiema, Josiane; Tanoh-Nguessan, R.; Abiola, F.; Cofie, Olufunke O. 2020. Introducing co-composting to fecal sludge treatment plants in Benin and Burkina Faso: a logistical and financial assessment.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 50p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 17) [DOI] More...
Based on primary data from fecal sludge (FS) treatment plants in three West African urban regions (Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, Greater Accra in Ghana, and Grand Nokou in Benin), FS collection and treatment patterns were analyzed to identify possible scenarios for resource recovery (RR) through FS co-composting. FS collection was analyzed for up to 7 years, in part per day, month and season, as well as FS characteristics to understand peak flows, FS qualities and related variations to plan for appropriate RR technology and capacities.
Overall, the FS volumes collected by vacuum trucks were not significantly affected by the calendar days, months or seasons. Commonly assumed increases during rainy months were, for example, only recorded in Ouagadougou. FS composition appeared highly variable with a pronounced difference in total solids between FS collected from households versus institutional sources, likely indicating that institutions are served more frequently.
The analyzed treatment plants appear to be exploited beyond their capacity. RR for reuse can turn sludge disposal from a cost into a source of revenue with co-benefits for farmers and the environment, thereby reducing the pressure on tipping fees. The probability of the added co-compost production being financially viable on its own was estimated for all the study sites, indicating an earliest breakeven point after 5 to 8 years.
Households / Urban areas / Land use / Cost benefit analysis / Marketing / Operating costs / Production costs / Cost recovery / Business models / Investment / Public-private partnerships / Maintenance / Technology / Sanitation / Septic tanks / Anaerobic treatment / Sludge dewatering / Waste disposal / Recycling / Sewerage / Waste collection / Waste management / Economic analysis / Logistics / Composting / Treatment plants / Solid wastes / Waste treatment / Faecal sludge / Reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery
Asfaw, W.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, T. 2020. Combining multisource satellite data to estimate storage variation of a lake in the Rift Valley Basin, Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation,
89:102095. [DOI] More...
Integration of remote sensing data sets from multiple satellites is tested to simulate water storage variation of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia for the period 2009-2018. Sixty Landsat ETM+/OLI images served to trace temporal variation of lake surface area using a water extraction index. Time series of lake levels were acquired from two altimetry databases that were validated by in-situ lake level measurements. Coinciding pairs of optical satellite based lake surface area and radar altimetry based lake levels were related through regression and served for simulating lake storage variation. Indices for extracting lake surface area from images showed 91–99 % overall accuracy. Lake water levels from the altimetry products well agreed to in-situ lake level measurements with R2 = 0.92 and root mean square error of 11.9 cm. Based on this study we conclude that integrating satellite imagery and radar altimetry is a viable approach for frequent and accurate monitoring of lake water volume variation and for long-term change detection. Findings indicate water level reduction (4 cm/annum), surface area shrinkage (0.08km2 /annum) and water storage loss (20.4Mm3 /annum) of Lake Ziway (2009–2018).
Rivers / Water extraction / Water levels / Remote sensing / Radar / Landsat / Satellite imagery / Surface area / Lakes / Estimation / Water storage
Kookana, R. S.; Drechsel, Pay; Jamwal, P.; Vanderzalm, J. 2020. Urbanisation and emerging economies: issues and potential solutions for water and food security. Science of the Total Environment,
732:139057. [DOI] More...
Urbanisation will be one of the 21st centuryapos;s most transformative trends. By 2050, it will increase from 55% to 68%, more than doubling the urban population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Urbanisation has multifarious (positive as well as negative) impacts on the wellbeing of humans and the environment. The 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) form the blueprint to achieve a sustainable future for all. Clean Water and Sanitation is a specific goal (SDG 6) within the suite of 17 interconnected goals. Here we provide an overview of some of the challenges that urbanisation poses in relation to SDG 6, especially in developing economies. Worldwide, several cities are on the verge of water crisis. Water distribution to informal settlements or slums in megacities (e.g. N50% population in the megacities of India) is essentially non-existent and limits access to adequate safe water supply. Besides due to poor sewer connectivity in the emerging economies, there is a heavy reliance on septic tanks, and other on-site sanitation (OSS) system and by 2030, 4.9 billion people are expected to rely on OSS. About 62–93% of the urban population in Vietnam, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Indonesia rely on septic tanks, where septage treatment is rare. Globally, over 80% of wastewater is released to the environment without adequate treatment. About 11% of all irrigated croplands is irrigated with such untreated or poorly treated wastewater. In addition to acute and chronic health effects, this also results in significant pollution of often-limited surface and groundwater resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect water reuse plays a key role in global water and food security. Here we offer several suggestions to mitigate water and food insecurity in emerging economies.
Behavioural changes / Sustainable Development Goals / Rural urban relations / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Ecosystems / Environmental health / Suburban agriculture / Wastewater irrigation / Water scarcity / Water supply / Indicators / Monitoring / Water quality / Health hazards / Public health / Water reuse / Sanitation / Septic tanks / Costs / Wastewater treatment / Waste treatment / Waste management / Food security / Water security / Economic development / Urbanization
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2020. Faecal sludge management in Africa: socioeconomic aspects and human and environmental health implications.
: Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 64p. More...
Legal aspects / Institutions / Inclusion / Women / Gender / Business models / Technology / Good practices / Sustainable Development Goals / Trends / Value chains / Sanitation / Pit latrines / Septic tanks / Pathogens / Excreta / Treatment plants / Recycling / Waste disposal / Wastewater treatment / Health hazards / Public health / Environmental health / Socioeconomic aspects / Waste management / Faecal sludge
Alam, Mohammad Faiz; Pavelic, Paul; Sharma, Navneet; Sikka, Alok. 2020. Managed aquifer recharge of monsoon runoff using village ponds: performance assessment of a pilot trial in the Ramganga Basin, India. Water,
12(4):1028. (Special issue: Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience) [DOI] More...
The managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess monsoonal runoff to mitigate downstream flooding and enhance groundwater storage has received limited attention across the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Here, we assess the performance of a pilot MAR trial carried out in the Ramganga basin in India. The pilot consisted of a battery of 10 recharge wells, each 24 to 30 m deep, installed in a formerly unused village pond situated adjacent to an irrigation canal that provided river water during the monsoon season. Over three years of pilot testing, volumes ranging from 26,000 to 62,000 m3 were recharged each year over durations ranging from 62 to 85 days. These volumes are equivalent to 1.3–3.6% of the total recharge in the village, and would be sufficient to irrigate 8 to 18 hectares of rabi season crop. High inter-year variation in performance was observed, with yearly average recharge rates ranging from 430 to 775 m3 day-1 (164–295 mm day-1 ) and overall average recharge rates of 580 m3 day-1 (221 mm day-1 ). High intra-year variation was also observed, with recharge rates at the end of recharge period reducing by 72%, 88% and 96% in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively, relative to the initial recharge rates. The observed inter- and intra-year variability is due to the groundwater levels that strongly influence gravity recharge heads and lateral groundwater flows, as well as the source water quality, which leads to clogging. The increase in groundwater levels in response to MAR was found to be limited due to the high specific yield and transmissivity of the alluvial aquifer, and, in all but one year, was difficult to distinguish from the overall groundwater level rise due to a range of confounding factors. The results from this study provide the first systematic, multi-year assessment of the performance of pilot-scale MAR harnessing village ponds in the intensively groundwater irrigated, flood prone, alluvial aquifers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Rain / Canals / Maintenance / Wells / Infiltration / Ponds / Villages / Groundwater depletion / Water storage / Groundwater table / Drought / Flood irrigation / Runoff / Monsoon climate / Performance evaluation / Pilot projects / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge
Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, G. B.; Schauer, M.; Garcia, C. A.; Singh, R. K.; Friedrichs, M.; Kagone, S.; Haynes, J.; Conlon, T. 2020. Evaluation of hydrologic impact of an irrigation curtailment program using Landsat satellite data. Hydrological Processes,
34(8):1697-1713. [DOI] More...
Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) is the source of the Klamath River that flows through southern Oregon and northern California. The UKL Basin provides water for 81,000+ ha (200,000+ acres) of irrigation on the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project located downstream of the UKL Basin. Irrigated agriculture also occurs along the tributaries to UKL. During 2013–2016, water rights calls resulted in various levels of curtailment of irrigation diversions from the tributaries to UKL. However, information on the extent of curtailment, how much irrigation water was saved, and its impact on the UKL is unknown. In this study, we combined Landsat-based actual evapotranspiration (ETa) data obtained from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with gridded precipitation and U.S. Geological Survey station discharge data to evaluate the hydrologic impact of the curtailment program. Analysis was performed for 2004, 2006, 2008–2010 (base years), and 2013–2016 (target years) over irrigated areas above UKL. Our results indicate that the savings from the curtailment program over the June to September time period were highest during 2013 and declined in each of the following years. The total on-field water savings was approximately 60 hm3 in 2013 and 2014, 44 hm3 in 2015, and 32 hm3 in 2016 (1 hm3 = 10,000 m3 or 810.7 ac-ft). The instream water flow changes or extra water available were 92, 68, 45, and 26 hm3, respectively, for 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Highest water savings came from pasture and wetlands. Alfalfa showed the most decline in water use among grain crops. The resulting extra water available from the curtailment contributed to a maximum of 19% of the lake inflows and 50% of the lake volume. The Landsat-based ETa and other remote sensing datasets used in this study can be used to monitor crop water use at the irrigation district scale and to quantify water savings as a result of land-water management changes.
Models / Energy balance / River basins / Lakes / Irrigated sites / Precipitation / Crops / Water availability / Water use / Agriculture / Satellite imagery / Landsat / Evapotranspiration / Hydrological factors / Water conservation / Irrigation water
Smakhtin, V.; Perera, D.; Qadir, M.; Aureli, A.; Carvalho-Resende, T.; Dhot, N.; Findikakis, A.; Villholth, Karen G.; Gurdak, J. J.; Zandaryaa, S.; Hulsmann, S.; Medlicott, K.; Connor, R.; Timmerman, J. 2020. Water availability, infrastructure and ecosystems.
In UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: water and climate change. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.46-57. More...
This chapter establishes linkages between climate change and various aspects of water management. Adaptation and resilience-building options are presented with respect to water storage – including groundwater – and water supply and sanitation infrastructure, and unconventional water supply options are described. Mitigation options for water management systems are also presented.
Aquifers / Wetlands / Coastal area / Sanitation / Wastewater treatment / Water reuse / Water supply / Water security / Water scarcity / Water storage / Resilience / Groundwater / Water resources / Climate change mitigation / Water management / Climate change adaptation / Ecosystems / Infrastructure / Water availability
Pavelic, Paul. 2020. Mitigating floods for managing droughts through aquifer storage: an examination of two complementary approaches.
Washington, DC, USA: World Bank 16p. (Water Knowledge Note) More...
Interventions that are robust, cost effective, and scalable are in critical demand throughout South Asia to offset growing water scarcity and avert increasingly frequent water-related disasters. This case study presents two complementary forms of intervention that transform water hazards (floodwater) into a resource (groundwater) to boost agricultural productivity and enhance livelihoods. The first intervention, holiya, is simple and operated by individual farmers at the plot/farm scale to control local flooding in semiarid climates. The second is the underground transfer of floods for irrigation (UTFI) and operates at the village scale to offset seasonal floods from upstream in humid climates. Rapid assessments indicate that holiyas have been established at more than 300 sites across two districts in North Gujarat since the 1990s, extending the crop growing season and improving water quality. UTFI knowledge and experience has grown rapidly since implementation of a pilot trial in western Uttar Pradesh in 2015 and is now embedded within government programs with commitments for modest scaling up. Both approaches can help farmers redress the multiple impacts associated with floods, droughts, and groundwater overexploitation at a range of scales from farm plot to the river basin. The potential for wider uptake across South Asia depends on setting up demonstration sites beyond India and overcoming gaps in technical knowledge and institutional capacity.
Case studies / Villages / s participation / Womenapos / Gender / Farmers / Community involvement / Institutions / Social aspects / Environmental effects / Economic aspects / Sustainability / Performance evaluation / Technology assessment / Flood irrigation / Drought / Flood control / Water management / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge
Tilahun, S. A.; Yilak, D. L.; Schmitter, Petra; Zimale, F. A.; Langan, Simon; Barron, Jennie; Parlange, J.-Y.; Steenhuis, T. S. 2020. Establishing irrigation potential of a hillside aquifer in the African highlands. Hydrological Processes,
34(8):1741-1753. [DOI] More...
Feeding 9 billion people in 2050 will require sustainable development of all water resources, both surface and subsurface. Yet, little is known about the irrigation potential of hillside shallow aquifers in many highland settings in sub-Saharan Africa that are being considered for providing irrigation water during the dry monsoon phase for smallholder farmers. Information on the shallow groundwater being available in space and time on sloping lands might aid in increasing food production in the dry monsoon phase. Therefore, the research objective of this work is to estimate potential groundwater storage as a potential source of irrigation water for hillside aquifers where lateral subsurface flow is dominant. The research was carried out in the Robit Bata experimental watershed in the Lake Tana basin which is typical of many undulating watersheds in the Ethiopian highlands. Farmers have excavated more than 300 hand dug wells for irrigation. We used 42 of these wells to monitor water table fluctuation from April 16, 2014 to December 2015. Precipitation and runoff data were recorded for the same period. The temporal groundwater storage was estimated using two methods: one based on the water balance with rainfall as input and baseflow and evaporative losses leaving the watershed as outputs; the second based on the observed rise and fall of water levels in wells. We found that maximum groundwater storage was at the end of the rain phase in September after which it decreased linearly until the middle of December due to short groundwater retention times. In the remaining part of the dry season period, only wells located close to faults contained water. Thus, without additional water sources, sloping lands can only be used for significant irrigation inputs during the first 3 months out of the 8 months long dry season.
Models / Farmer-led irrigation / Small scale systems / Watersheds / Rain / Discharges / Runoff / Infiltration / Monitoring / Hydrometeorology / Water levels / Water availability / Water storage / Water budget / Wells / Irrigation water / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater table / Sloping land / Highlands / Aquifers
van Koppen, Barbara; Molose, V.; Phasha, K.; Bophela, T.; Modiba, I.; White, M.; Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga. 2020. Guidelines for community-led multiple use water services: evidence from rural South Africa.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 36p. (IWMI Working Paper 194) [DOI] More...
The African Water Facility, together with the Water Research Commission, South Africa, as its implementing agent, supported the demonstration project Operationalizing community-led Multiple Use water Services (MUS) in South Africa. As knowledge broker and research partner in this project, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) analyzed processes and impacts at the local level, where the nongovernmental organization Tsogang Water and Sanitation demonstrated community-led MUS in six diverse rural communities in two of the poorest districts of South Africa, Sekhukhune and Vhembe districts - Ga Mokgotho, Ga Moela and Phiring in the Sekhukhune District Municipality, and Tshakhuma, Khalavha and Ha Gumbu in Vhembe District Municipality. In conventional water infrastructure projects, external state or non-state agencies plan, diagnose, design and prioritize solutions, mobilize funding, and implement the procurement of materials, recruitment of workers and construction. However, this MUS project facilitated decision-making by communities, and provided technical and institutional advice and capacity development. Based on IWMI’s evidence, tools and manuals, the project team organized learning alliances and policy dialogues from municipal to national level on the replication of community-led MUS by water services authorities; government departments of water, agriculture, and others; employment generation programs; climate and disaster management; and corporate social responsibility initiatives.
This working paper synthesizes the lessons learned about the six steps of the community-led MUS process in all six communities. The step-wise process appeared to be welcome and effective across the board. The duration of the process and the costs of facilitation, technical and institutional capacity development, and engineering advice and quality control were comparable to conventional approaches. However, the respective responsibilities of the government and communities, also in longer-term co-management arrangements, depended on the type of infrastructure. Some communities were supported to improve their communal self supply systems. In other communities, the process enabled an extension of the reticulation of borehole systems owned, operated and maintained by municipalities. Almost all households used water supplies at homesteads for multiple purposes, underscoring synergies in cross-sectoral collaboration between the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and irrigation sectors.
Households / Villages / Wages / Labour / Inclusion / s participation / Womenapos / Climate change adaptation / Decision making / Nongovernmental organizations / State intervention / Capacity building / Institutions / Financing / Costs / Collaboration / Technical aid / Innovation / Construction / Boreholes / Infrastructure / Water quality / Water storage / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Participatory approaches / Planning / Small scale systems / Communal irrigation systems / Rural communities / Guidelines / Co-management / Water supply / Multiple use water services
van Koppen, Barbara; Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga; Molose, V.; Phasha, K.; Bophela, T.; Modiba, I.; White, M. 2020. Process and benefits of community-led multiple use water services: comparing two communities in South Africa.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 43p. (IWMI Working Paper 193) [DOI] More...
The African Water Facility, together with the Water Research Commission, South Africa, as its implementing agent, supported the demonstration project Operationalizing community-led Multiple Use water Services (MUS) in South Africa. As knowledge broker and research partner in this project, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) analyzed processes and impacts at the local level, where the nongovernmental organization Tsogang Water and Sanitation demonstrated community-led MUS in six diverse rural communities in two of the poorest districts of South Africa, Sekhukhune and Vhembe districts - Ga Mokgotho, Ga Moela and Phiring in the Sekhukhune District Municipality, and Tshakhuma, Khalavha and Ha Gumbu in Vhembe District Municipality. In conventional water infrastructure projects, external state and non-state agencies plan, diagnose, design and prioritize solutions, mobilize funding, and implement the procurement of materials, recruitment of workers and construction. However, this MUS project facilitated decision-making by communities, and provided technical and institutional advice and capacity development. Based on IWMI’s evidence, tools and manuals, the project team organized learning alliances and policy dialogues from municipal to national level on the replication of community-led MUS by water services authorities; government departments of water, agriculture, and others; employment generation programs; climate and disaster management; and corporate social responsibility initiatives.
This working paper reports on the local findings of Ga Mokgotho and Ga Moela villages, which had completed construction works. The paper presents an in-depth analysis from the preproject situation to each of the steps of the participatory process, and highlights the resulting benefits of more water, more reliable and sustainable supplies, and multiple benefits, including a 60% and 76% increase in the value of irrigated produce in Ga Mokgotho and Ga Moela, respectively. Women were the sole irrigation manager in 68% and 60% of the households in Ga Mokgotho and Ga Moela, respectively. The user satisfaction survey highlighted communities’ unanimous preference of the participatory process, capacity development and ownership compared to conventional approaches.
Villages / Rural areas / Nongovernmental organizations / State intervention / Capacity building / s participation / Womenapos / Income / Livelihoods / Households / Water users / Financing / Irrigated farming / Livestock / Domestic water / Water use / Water distribution / Groundwater / Geohydrology / Maintenance / Boreholes / Wells / Pumps / Infrastructure / Water storage / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Water availability / Access and benefit-sharing / Innovation / Participatory approaches / Communal irrigation systems / Water supply / Community management / Multiple use water services
Donauer, T.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Goshime, Demelash Wondimagegnehu; Siegfried, T.; Ragettli, S. 2020. Gap and opportunity analysis of hydrological monitoring in the Ziway-Shala Sub-basin, Ethiopia.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 40p. (IWMI Working Paper 192) [DOI] More...
This working paper was prepared under a development and conservation project – Societal Development and Ecosystems Conservation in Sahelian Wetlands (SAWEL) – focusing on improving food security and nutrition in the Sahel region by helping to safeguard wetlands through ecologically sustainable agricultural water management. SAWEL is supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). This paper provides an overview of the current situation with regards to hydrological monitoring in the Ziway-Shala sub-basin in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, including details of existing river and lake gauging stations in the sub-basin. The study was jointly conducted by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and Hydrosolutions through consultation with staff of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin Development Office (RVLBDO), field trips to gauging stations, inspection of data recording books and reviewing previous studies. In addition to highlighting gaps in hydrological monitoring in the Ziway-Shala sub-basin, opportunities (e.g., remote sensing and citizen science) for novel, non-traditional hydrological monitoring are also presented.
Socioeconomic development / Irrigation / Evapotranspiration / Catchment areas / Rain / Precipitation / Time series analysis / Remote sensing / Velocity / Citizen science / Stakeholders / Observation / Measurement / Discharges / Stream flow / Planning / Water management / Water resources / Data management / Data collection / Water balance / Water levels / Lakes / River basin institutions / Monitoring / Hydrological data
Nguyen-Khoa, S.; McCartney, Matthew; Funge-Smith, S.; Smith, L.; Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali; Dubois, M. 2020. Increasing the benefits and sustainability of irrigation through the integration of fisheries: a guide for water planners, managers and engineers.
: Rome, Italy: FAO; Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 92p. [DOI] More...
There is increasing recognition of the need to bring about changes across the full spectrum of agricultural practices to ensure that, in future, food production systems are more diverse, sustainable and resilient. In this context, the objectives of irrigation need to be much more ambitious, shifting away from simply maximizing crop yields to maximizing net benefits across a range of uses of irrigation water, including ecosystems and nature-based solutions. One important way to achieve this is by better integrating fisheries into the planning, design, construction, operation and management of irrigation systems. Irrigation – a major contributor to the Green Revolution – has significantly improved agricultural production worldwide, with consequent benefits for food security, livelihoods and poverty alleviation. Today, irrigated agriculture represents about 21 percent of cultivated land, but contributes approximately 40% of the total global crop production. Many governments continue to invest in irrigation as a cornerstone of food security and rural development. Investments in irrigation often represent a pragmatic form of adaptation to changing climatic conditions. This guide focuses on how to sustainably optimize and broaden the range of benefits from irrigation development - not only economic but also social and environmental benefits. It emphasizes the opportunities that fisheries could provide to increase food production and economic returns, enhance livelihoods and public health outcomes, and maintain key ecosystem services. The guide considers possible trade-offs between irrigation and fisheries, and provides recommendations on how these could be minimized.
Floodplains / Rivers / Water reservoirs / Rural areas / Conflicts / Stakeholders / Institutions / Water governance / Participatory approaches / Community management / Sustainable Development Goals / Trends / Environmental Impact Assessment / Monitoring and evaluation / Socioeconomic environment / Nutrition security / Food security / Livelihoods / Infrastructure / Irrigated farming / Aquaculture / Habitats / Aquatic ecosystems / Irrigation management / Guidelines / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management / Irrigation systems / Sustainability / Fishery production
Yimer, A. K.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Hatiye, S. D.; Azeref, A. G. 2020. Seasonal effect on the accuracy of land use/land cover classification in the Bilate Sub-basin, Abaya-Chamo Basin, Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Water Science and Technology,
A correct and timely land use/land cover (LULC) classification provides indispensable information for the effective management of environmental and natural resources. However, earlier studies mapped the LULC map of Bilate Sub-basin using remote sensing images that were acquired for a single season. Hence, these studies did not consider the seasonal effects on the accuracy of LULC classification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in classification accuracy for images acquired during wet and dry seasons in the Bilate Sub-basin. LULC of the study area was classified using the Landsat 8 satellite imageries. Based on field observations, we classified the LULC of the study area into 9 dominant classes. The classification for the two seasons resulted in a noticeable difference between the LULC composition of the study area because of seasonal differences in the classification accuracy. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps was 80%for the wet season and 90% for the dry season with Kappa coefficient values of 0.8 and 0.9 respectively. Therefore, the two seasons showed a significant difference in the overall accuracy of the classification. However, we discovered that when the classification accuracy was tested locally, that is for individual pixels, the results were not the same. In Bilate Sub-basin, several pixels (14.71%) were assigned to different LULC classes on the two seasons maps while 85.29% of the LULC classes remained unaltered in the two maps. According to the classification results, the season had a noticeable effect on the accuracy of LULC classification. This suggests that for LULC classification, multitemporal images should be used rather than a single remote sensing image.
Satellite imagery / Landsat / Remote sensing / Settlement / Shrubs / Forests / Water resources / Agriculture / Cultivated land / Dry season / Wet season / Seasonal variation / Classification systems / Land cover / Land use
Warner, S.; Chapman, D.; Dickens, Chris. 2020. Good ambient water quality.
In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds.). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 11p. (Online first). (Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals) [DOI] More...
Wastewater / Assessment / Monitoring / Topography / Biological processes / Anthropogenic factors / Ecosystems / Geology / Freshwater / Lakes / Rivers / Groundwater / Water resources / Development indicators / Sustainable Development Goals / Water quality
Ulrich, Andreas; Ekasanti, Prawisti; Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Taron, Avinandan. 2020. Catalog of technical options for fecal sludge management in Bangladesh.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 140p. More...
Sustainable Development Goals / Sanitation / Costs / Maintenance / Planning / Legislation / Pelleting / Composting / Pumps / Heat treatment / Anaerobic digesters / Septic tanks / Transport / Reuse / Resource recovery / Treatment plants / Waste treatment / Value chains / Technological changes / Waste management / Faecal sludge
Endrie, B.; Schmitter, Petra; Haileslassie, Amare; Desalegn, Y.; Chali, A.; Tilahun, S.; Barron, Jennie. 2019. Feeding hungry and thirsty soils increases yield and protects the environment: some results of a Wetting Front Detectors (WFD) experiment in LIVES [Livestock and Irrigation Value Chains for Ethiopian Smallholders].
In Mekonnen, K.; Yasabu, S.; Gebremedhin, B.; Woldemeskel, E.; Tegegne, A.; Thorne, P. (Eds.). Proceedings of a Workshop and Exhibition on Promoting Productivity and Market Access Technologies and Approaches to Improve Farm Income and Livelihoods in Ethiopia: Lessons from Action Research Projects, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 8-9 December 2016. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). pp.13-17. More...
Agricultural practices / Farmers / Soils / Crop yield / Fertilizer application / Reservoirs / Experimentation / Wetting front / Water management / Irrigation schemes
Dillon, P.; Stuyfzand, P.; Grischek, T.; Lluria, M.; Pyne, R. D. G.; Jain, R. C.; Bear, J.; Schwarz, J.; Wang, W.; Fernandez, E.; Stefan, C.; Pettenati, M.; van der Gun, J.; Sprenger, C.; Massmann, G.; Scanlon, B. R.; Xanke, J; Jokela, P.; Zheng, Y.; Rossetto, R.; Shamrukh, M.; Pavelic, Paul; Murray, E.; Ross, A.; Bonilla Valverde, J. P.; Palma Nava, A.; Ansems, N.; Posavec, K.; Ha, K.; Martin, R.; Sapiano, M. 2019. Sixty years of global progress in managed aquifer recharge. Hydrogeology Journal,
27(1):1-30. [DOI] More...
The last 60 years has seen unprecedented groundwater extraction and overdraft as well as development of new technologies for water treatment that together drive the advance in intentional groundwater replenishment known as managed aquifer recharge (MAR). This paper is the first known attempt to quantify the volume of MAR at global scale, and to illustrate the advancement of all the major types of MAR and relate these to research and regulatory advancements. Faced with changing climate and rising intensity of climate extremes, MAR is an increasingly important water management strategy, alongside demand management, to maintain, enhance and secure stressed groundwater systems and to protect and improve water quality. During this time, scientific research—on hydraulic design of facilities, tracer studies, managing clogging, recovery efficiency and water quality changes in aquifers—has underpinned practical improvements in MAR and has had broader benefits in hydrogeology. Recharge wells have greatly accelerated recharge, particularly in urban areas and for mine water management. In recent years, research into governance, operating practices, reliability, economics, risk assessment and public acceptance of MAR has been undertaken. Since the 1960s, implementation of MAR has accelerated at a rate of 5%/year, but is not keeping pace with increasing groundwater extraction. Currently, MAR has reached an estimated 10 km3/year, ~2.4% of groundwater extraction in countries reporting MAR (or ~1.0% of global groundwater extraction). MAR is likely to exceed 10% of global extraction, based on experience where MAR is more advanced, to sustain quantity, reliability and quality of water supplies.
Drinking water / Filtration / Artificial recharge / Aquifers / Water supply / Water storage / Water levels / Water resources / Water quality / Water use / Groundwater pollution / Groundwater extraction / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management
Kibret, S.; Lautze, Jonathan; McCartney, Matthew; Nhamo, Luxon; Yan, G. 2019. Malaria around large dams in Africa: effect of environmental and transmission endemicity factors. Malaria Journal,
18:1-12. [DOI] More...
Background: The impact of large dams on malaria has received widespread attention. However, understanding how dam topography and transmission endemicity influence malaria incidences is limited.
; Methods: Data from the European Commission’s Joint Research Center and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission were used to determine reservoir perimeters and shoreline slope of African dams. Georeferenced data from the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) were used to estimate malaria incidence rates in communities near reservoir shorelines. Population data from the WorldPop database were used to estimate the population at risk of malaria around dams in stable and unstable areas.
; Results: The data showed that people living near (lt; 5 km) large dams in sub-Saharan Africa grew from 14.4 million in 2000 to 18.7 million in 2015. Overall, across sub-Saharan Africa between 0.7 and 1.6 million malaria cases per year are attributable to large dams. Whilst annual malaria incidence declined markedly in both stable and unstable areas between 2000 and 2015, the malaria impact of dams appeared to increase in unstable areas, but decreased in stable areas. Shoreline slope was found to be the most important malaria risk factor in dam-affected geographies, explaining 41–82% (P lt; 0.001) of the variation in malaria incidence around reservoirs.
; Conclusion: Gentler, more gradual shoreline slopes were associated with much greater malaria risk. Dam-related environmental variables such as dam topography and shoreline slopes are an important factor that should be considered in efforts to predict and control malaria around dams.
Health hazards / Communities / Climatic data / Topography / Slope / Water reservoirs / Breeding habitats / Anopheles / Mosquitoes / Endemics / Disease transmission / Environmental effects / Dams / Vector-borne diseases / Malaria
Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, B.; Fernando, Sudarshana; Hanjra, M. A. 2019. Guidelines and regulations for fecal sludge management from on-site sanitation facilities.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 57p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 14) [DOI] More...
In low- and middle-income countries, the management of fecal sludge from on-site sanitation systems has received little attention over many decades, resulting in insufficient or missing regulations to guide investments and management options. To address this gap, this report examines existing and emerging guidelines and regulations for fecal sludge management (FSM) along the sanitation service chain (user interface, containment, emptying, transport, treatment, valorization, reuse or disposal). It also draws empirical examples from guidelines across the globe to support policy-makers, planners, and sanitation and health officers, as well as consultants in low- and middle-income countries in the development and design of local and national FSM guidelines and regulations.
European Union / Governmental organizations / Institutions / Stakeholders / Households / Urban areas / Land use / Occupational hazards / Environmental protection / Fuels / Energy generation / Composting / Organic fertilizers / Sewage sludge / Soil conditioners / Microplastics / Heavy metals / Pollutants / Aquaculture / Pathogens / Excreta / Public health / Operating costs / Transport / Septic tanks / Pit latrines / Waste treatment / Waste disposal / Technology / Frameworks / Sustainable Development Goals / Policies / Standards / Regulations / Guidelines / Sanitation / Faecal sludge / Reuse / Resource management / Resource recovery
Saruchera, D.; Lautze, Jonathan. 2019. Small reservoirs in Africa: a review and synthesis to strengthen future investment.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 45p. (IWMI Working Paper 189) [DOI] More...
Small reservoirs are a critical coping mechanism in water-stressed rural areas in Africa, providing immense livelihood benefits that include improved food and water security, entrepreneurial activities and climate resilience. Challenges associated with the implementation of investments in small reservoirs include appropriate site selection, weak institutions, insufficient maintenance and sedimentation. The findings from this study suggest that the benefits of small reservoirs may be tapped more efficiently by rehabilitating old sites rather than building new infrastructure. However, the findings also point to broader lessons on the need to change the way of doing business, i.e., to adopt a long-term, more holistic approach (or model) to the construction and maintenance of small reservoirs that matches the degree of the challenge associated with sustainably tapping the benefits of the water that they store.
Case studies / Livestock / Empowerment / Women’s participation / Gender / Entrepreneurship / Rural communities / Socioeconomic development / Funding / Financing / State intervention / Nongovernmental organizations / Impact assessment / Land use / Environmental sustainability / Public health / Household income / Living standards / Food security / Performance indexes / Infrastructure / Sedimentation / Dams / Water users / Water use / Water supply / Water institutions / Water storage / Water availability / Cost benefit analysis / Reinvestment / Irrigation investment / Irrigation management / Rehabilitation / Reservoirs / Small scale systems
Anand, S.; Kakumanu, K. R.; Amarasinghe, Upali A. 2019. Use of remote sensing and GIS for identifying tanks and rehabilitation benefits to the rural areas. Journal of Rural Development,
Water storage is crucial for water security (WS) in countries with monsoon-driven climates. Tanks significantly contribute to WS by augmenting water supply to agricultural production in parts of south and Southeast Asia. The present paper assesses the potential locations of small tanks for rehabilitation to enhance WS. The Bhadrachalam catchment from the Godavari river basin, India was selected for the study. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems techniques were used to identify the small tanks and water spread areas for augmenting storage. The cost -benefit analysis was also carried out for the identified tanks with various scenarios, cropping pattern and management options. The returns from desiliting, increase in area under the tank command with paddy and cotton crops are found to be beneficial. It concludes that rehabilitation of small tanks should be considered a priority investment as it will not only enhance WS and financial benefits to local communities, but also augment river flows in the non-monsoon season.
Monsoon climate / Catchment areas / River basins / Farmers attitudes / Farmland / Irrigated sites / Satellite imagery / Rural areas / Water security / Geographical information systems / Remote sensing / Cost benefit analysis / Rehabilitation / Tanks
Davis, R.; Hirji, R. 2019. Review of water and climate change policies in South Asia. Background Paper 2.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 120p. (Climate Risks and Solutions: Adaptation Frameworks for Water Resources Planning, Development and Management in South Asia) [DOI] More...
Community involvement / Resource management / Risk management / Conjunctive use / Sanitation / Soil management / Early warning systems / Sedimentation / Landslides / Erosion / Meltwater / Legislation / Irrigation systems / Irrigation management / Dams / Precipitation / Coastal waters / Sea level / Aquifers / Stream flow / International waters / Public administration / Drought / Flood control / Investment / Water storage / Water use efficiency / Water quality / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management / Surface water / Monitoring / Education / Communication / Planning / Infrastructure / Knowledge / Integrated management / River basin management / Water supply / Water user associations / Water governance / Water policy / Water management / Water resources development / Climate change adaptation
McCartney, Matthew; Foudi, S.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Sood, Aditya; Simons, G.; Hunink, J.; Vercruysse, K.; Omuombo, C. 2019. Quantifying the services of natural and built infrastructure in the context of climate change: the case of the Tana River Basin, Kenya.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 61p. (IWMI Research Report 174) [DOI] More...
This report presents findings from a study conducted to explore the synergies and trade-offs between built (i.e., engineered) and natural (i.e., ecological systems) infrastructure in the Tana River Basin, Kenya. The study considered hydrological, ecological and economic processes in order to value flow-related ecosystem services. It provides quantitative insights into the links between flow and the benefits derived from both built and natural infrastructure. The results provide initial perspectives not just on the monetary values of a number of ecosystem services (and how they change as flows vary and are altered by large dams) but also, importantly, aspects of equity and social inclusion, that also need to be considered in decision-making.
Land management / Decision making / Grazing / Smallholders / Ecosystem services / Cost benefit analysis / River basins / Sediment / Coastal area / Flood irrigation / Inland fisheries / Estuarine fisheries / Marine fisheries / Reservoirs / Soils / Hydrological factors / Hydroelectric power / Economic impact / Economic analysis / Flow discharge / Flood control / Floodplains / Dam construction / Downstream / Upstream / Infrastructure / Manmade structures / Natural environment / Climate change
Kolusu, S. R.; Shamsudduha, M.; Todd, M. C.; Taylor, R. G.; Seddon, D.; Kashaigili, J. J.; Ebrahim, Girma Y.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Villholth, Karen G.; MacDonald, A. M.; MacLeod, D. A. 2019. The El Nino event of 2015-2016: climate anomalies and their impact on groundwater resources in East and Southern Africa. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
23: 1751-1762 [DOI] More...
The impact of climate variability on groundwater storage has received limited attention despite widespread dependence on groundwater as a resource for drinking water, agriculture and industry. Here, we assess the climate anomalies that occurred over Southern Africa (SA) and East Africa, south of the Equator (EASE), during the major El Nio event of 2015–2016, and their associated impacts on groundwater storage, across scales, through analysis of in situ groundwater piezometry and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. At the continental scale, the El Nio of 2015–2016 was associated with a pronounced dipole of opposing rainfall anomalies over EASE and Southern Africa, north–south of ~12 S, a characteristic pattern of the El Nio–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Over Southern Africa the most intense drought event in the historical record occurred, based on an analysis of the cross-scale areal intensity of surface water balance anomalies (as represented by the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index – SPEI), with an estimated return period of at least 200 years and a best estimate of 260 years. Climate risks are changing, and we estimate that anthropogenic warming only (ignoring changes to other climate variables, e.g. precipitation) has approximately doubled the risk of such an extreme SPEI drought event. These surface water balance deficits suppressed groundwater recharge, leading to a substantial groundwater storage decline indicated by both GRACE satellite and piezometric data in the Limpopo basin. Conversely, over EASE during the 2015–2016 El Nio event, anomalously wet conditions were observed with an estimated return period of ~10 years, likely moderated by the absence of a strongly positive Indian Ocean zonal mode phase. The strong but not extreme rainy season increased groundwater storage, as shown by satellite GRACE data and rising groundwater levels observed at a site in central Tanzania. We note substantial uncertainties in separating groundwater from total water storage in GRACE data and show that consistency between GRACE and piezometric estimates of groundwater storage is apparent when spatial averaging scales are comparable. These results have implications for sustainable and climate-resilient groundwater resource management, including the potential for adaptive strategies, such as managed aquifer recharge during episodic recharge events.
Satellite observation / Satellite imagery / Evapotranspiration / Precipitation / Surface water / Water levels / Water balance / Drought / Rainfall / Climate change / Water storage / Water resources / Groundwater management / El Nino
Giordano, Meredith; Barron, J.; Unver, O. 2019. Water scarcity and challenges for smallholder agriculture.
In Campanhola, C.; Pandey, S. (Eds.). Sustainable food and agriculture: an integrated approach. London, UK: Academic Press; Rome, Italy: FAO. pp.75-94. [DOI] More...
Water availability for agriculture will become a growing constraint in areas already under environmental and social stress due to population growth, development, and climatic variability. This limits the potential for expanding irrigated areas and for sustainable intensification, and compromises the ability of smallholder farmers to cater to the increased demand for food. This chapter assesses the key global challenges to water availability and how increasing scarcity and competition for water resources are affecting agricultural productivity, especially that of smallholder producers in Asia and Africa. It further analyzes emerging water management practices that can be sustainably adapted to the needs of smallholder farmers. We provide evidence of the economic viability and potential to improve farmers’ income from such solutions. The opportunity for scaling up high-impact solutions is also assessed against available empirical evidence.
Policies / Investment / Household income / Living standards / Benefit-cost ratio / Pumps / Solar energy / Renewable energy / Irrigation water / Groundwater / Water storage / Water resources / Food security / Sustainability / Technology / Water management / Farmers / Agricultural sector / Smallholders / Water scarcity
Sreedevi, P.D.; Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Pavelic, Paul. 2019. Module III: geohydrology context.
in Reddy, V. R.; Syme, G. J.; Tallapragada, C. Integrated approaches to sustainable watershed management in xeric environments: a training manual. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. pp.27-38. [DOI] More...
The purpose of the module is to demonstrate how scientific information can make a big difference in proper understanding of the differences in WS impacts across projects and sites. The module presents scientific information in an easy-to-understand format. Concepts are explained and applied and implications discussed making the module highly practice oriented. Rich scientific information on case study sites is presented in detail to help visualize the case study characteristics clearly so that the learners can relate the information to sites they are familiar with. Toward the end of the module, learners will be exposed to a decision support tool that can be run on Microsoft Excel, which is designed to assist in water resource planning for watershed at the mesoscale. It can also be used for assessing changing land use and climate regimes within the watershed. The tools help in exploring recharge interventions, changes in cropping patterns, and irrigation practices.
Case studies / Training materials / Models / Observation / Decision support systems / Sustainability / Resource management / Estimation / Water levels / Surface water / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / Geometry / Aquifers / Hydrogeology / Watershed management
Ulrich, Andreas; Taron, Avinandan; Jayathilake, Nilanthi. 2019. Assessment of the FSM value-chain in Sri Lanka.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 123p. More...
Composting / Sustainability / Institutions / Financial analysis / Feasibility studies / Septic tanks / Infrastructure / Treatment plants / Wastewater treatment / Business models / Reuse / Resource recovery / Assessment / Value chains / Waste management / Faecal sludge
Young, W. J.; Anwar, Arif; Bhatti, Tousif; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Davies, S.; Garthwaite, W. R. III; Gilmont, M.; Leb, C.; Lytton, L.; Makin, Ian; Saeed, B. 2019. Pakistan: getting more from water.
Washington, DC, USA: World Bank 191p. (Water Security Diagnostics) More...
This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water. The report highlights the complex water issues that Pakistan must tackle to improve water security and sheds new light on conventional assumptions around water. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development. The report assesses current water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. It identifies unmitigated water-related risks, as well as opportunities where water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The report analyzes how the performance and architecture of the water sector are related to broader economic, social, and environmental outcomes. It models alternative economic trajectories to identify where intervention can lead to a more water-secure future. A consideration of water sector architecture and performance and how these determine outcome leads to recommendations for improving aspects of sector performance and adjusting sector architecture for better outcomes. The sector performance analysis considers (a) management of the water resource, (b) delivery of water services, and (c) mitigation of water-related risks. The description of sector architecture considers water governance, infrastructure, and financing.
Models / Monitoring / Political aspects / Sediment / Dams / Reservoirs / Rivers / Planning / Risk reduction / Flood control / Climate change / Sanitation / Income / Financing / Economic aspects / Investment / Infrastructure / Law reform / Legal frameworks / Environmental sustainability / Nexus / Energy / Hydropower / Water supply / Irrigated farming / Irrigated sites / Irrigation systems / Institutional reform / Water extraction / Water quality / Water demand / Water balance / Water allocation / Water availability / Water productivity / Agricultural water use / Groundwater management / Water policy / Water governance / Water management / Water resources / Water security
Chuthong, J.; Liu, H.; Xu, F.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, W.; Leh, Mansoor; Lacombe, Guillaume. 2019. Joint research on hydrological impacts of the Lancang hydropower cascade on downstream extreme events: final report.
: Vientiane, Lao PDR: Mekong River Commission (MRC); Beijing, China: Lancang-Mekong Water Resources Cooperation Center (LMWRCC); Beijing, China: China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR); Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 140p. More...
Models / Salinity / Meteorological stations / International waters / Climatic factors / Dry season / Runoff / Water levels / Discharges / Stream flow / Dams / Rivers / Reservoirs / Water resources / Rain / Precipitation / Flooding / Drought / Extreme weather events / Hydrological factors / Development projects / Hydropower
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Shrestha, S. R. 2019. Melamchi water supply project: potential to replenish Kathmandu’s groundwater status for dry season access. Water Policy,
21(S1):29-49. [DOI] More...
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) currently uses 35 surface and 57 groundwater sources to supply water for Nepal’s capital, Kathmandu. It is necessary to understand if the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) can assist lean period water supply by indirectly increasing groundwater storage, through diverting excess water supply to groundwater recharge zones. The current study analyzed long-term groundwater depletion to assess available groundwater storage, followed by assessment of groundwater balance for the Kathmandu Valley. Results show that total groundwater extraction for Kathmandu was 69.44 million cubic meters (MCM) and drawdown of the groundwater surface was 15–20 m since the construction of wells in 1984/85, indicating substantial overexploitation. Results indicate that the ongoing unmet demand of 170 MCM/year can be easily satisfied if groundwater storage is recharged effectively, as underground water storage potential is 246 MCM/year due to a groundwater depletion rate of 2–10 m. From results, it is evident that that the timely implementation of the MWSP can help ease ongoing water stress and aid in reversing the damage caused to groundwater storage. In the long run, MWSP can supply water and recharge groundwater during monsoon periods, thus improving the quality of life and socio-economic status in Kathmandu.
Economic aspects / Groundwater extraction / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Water demand / Water stress / Water availability / Dry season / Water balance / Water storage / Groundwater table / Water resources / Projects / Water supply / Groundwater assessment
Mark, Y.-A.; Amoah, Philip; Nelson, A. W.; Muspratt, A.; Aikins, S. 2019. Safety assessment on microbial and heavy metal concentration in clarias gariepinus (African catfish) cultured in treated wastewater pond in Kumasi, Ghana. Environmental Technology,
40(3):302-311. [DOI] More...
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2–3 log units as expected. Significantly higher levels of pathogen contamination were detected in the gut and skin of fish from the WFP than the NWFP. Heavy metal concentrations in all samples fell within the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) permissible limits except for iron and cadmium. There were significantly higher heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver than the muscle. Even though iron recorded the highest concentrations in fish tissue, the concentrations (0.1–2.0 mg kg-1) were below the expected daily nutritional requirement (1–2 mg) for humans and pose no toxicological risk. However, catfish from WFP would require precautionary measures such as cooking/grilling prior to consumption to avoid pathogen infection.
Health hazards / Sediment / Chemicophysical properties / Pathogens / Microbiological analysis / Fish ponds / Wastewater / Risk assessment / Heavy metals / Biological contamination / African catfish / Aquaculture
Hecht, J. S.; Lacombe, Guillaume; Arias, M. E.; Duc Dang, T.; Piman, T. 2019. Hydropower dams of the Mekong river basin: a review of their hydrological impacts. Journal of Hydrology,
568: 285-300. [DOI] More...
Hydropower production is altering the Mekong River basin’s riverine ecosystems, which contain the world’s largest inland fishery and provide food security and livelihoods to millions of people. The basin’s hydropower reservoir storage, which may rise from ~2% of its mean annual flow in 2008 to ~20% in 2025, is attenuating seasonal flow variability downstream of many dams with integral powerhouses and large storage reservoirs. In addition, tributary diversions for off-stream energy production are reducing downstream flows and augmenting them in recipient tributaries. To help manage tradeoffs between dam benefits (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, domestic water supply, and navigation) and their consequences for livelihoods and ecosystems, we review observed and projected impacts on river flows along both the Mekong mainstream and its tributaries. We include the effects of diversions and inter-basin transfers, which prior reviews of flow alteration in the Mekong basin have largely neglected. We also discuss the extent to which concurrent changes in climate, water demand, and land use, may offset or exacerbate hydropower-induced flow alteration. Our major recommendations for assessing hydrological impacts in the Mekong and other basins undergoing rapid hydropower development include synchronizing and integrating observational and modeling studies, improving the accuracy of reservoir water balances, evaluating multi-objective reservoir operating rules, examining hydropeaking-induced flow alteration, conducting multi-dam safety assessments, evaluating flow indicators relevant to local ecosystems and livelihoods, and considering alternative energy sources and reservoir sedimentation in long-term projections. Finally, we strongly recommend that dam impact studies consider hydrological alteration in conjunction with fish passage barriers, geomorphic changes and other contemporaneous stressors.
Land cover change / Climate change / Sedimentation / Renewable energy / Energy generation / Tributaries / Mainstreaming / Downstream / Living standards / Food security / Ecosystems / Hydrological factors / River basin management / Water demand / Water storage / Reservoir storage / Dams / Hydropower
Walker, D.; Parkin, G.; Schmitter, Petra; Gowing, J.; Tilahun, S. A.; Haile, Alemseged T.; Yimam, A. Y. 2019. Insights from a multi-method recharge estimation comparison study. Groundwater,
57(2): 245-258 [DOI] More...
Although most recharge estimation studies apply multiple methods to identify the possible range in recharge values, many do not distinguish clearly enough between inherent uncertainty of the methods and other factors affecting the results. We investigated the additional value that can be gained from multi-method recharge studies through insights into hydrogeological understanding, in addition to characterizing uncertainty. Nine separate groundwater recharge estimation methods, with a total of 17 variations, were applied at a shallow aquifer in northwest Ethiopia in the context of the potential for shallow groundwater resource development. These gave a wide range of recharge values from 45 to 814 mm/a. Critical assessment indicated that the results depended on what the recharge represents (actual, potential, minimum recharge or change in aquifer storage), and spatial and temporal scales, as well as uncertainties from application of each method. Important insights into the hydrogeological system were gained from this detailed analysis, which also confirmed that the range of values for actual recharge was reduced to around 280-430 mm/a. This study demonstrates that even when assumptions behind methods are violated, as they often are to some degree especially when data are limited, valuable insights into the hydrogeological system can be gained from application of multiple methods.
Rain / Uncertainty / Water table / Water levels / Water resources development / Water storage / Groundwater flow / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Hydrogeology
Whitley, L.; Hutchings, P.; Cooper, S.; Parker, A.; Kebede, A.; Joseph, S.; Butterworth, J.; van Koppen, Barbara; Mulejaa, A. 2019. A framework for targeting water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in pastoralist populations in the Afar Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health,
222(8):1133-1144. [DOI] More...
Globally, many populations face structural and environmental barriers to access safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Among these populations are many of the 200 million pastoralists whose livelihood patterns and extreme environmental settings challenge conventional WASH programming approaches. In this paper, we studied the Afar pastoralists in Ethiopia to identify WASH interventions that can mostly alleviate public health risks, within the populationapos;s structural and environmental living constraints. Surveys were carried out with 148 individuals and observational assessments made in 12 households as part of a Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment. The results show that low levels of access to infrastructure are further compounded by risky behaviours related to water containment, storage and transportation. Additional behavioural risk factors were identified related to sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry. The Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment visually interprets the seriousness of the risks against the difficulty of addressing the problem. The assessment recommends interventions on household behaviours, environmental cleanliness, water storage, treatment and hand hygiene via small-scale educational interventions. The framework provides an approach for assessing risks in other marginal populations that are poorly understood and served through conventional approaches.
Households / Villages / Human behaviour / Water storage / Water purification / Drinking water / Pathogens / Faecal pollution / Health hazards / Public health / Communities / Pastoralists / Risk assessment / Hygiene / Sanitation / Water supply
Wijekoon, W. M. S. M.; Gunawardena, E. R. N.; Aheeyar, Mohamed M. M. 2018. Resilience of farmers at water shortage situations in minor irrigation systems: a case study in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research,
Farmers in Minor Irrigation Systems (MIS) experience many difficulties due to severe seasonal or year-round absolute water scarcity that affects their livelihoods. In order to address this problem, the resilience of the vulnerable communities needs to be enhanced through smart investments and appropriate adaptation strategies. Since there is no well-established method for assessing the resilience of the farmers in MIS, this study was aimed to develop a framework and prospective methodology to assess resilience and factors determining the resilience to shocks and stresses of MIS. A structured questionnaire survey was carried out among 188 households belong to eight farmer organizations under 16 MIS located in three Agrarian Service Divisions in the IL3 agro-ecological region in Kurunegala District. The resilience of farming was measured using adaptive capacity or the risk management strategies used at household levels related to farming practices using 20 indicators. Analysis of factors was performed with the principle component method and rotated (from Varimax with Kaiser Normalization technique) factor loadings were extracted to compute resilience index. Using the empirical equation derived from the study, the resilience of MIS was quantitatively determined. The results showed that there is an adequate space to enhance the resilience of farming in MIS by introducing and adapting various risk management strategies. It appears that capacity of the tank, accessibility of services and the trust of farmers both on farmer organizations and the agency officials are some of the key factors which govern the resilience of farming in MIS.
Case studies / Socioeconomic environment / Tanks / Farming systems / Living standards / Risk management / Communities / Irrigation systems / Small scale systems / Farmers / Water scarcity / Water shortage
Wutich, A.; Cardenas, J. C.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Rauschmayer, F.; Schleyer, C.; Srinivasan, V.; Suhardiman, Diana; Tallis, H.; Zwarteveen, M. 2018. Integrating sustainability, justice and diversity?: opportunities and challenges for inclusively framing water research.
In S. Lele, S. Brondizio, J. Byrne, G. Mace, J. Martinez-Alier (Eds.), Rethinking environmentalism: linking justice, sustainability and diversity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp.251-286. More...
The twentieth century has seen a dramatic increase in human uses of and human impacts on water resources, increasing competition over water as well as depleting or deteriorating its availability. Given its importance to human life and livelihoods, water is becoming one of the major foci of environmental research. The coincidence of water scarcity with poverty in many parts of the world makes it a focal point of international development efforts. With engineering thinking dominating over past decades, water management research has embraced more integrative approaches triggered by an increasing awareness of failures that focused on narrow single issues or technical solutions to address the complex challenges of sustainable water management. This chapter explores whether, when, and how more inclusive framings might enable more socially relevant and impactful research, and lead to more effective action. Discussion begins by establishing what a frame is and then de ning what is meant by an “inclusive frame” for interdisciplinary research on environmental problems. Seven frames in water research are examined; emphasis is given to how framings are driven by differences in normative and theoretical positions, which yields very different views on progress and how best to achieve it. Next, the use of more inclusive frames in academic or research contexts is explored using two examples which incorporate multiple normative and theoretical positions. Barriers encountered by academics and researchers, as they attempt to use inclusive frames, are then examined. To explore how inclusive frames can be used to address real-world problems, three cases highlight the possibilities and challenges in applying inclusive frames to research with the goal of informing action and practice.
Case studies / Wetlands / Ecosystem services / Human rights / Lakes / River basin management / Frames / Research / Farming systems / Diversification / Sustainability / Water footprint / Water management / Water resources / Integrated management
Gafurov, Zafar; Eltazarov, Sarvarbek; Akramov, Bekzod; Djumaboev, Kakhramon; Anarbekov, Oyture; Solieva, Umida. 2018. Geodatabase and diagnostic atlas: Kashkadarya Province, Uzbekistan.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 74p. [DOI] More...
Infrastructure / Climate change / Ecosystems / Vegetation / Soil types / Groundwater / Transportation / Streams / Watersheds / Reservoir storage / Lakes / Pumps / Drainage systems / Canals / Water use efficiency / Water storage / Water resources / Irrigation water / Irrigation systems / Population density / Rural areas / Rural population / Urban areas / Urban population / Satellite imagery / Simulation models / Maps / Digital technology / River basins / Remote sensing / GIS
Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Wada, Y.; Bouraoui, F.; de Roo, A.; Mekonnen, M. M.; van de Bund, W. J.; Batelaan, O.; Pavelic, Paul; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Kummu, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Liu, J.; Bisselink, B.; Ronco, P.; Pistocchi, A.; Bidoglio, G. 2018. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress”. Science of the Total Environment,
613amp;614:218-232 [DOI] More...
Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators.
Groundwater extraction / Reservoirs / Surface water / Environmental flows / Indicators / Monitoring / Evaluation / Economic activities / Sustainable development / Water quality / Water availability / Water use efficiency / Water stress / Water scarcity
Hagos, Fitsum; van Rooijen, Daniel; Haileslassie, Amare; Yehualashet, H.; Indries, H. 2018. Investigation of the modalities for an innovative financing mechanism for participatory natural resource management in the Bale Eco-region, Ethiopia.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 36p. (IWMI Working Paper 181) [DOI] More...
This study reviewed the status of natural resources and the driving forces for change, as well as past and ongoing approaches in natural resource management at the watershed scale in Ethiopia. First, we reviewed established environmental policy tools and the legal and policy framework, and determined whether innovative financing mechanisms are working in other areas with a similar context. We undertook stakeholder analyses and mapping to identify key stakeholders, and to assess their possible roles in the implementation of a sustainable financing mechanism for watershed rehabilitation. We also determined whether opportunities exist for financing mechanisms involving hydropower and urban water supply in payments for ecosystem services (PES), and the global community in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the context of the Bale Eco-region. The study identified major constraints to designing an appropriate financing mechanism. Finally, the study drew important conclusions and key policy implications that are relevant for Ethiopia and perhaps other areas in a similar context.
Land use / Reservoirs / Land degradation / Market economies / Dam construction / Nongovernmental organizations / Farmers’ income / Soil erosion / Urban areas / Community involvement / Watershed management / Carbon stock assessments / Deforestation / Forest management / Water institutions / Water supply / Hydropower / Stakeholders / Legal aspects / Payment for ecosystem services / Financing / Participatory approaches / Environmental policy / Natural resources management
Acheampong, D.; Balana, Bedru B.; Nimoh, F.; Abaidoo, R. C. 2018. Assessing the effectiveness and impact of agricultural water management interventions: the case of small reservoirs in northern Ghana. Agricultural Water Management,
209: 163-170. [DOI] More...
Agricultural water management, particularly management of multi-purpose small reservoirs (SRs) in drier savanna areas of the northern Ghana, is being promoted as a key solution to improve agricultural production, enhance food security and livelihoods of smallholder farm households. However, little empirical evidence exist on how effective these small water infrastructures are in terms of delivering multiple benefits and their impact on the livelihood of smallholder farmers. This study assessed the effectiveness and impact of the small reservoirs on smallholder vegetable farmers in northern Ghana. A participatory rating method using a 5-point Likert-scale was used to assess the effectiveness of SRs in delivering multiple livelihood benefits and an endogenous switching regression model was applied to assess the SRs’ impact using a primary data collected from 328 randomly sampled vegetable farmers. Results from the Likert scale analysis show that most of the SRs are either dysfunctional or underutilized and not effective in delivering multiple benefits. Results from the endogenous switching regression model show that there is only about 3% increase in the income of vegetable farmers participating in irrigated vegetable production using SRs against the counterfactual situation but this change is insignificant statistically. The current low level effectiveness and impact of SRs could be enhanced by improving their management, for example, through the provision of incentive mechanisms such as subsidies to the private sector involvement in rehabilitation, management and irrigation service provision and strengthening the capacity of existing water users associations. Furthermore, small reserviors should be recognized not only as water sources for small scale irrigation but also as providers of multiple livelihood benefits to local communities and consequently should attract due attention in public resource allocation in their rehabilitation and management/institutional capacity building.
Community involvement / Farm income / Irrigated farming / Farmers / Households / Living standards / Food security / Vegetable growing / Smallholders / Reservoir operation / Water management / Agriculture
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Albers, J. 2018. Sediment.
In Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. (Eds.). More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). pp.111-123. More...
Rivers / Reservoirs / Chemical contamination / Turbidity / Sediment yield / Aquatic environment / Surface water / Erosion / Soils / Agriculture / Sediment pollution
Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Zadeh, S. M.; Turral, H. 2018. More people, more food, worse water?: a global review of water pollution from agriculture.
: Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 224p. More...
Current patterns of agricultural expansion and intensification are bringing unprecedented environmental externalities, including impacts on water quality. While water pollution is slowly starting to receive the attention it deserves, the contribution of agriculture to this problem has not yet received sufficient consideration.
We need a much better understanding of the causes and effects of agricultural water pollution as well as effective means to prevent and remedy the problem. In the existing literature, information on water pollution from agriculture is highly dispersed. This repost is a comprehensive review and covers different agricultural sectors (including crops, livestock and aquaculture), and examines the drivers of water pollution in these sectors as well as the resulting pressures and changes in water bodies, the associated impacts on human health and the environment, and the responses needed to prevent pollution and mitigate its risks.
Economic aspects / Good agricultural practices / Reservoirs / Lakes / Eutrophication / Erosion control / Sediment / Water policy / Environmental health / Public health / Freshwater / Irrigation water / Soil salinization / Salts / Phosphorus / Nitrogen / Nutrient management / Livestock production / Aquaculture / Pesticide application / Fertilizer application / Intensification / Farming systems / Models / Water quality / Food wastes / Pathogens / Organic matter / Pollutants / Risk management / Groundwater / Surface water / Population growth / Food consumption / Agricultural wastewater / Agricultural waste management / Water pollution
Alfarra, A.; Turton, A.; Coates, D.; Connor, R.; De Souza, M.; Unver, O.; Payne, J.; McCartney, Matthew; Sonneveld, B.; Welling, R.; Fedotova, T.; Tsegai, D. 2018. NBS [Nature-based solutions] for managing water availability.
In WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018: nature-based solutions for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.38-50. (The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018) More...
Case studies / Infrastructure / Landscape / Agriculture / Ecosystems / Water storage / Water supply / Water management / Water availability / Natural resources
Smakhtin, V.; Nagabhatla, N.; Qadir, M.; Guppy, L.; Burek, P.; Villholth, Karen; McCartney, Matthew; Pavelic, Paul; Tsegai, D.; Fedotova, T.; Teruggi, G. 2018. NBS [Nature-based solutions] for managing water-related risk, variability and change.
In WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme); UN-Water. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018: nature-based solutions for water. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp.64-78. More...
Catchment areas / Risk management / Ecosystem services / Flood control / Flooding / Drought / Climate change / Water storage / Water resources / Water management / Sustainable development / Natural resources
Eriyagama, Nishadi; Smakhtin, V.; Udamulla, L. 2018. Centralized versus distributed reservoirs: an investigation of their implications on environmental flows and sustainable water resources management. Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences,
378:43-47. [DOI] More...
Storage of surface water is widely regarded as a form of insurance against rainfall variability. However, creation of surface storage often endanger the functions of natural ecosystems, and, in turn, ecosystem services that bene t humans. The issues of optimal size, placement and the number of reservoirs in a river basin – which maximizes sustainable bene ts from storage – remain subjects for debate. This study examines the above issues through the analysis of a range of reservoir con gurations in the Malwatu Oya river basin in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The study produced multiple surface storage development pathways for the basin under different scenarios of environmental ow (EF) releases and reservoir network con gurations. The EF scenarios ranged from “zero” to “very healthy” releases. It is shown that if the “middle ground” between the two extreme EF scenarios is considered, the theoretical maximum “safe” yield from surface storage is about 65–70% of the mean annual runoff (MAR) of the basin. It is also identi ed that although distribution of reservoirs in the river network reduces the cumulative yield from the basin, this cumulative yield is maximized if the ratio among the storage capacities placed in each sub drainage basin is equivalent to the ratio among their MAR. The study suggests a framework to identify drainage regions having higher surface storage potential, to plan for the right distribution of storage capacity within a river basin, as well as to plan for EF allocations.
River basins / Stream flow / Ecosystem services / Rain / Surface water / Water supply / Water storage / Water management / Water resources / Environmental sustainability / Environmental flows / Reservoir operation
Shah, Manisha; Sakthivadivel, Ramaswamy. 2018. Will Kudimaramathu make communities “think tanks” again? International Journal of Engineering and Technology,
Like rest of Southern India, tanks in Tamil Nadu also suffered massive deterioration as irrigation moved towards being more atomistic and less community-managed. Tank institutions declined and what remained of these irrigation tanks evolved into mostly percolation tanks. In 2017, in the face one the biggest droughts affecting the state, Tamil Nadu government announced Kudimaramathu scheme to revive the age-old practice of community participation in tank repair and management. The program has tried to bring farmers together to form WUAs to take up activities for tank rehabilitation but like many other programs in the country, these institutions appear to exist only on paper with the program being driven primarily by local PWD officers and contractors.
This paper brings insights from thirty tanks under rehabilitation in seven districts of the state which were taken up under this scheme and were studied through case study approach. The study attempts to uncover the factors which led to better implementation in some tanks compared to others. The lessons derived from these tanks can form the basis for effective programs on tank rehabilitation in future, especially those which aim at making them participatory. The paper reinforces the need for empowering WUAs rather than just creating them, if tank management is to be made long-lasting.
Villages / Prosopis juliflora / Silt / Groundwater depletion / State intervention / Development programmes / Communal irrigation systems / Stakeholders / Farmer participation / Water user associations / Community involvement / Rehabilitation / Tank irrigation
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2018. Dams and malaria in Africa: time for action.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 8p. (IWMI Water Policy Brief 40) [DOI] More...
Slope / River basins / Disease control / Disease transmission / Irrigation / Sustainable Development Goals / Health hazards / Dam construction / Reservoir operation / Water management / Water security / Water level / Water storage / Malaria / Mosquito-borne diseases
de Silva, Sanjiv; Aheeyar, Mohamed; Arulingam, Indika; Manthrithilake, Herath. 2018. The new water: opportunities and challenges of the rise to prominence of groundwater in Sri Lanka in the face of socioeconomic and climatic change.
In Mukherjee, A. (Ed.). Groundwater of South Asia. Berlin, Germany: Springer. pp.759-799. More...
Overall high annual precipitation in Sri Lanka belies significant spatial and temporal variation in surface water availability. The ‘dry zone’ comprising two-third of Sri Lanka’s land area receives significantly less rainfall and has high precipitation rates and a five-month dry season. Nevertheless, these regions account for the majority of rice production, the staple crop, thanks largely to the ancient hydraulic civilization based on networks of rainwater harvesting (irrigation) tanks. This manipulation of surface water resources including modern surface irrigation schemes continues to form the backbone of dry zone farming. Groundwater irrigation has remained in the shadows except in the North where surface flows are absent. This scenario is now changing as population growth; poorly maintained infrastructure; commercial agriculture; sectoral competition for water and climate change combine to exert severe pressure on surface water resources. Since the dry zone is also home to a large number of Sri Lanka’s poor households, and a close association exists between high poverty clusters and access to irrigation, the implications of water insecurity for a range of poverty indicators are clear. Not surprisingly, these pressures have prompted an increasing recourse to groundwater in several parts of the dry zone, as governments and farmers recognize the imperative to increase agriculture output, promote crop diversification, and improve agrarian incomes. Yet, with limited groundwater potential, limited detailed knowledge of this resource, and under-developed groundwater-oriented institutions, it is far from certain whether future groundwater exploitation can steer away from anarchy.
Poverty / Seasonal cropping / Irrigation schemes / Irrigation water / Water resources / Water storage / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Rice / Dry season / Land area / Surface water / Rain / Precipitation / Water availability / Water governance / Groundwater management / Socioeconomic environment / Climate change adaptation / Climatic change
Dillon, P.; Pavelic, Paul; Nava, A. P.; Weiping, W. 2018. Advances in multi-stage planning and implementing managed aquifer recharge for integrated water management. Sustainable Water Resources Management,
4(2):145-151. [DOI] More...
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the umbrella term for a range of technologies that enable the integrated use and management of surface water and groundwater to achieve a wide and growing range of social, economic and environmental benefits. The extent and variety of its applications and benefits have mushroomed in recent years as demonstrated in the suite of papers contained within this Special Issue of Sustainable Water Resources Management. This paper introduces the Special Issue and draws together some insights arising from the findings of these papers. Managed aquifer recharge projects normally evolve through a development cycle that covers planning, investigations, pilot scale trials and then implementation of fullscale projects. This Special Issue starts with four papers that synthesize information from a large number of MAR sites, to demonstrate the scope and geographic distribution of international efforts in MAR, factors affecting the economics of MAR projects, and efforts to find metrics to compare their performance among sites and over time. Then there are four papers describing some significant and widely contrasting completed MAR projects in four continents covering their development, what has been learned and some operational issues. Given this context, the next five papers explore the implementation and evaluation of pilot projects in three countries. These papers address issues ranging from hydrogeological characterization, evaluating impacts on groundwater-dependent ecosystems to community participation. All papers to this point give context to the final five papers that show the planning and preliminary studies performed to select MAR sites, to design pilot projects or to explore the feasibility of large-scale MAR programs. Arranging the sequence of papers in this way is intended to yield an understanding of the need for the investigations and modelling to produce viable projects, and to help readers to consider some important practical questions. What steps are needed for any given project to: define objectives; build partnerships; engage with communities; assemble evidence of technical viability, sustainability and safety; secure funding; design and construct efficiently; streamline operations; and finally to monitor the extent to which a completed project met its goals? These papers were developed out of a broader selection of papers presented at the 9th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR9), Mexico City, June 2016. They are a companion to another Special Issue arising from ISMAR9, published in the journal Water on the complementary theme “Water Quali ty Consi derat ions for Manag ed Aquif er Recharge Systems” edited by Prof. Dr. Pieter Stuyfzand and Dr. Niels Hartog (2017). These Issues are a contribution of the International Association of Hydrogeologists Commission on Managing Aquifer Recharge (IAH-MAR) to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge for wise application of MAR.
Drinking water / Socioeconomic environment / Groundwater / Surface water / Wells / Recharge / Planning / Aquifers / Water storage / Water management / Integrated management
Kadyampakeni, Davie; Appoh, Richard; Barron, Jennie; Boakye-Acheampong, Enoch. 2018. Analysis of water quality of selected irrigation water sources in northern Ghana. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply,
18(4):1308-1317. [DOI] More...
Small-scale irrigation continues to cushion the food security gap in sub-Saharan Africa. Irrigation is largely governed by water availability, soil type and crop water requirements, among other factors. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the suitability of various water sources for irrigation in northern Ghana. Specifically, the study sought to assess quality of water sources in the Savelugu, Kasena-Nankana East, and Nabdam districts for small-scale irrigation development. The water quality parameters used were: pH, electrical conductivity (ECw), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percent (Na%), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelleyapos;s ratio (KR), total hardness (TH), Chloride (Cl), E. coli, and Faecal coliforms. While we found most of the irrigation water sources, including small reservoirs, dams, wells and rivers suitable, few unsuitable irrigation water sources were also identified. Overall, the study found that opportunities for scaling small-scale irrigation exist in all the sites. The knowledge generated from this study will guide irrigation water use, and agricultural policy for sustainable smallholder irrigation development in the region.
Biological contamination / pH / Rivers / Agricultural policy / Chemical compounds / Electrical conductivity / Food security / Small scale systems / Wells / Salinity / Reservoir operation / Irrigation operation / Irrigation water / Water requirements / Water availability / Water storage / Water quality
Kiptala, J. K.; Mul, Marloes L.; Mohamed, Y. A.; van der Zaag, P. 2018. Multiobjective analysis of green-blue water uses in a highly utilized basin: case study of Pangani Basin, Africa. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management,
144(8): 1-12 [DOI] More...
The concept of integrated water resource management (IWRM) attempts to integrate all elements of water resources. Different tools are developed to assist in developing sound IWRM plans. One such tool is multiobjective analysis using an integrated hydro-economic model (IHEM). However, IHEM mainly deals with the optimization of river flow (blue water) in a river basin. This paper linked a distributed model of green water (landscape water uses) in the upper catchment with mainly blue water uses in the lower catchment of the Pangani Basin. The results show that agricultural water use has the highest water productivity and competes with all other objective functions in the catchment. The generation of firm energy competes with the downstream ecosystem requirements. The integrated study shows that improving rainfed cropping through supplementary irrigation has comparable marginal water values to full-scale irrigation but are much higher compared with hydropower. However, hydropower has more benefits if used in conjunction with the environment. The methodological approach has increased the understanding of trade-offs between green and blue water uses that are highly interdependent in African landscapes.
Case studies / Crop yield / Biomass / Irrigated farming / Supplemental irrigation / Cropping patterns / Rainfed farming / Ecosystems / Catchment areas / Stream flow / Economic aspects / Water balance / Hydropower / Water productivity / Water management / Water resources / Models / Hydrological factors / Reservoir operation / River basins / Water users / Water use / Freshwater
Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Addo, K. A.; Amisigo, B.; Macadam, I.; Janes, T.; Crossman, J.; Nicholls, R. J.; McCartney, Matthew; Roddai, H. J. E. 2018. Modeling future flows of the Volta River system: impacts of climate change and socio-economic changes. Science of the Total Environment,
637-638: 1069-1080. [DOI] More...
As the scientific consensus concerning global climate change has increased in recent decades, research on potential impacts of climate change on water resources has been given high importance. However in Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have fully evaluated the potential implications of climate change to their water resource systems. The Volta River is one of the major rivers in Africa covering six riparian countries (mainly Ghana and Burkina Faso). It is a principal water source for approximately 24 million people in the region. The catchment is primarily agricultural providing food supplies to rural areas, demonstrating the classic water, food, energy nexus. In this study an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) was applied to the whole Volta River system to simulate flow in the rivers and at the outlet of the artificial Lake Volta. High-resolution climate scenarios downscaled from three different Global Climate Models (CNRM-CM5, HadGEM2-ES and CanESM2), have been used to drive the INCA model and to assess changes in flow by 2050s and 2090s under the high climate forcing scenario RCP8.5. Results show that peak flows during the monsoon months could increase into the future. The duration of high flow could become longer compared to the recent condition. In addition, we considered three different socio-economic scenarios. As an example, under the combined impact from climate change from downscaling CNRM-CM5 and medium+ (high economic growth) socio-economic changes, the extreme high flows (Q5) of the Black Volta River are projected to increase 11% and 36% at 2050s and 2090s, respectively. Lake Volta outflow would increase +1% and +5% at 2050s and 2090s, respectively, under the same scenario. The effects of changing socio-economic conditions on flow are minor compared to the climate change impact. These results will provide valuable information assisting future water resource development and adaptive strategies in the Volta Basin.
Downstream / Lakes / Calibration / Temperature / Evaporation / Water resources / Models / Catchment areas / Stream flow / River basin management / Economic growth / Socioeconomic environment / Monsoon climate / Climate change
Danso, G. K.; Naidu, D. R.; Drechsel, Pay. 2018. Revival of Amani Doddakere tank (Bangalore, India) - Case Study.
In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.710-719. More...
Case studies / Supply chain / Business models / Market economies / Farmers / Sewage / Tanks / Water resources / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / Sewage / Urban areas / Ecosystem services / Domestic consumption / Wastewater irrigation / Wastewater treatment
Otoo, Miriam; Dagerskog, L. 2018. Urine and fecal matter collection for reuse (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso) - Case Study.
In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.527-537. More...
Business models / Supply chain / Market economies / Latrines / Septic tanks / Waste management / Agricultural production / Resource recovery / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Sanitation / Urine / Faeces / Faecal sludge
Buijs, J.; Gebauer, H.; Otoo, Miriam; Evans, A. 2018. Fecal sludge for on-farm use (Bangalore Honey Suckers, India) - Case Study.
In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.508-515. More...
Case studies / Sanitation / Supply chain / Business models / Market economies / Septic tanks / Organic fertilizers / Pit latrines / Sewage / Faecal sludge
Leh, Mansoor D.K.; Sharpley, A. N.; Singh, G.; Matlock, M. D. 2018. Assessing the impact of the MRBI [Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative] program in a data limited Arkansas Watershed using the SWAT model. Agricultural Water Management,
202:202-219. [DOI] More...
The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) developed the Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds Initiative (MRBI) program to improve the health, water quality and wildlife habitat within the Mississippi River Basin. Lake Conway Point Remove (LCPR) watershed was identified as one of the watersheds for the MRBI program implementation. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the MRBI program in LCPR watershed using a computer simulation model. Seven best management practices (BMPs) (pond, wetland, pond and wetland, cover crops, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and forage and biomass planting) were modelled under four placement strategies: random placement in 30% of the watershed, random placement in 30% hydrologic response units (HRUs) of the high priority hydrological unit code (HUCs), placement in the top 30% of the high priority HUCs, and top 30% of the HRUs in the HUCs near the outlet of the watershed. The model was calibrated for flow for the period 1987–2006 and validated for the period 2007–2012. Sediment and nutrients were validated from 2011 to 2012. Out of the BMPs evaluated, grassed waterways proved to be the most effective BMP in reducing sediment and nutrient loads from row crop (soy beans) and pasture fields. Reductions at the watershed outlet ranged 0–1% for flow, 0.28–14% for sediment, 0.3–10% for TP and 0.3–9% for TN. Relatively higher reductions were observed at the subwatershed level, flow reductions ranged 0–51%, sediment reductions -1 to 79%, TP -1 to 65% and TN -0.37 to 66% depending on BMP type, placement scenario, and watershed characteristics. The results from this study provide the data to help prioritize monitoring needs for collecting watershed response data in LCPR and BMP implementation evaluations, which could be used to inform decisions in similar studies.
Biomass production / Forage / Grassland management / Cover plants / Crop management / Simulation models / Land use / Soils / Wetlands / Ponds / Stream flow / Water quality / Development programmes / Best practices / Resource conservation / Watersheds
Otoo, Miriam. 2018. Nutrient and organic matter recovery - Section III.
In Otoo, Miriam; Drechsel, Pay (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.316-546. More...
Sewage sludge / Phosphorus / Wastewater treatment / On-farm consumption / Soil conditioners / Septic tanks / Excreta / Urine / Toilets / Sustainability / Sugar industry / Vermicomposting / Livestock wastes / Biogas / Waste management / Risk reduction / Subsidies / Liquid fertilizers / Organic fertilizers / Inorganic fertilizers / Faecal sludge / Partnerships / Public-private cooperation / Sanitation / Health hazards / Environmental impact / Socioeconomic environment / Financing / Technology assessment / Corporate culture / Supply chain / Financing / Macroeconomics / Carbon credits / Market economics / Cost recovery / Composting / Solid wastes / Municipal wastes / Industrial wastes / Agricultural waste management / Business models / Business management / Nutrients / Resource recovery / Organic matter
Schmitter, Petra; Kibret, K. S.; Lefore, Nicole; Barron, Jennie. 2018. Suitability mapping framework for solar photovoltaic pumps for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Applied Geography,
94:41-57. [DOI] More...
As solar panels become more a ordable, solar photovoltaic (PV) pumps have been identi ed as a high potential water lifting technology to meet the growing irrigation demand in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, little is known aboutthegeo-spatial potentialofsolarbasedPVpumpingforirrigationtakinginto accountnotonlysolar radiation but also the availability of water resources and linkage to markets. This study developed a suitability framework using multi-criteria analysis in an open source GIS environment and tested it in the case of Ethiopia. Theaccessibilityofwaterresourceswasthedrivingfactorfordi erentscenarios.Suitabilityresultsfollowingthe groundwater scenarios showed good agreement with the available referenced well depth data. Comparing the suitability maps with available land use data showed that on average 9% (96103ha) of Ethiopian irrigated and 18% (3739103ha) of rainfed land would be suitable for solar PV pump irrigation. Furthermore, small solar PV pumps could be an alternative water lifting technology for 11% of the current and future small motorized fuel hydro-carbon pumps on smallholder farms (2166103ha). Depending on the technical pump capacity, between 155103ha and 204103ha of land would be suitable for solar PV pumps and provide smallholder farmers with the option to either pump from small reservoirs or shallow groundwater. With the ongoing interest in development for smallholder irrigation, the application of this model will help to upscale solar PV pumps for smallholder farmers in SSA as a climate smart technology in an integrated manner.
Groundwater management / Farmer-led irrigation / Water availability / Water resources / Water storage / Reservoirs / Irrigation water / Water lifting / Farmers / Geographical Information Systems / Pumps / Photovoltaic systems / Solar energy / Mapping / Smallholders
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Maheshwari, B.; Dillon, P.; Purohit, R.; Dashora, Y.; Soni, P.; Dashora, R. 2018. Estimation of specific yield using water table fluctuations and cropped area in a hardrock aquifer system of Rajasthan, India. Agricultural Water Management,
202:146-155. [DOI] More...
Assessment of specific yields is important for effective groundwater management in semi-arid hardrock aquifers, especially in India with its unsustainable groundwater usage rates. The Dharta watershed in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan is one such hardrock area in India where the groundwater extraction rate is a concern. In this study, we use groundwater balance analysis to estimate the specific yield (Sy) based on crop irrigation water use and changes in water table depths, during the irrigation season, to develop an understanding of the volume of groundwater recharge from pre and post monsoon water table depths and an understanding of the spatial and temporal changes in estimates of specific yield in the study area. The analysis used here estimates values at village scale (average area 3.65 km2) and is a technique compatible with the farmers monitoring of groundwater levels to facilitate local cooperative groundwater management. Five villages in the Dharta watershed in Rajasthan were selected and 50 wells per village were monitored for water table depth, at weekly intervals, over a two-year period. This resulted in a total of 250 wells in the study area and the monitoring was carried out by local farmer volunteers - called Bhujal Jankaars (BJs), a Hindi word meaning ‘groundwater informed.’ Crop area coverage (with a total of 40 crops) was examined for two years in the study area. Estimates of Sy in the five villages were between 1.4 and 8%, resulting in values comparable with previous studies. The watershed area-weighted average Sy was 3.8%. The method used in this study enabled estimates of recharge without needing a calibrated groundwater model in an area with sparse information on aquifer hydraulic characteristics and unreliable digital elevation maps.
Wells / Monitoring / Semiarid zones / Land use / Farmland / Crop production / Aquifers / Groundwater extraction / Groundwater management / Irrigation water / Water levels / Water storage / Water use / Water balance / Water table
Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Finlayson, C. M.; Strauch, A.; Rosenqvist, A.; Perennou, C.; Totrup, C.; Hilarides, L.; Paganini, M.; Wielaard, N.; Siegert, F.; Ballhorn, U.; Navratil, P.; Franke, J.; Davidson, N. 2018. The use of earth observation for wetland inventory, assessment and monitoring: an information source for the Ramsar Convention on wetlands.
Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Secretariat 31p. More...
Case studies / Mapping / Mangroves / Coastal area / Mediterranean region / Lakes / Ecology / Surface water / Water quality / Sustainable Development Goals / Land use / Land cover / Surveys / Environmental monitoring / Environmental impact assessment / Wetlands / Earth observation satellites
Nhemachena, Charles; Matchaya, Greenwell; Nhlengethwa, Sibusiso; Nhemachena, C. R. 2018. Exploring ways to increase public investments in agricultural water management and irrigation for improved agricultural productivity in Southern Africa. Water SA,
44(3): 474-481. More...
This paper explores ways to increase public investments in agricultural water management and irrigation for improved agricultural productivity in Southern Africa, with a specific focus on Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. The analysis was based on a critical review of literature and assessment of the national agricultural investment plans and agricultural/water policies in the study countries. Despite the potential to improve agricultural productivity, irrigation does not currently play a significant role in Southern African agriculture. There have been efforts and formal commitments at the continental, regional and country levels to promote investments in agricultural water management and irrigation to improve and sustain agricultural productivity. However, despite these commitments, actual implementation has been a challenge and the first 5 years of national agricultural investment plans have passed or are now coming to an end without much progress having been made regarding actual investments. Lack of adequate resources and institutional capacity have been some of the challenges affecting implementation of the investment plans to meet commitments in sustainable land and water management. Overall, as countries plan for the second phase of the CAADP programme, there are opportunities to ensure that investments in agricultural water management and irrigation and complementary technologies are prioritised and allocated adequate resources for implementation.
Subsistence / Rural areas / Farmers / Sustainability / Land management / Policy making / Food security / Natural resources management / Water storage / Water use efficiency / Water policy / Productivity / Irrigation management / Water management / Agriculture / Public investment
Mendez-Barrientos, L. E.; Kemerink, J. S.; Wester, P.; Molle, Francois. 2018. Commercial farmers’ strategies to control water resources in South Africa: an empirical view of reform. International Journal of Water Resources Development,
34(2):245-258. [DOI] More...
This article shows how large-scale commercial farmers, individually and collectively, are responding to land and water reform processes in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. With a high degree of innovative agency, commercial farmers have effectively executed four strategies, enabling them to adapt and use their access to resources to neutralize multiple water reform efforts that once promised to be catalysts for inclusive change in the post-apartheid era. It is likely that policy alone will not facilitate the envisioned transformation, if local practices are not sufficiently understood and anticipated by the governmental officials charged with the implementation of water reform processes.
Reservoirs / Catchment areas / Domestic trade / Infrastructure / Irrigation water / Water user associations / Water rights / Legislation / Land reform / Water policy / Strategies / Farmers / Commercial farming / Water resources
Gangopadhyay, Prasun K.; Sharma, Bharat R.; Pavelic, Paul. 2018. Co-solving groundwater depletion and seasonal flooding through an innovative managed aquifer recharge approach: converting pilot to a regional solution in the Ram Ganga Sub-basin.
In Saha D.; Marwaha S.; Mukherjee A. (Eds). Clean and sustainable groundwater in India. Gateway East, Singapore: Springer. pp.173-189. (Springer Hydrogeology Series) More...
Climate induced extreme events such as floods and droughts are often disastrous in incidences and affects Indian economy often. Low per capita surface water storage (225 m3/capita1), few sites for additional storages facilities and depleting groundwater aquifers reduce the resilience of the communities to alleviate the day-to-day short age and larger seasonal shocks. India has a long history of storing and recharging runoff waters through community participation. Ongoing such programs are focused on drought-prone or socio-economically weak areas and exclude the flood prone zones. The present study aims to improve the groundwater resources availability through diverting flows from rivers or canals at times when these flows pose flood risk and recharging the groundwater through suitable artificial recharge structures. This method addresses the issue of groundwater depletion as well as reducing the flood risks. A geo-hydrological analysis in spatial platform using data available in public domain and detailed ground survey, a site was identified in Jiwai Jadid village of Milk Block of Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. A community owned pond was retrofitted with recharge wells and associated infrastructure to draw excess monsoon water from a nearby flood-prone river. The preliminary results show a positive impact on groundwater table and water quality. However, to achieve the full benefit of the method it is required to implement it in larger scale. Ongoing government programs that are focused on livelihood improvement and natural resources management are the best options to scale up such effect in regional scale.
Canals / Community involvement / Aquifers / Water table / Water quality / Water resources / Water storage / Drought / Underground storage / Seasonal variation / Aquifers / Flooding / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater depletion
Yoshimoto, Shuhei; Amarnath, Giriraj. 2018. Application of a flood inundation model to analyze the potential impacts of a flood control plan in Mundeni Aru River Basin, Sri Lanka. Natural Hazards,
91(2):491-513. [DOI] More...
Capturing inundation extent by floods is indispensable for decision making for mitigating hazard. Satellite images have commonly been used for flood mapping, but there are limitations such as unavailability due to satellite’s orbital period or cloud cover. Additionally, it would also be beneficial for policy makers to figure out the impact of water management measures such as water storage options on flood mitigation and irrigation water strengthening. Utilization of flood inundation models would support providing information for these demands. In this study, the rainfall–runoff inundation (RRI) model was applied in a flood-prone basin in eastern Sri Lanka, and its applicability was discussed. The RRI model was capable of simulating discharge and inundation extent during flood events, although it should be noted that the model had been calibrated targeting only the flooding period. Satellite-observed rainfall data corrected with a scale factor were able to be used as the model input to simulate long-term trends in runoff just as well as when gauged rainfall data were applied. The calibrated model was also capable of evaluating flood mitigation effects of existing and proposed water storage options by simulating discharge with and without flood capture operations. By reproducing long-term inflow to the storage facilities using satellite rainfall data, it was possible to determine that water would reach the maximum level of the proposed storage facilities even during low-rainfall years.
Disaster risk reduction / Satellite observation / Hydrography / Estimation / Water storage / Water management / Reservoirs / Discharges / River basins / Performance evaluation / Calibration / Models / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Flood control
Thapa, Bhesh Raj; Ishidaira, H.; Pandey, Vishnu Prasad; Bhandari, T. M.; Shakya, N. M. 2018. Evaluation of water security in Kathmandu Valley before and after water transfer from another basin. Water,
10(2):1-12. [DOI] More...
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP)”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day) through the first phase and an additional 340 MLD through the second phase. The area has recently faced a severe water deficit and KUKL’s existing infrastructure has had a limited capability, supplying only 19% of the water that is demanded in its service areas during the dry season and 31% during the wet season. In this context, this study aims to assess the temporal trends and spatial distribution of household water security index (WSI), defined as a ratio of supply to demand for domestic water use for basic human water requirements (50 L per capita per day (lpcd)) and economic growth (135 lpcd) as demand in pre and post-MWSP scenarios. For this purpose, data on water demand and supply with infrastructure were used to map the spatial distribution of WSI and per capita water supply using ArcMap. Results show a severe water insecurity condition in the year 2017 in all KUKL service areas (SAs), which is likely to improve after completion of the MWSP. It is likely that recent distribution network and strategies may lead to inequality in water distribution within the SAs. This can possibly be addressed by expanding existing distribution networks and redistributing potable water, which can serve an additional 1.21 million people in the area. Service providers may have to develop strategies to strengthen a set of measures including improving water supply infrastructures, optimizing water loss, harnessing additional water from hills, and managing water within and outside the KUKL SAs in the long run to cover the entire KV.
River basins / Valleys / Households / Population growth / Water distribution / Reservoirs / Freshwater / Estimation / Water demand / Drinking water / Water transfer / Development projects / Water supply / Evaluation / Water security
Amarnath, Giriraj. 2018. New techniques avoid a Kerala like disaster. Geography and You,
Urban areas / Institutional reform / Dams / Reservoirs / Infrastructure / Ecosystems / Satellite imagery / Crop damage / Climate change adaptation / Rainfall patterns / Flood control / Natural disasters
Closas, Alvar; Molle, Francois. 2018. Chronicle of a demise foretold: state vs. local groundwater management in Texas and the high plains aquifer system. Water Alternatives,
This paper assesses a case of co-management of groundwater between the state of Texas, pushing for the rationalisation of groundwater management, and local (mainly farming) communities organised in Groundwater Conservation Districts (GCDs), which are protective of their private groundwater rights. We first describe the main legal and policy steps that have shaped this relationship. The article focuses on the Texan portion of the Ogallala Aquifer in the High Plains aquifer system – an almost non-renewable system covering 90,000 km2 and providing 95% of the irrigation needs in northern Texas. With this example, we further highlight the strategies of both parties, the different political, administrative, legal and regulatory complexities of the struggle around the definition of GCD-level aquifer management rules (the so-called apos;Desired Future Conditionsapos;). We end by reflecting on the power balance that has resulted from successive adjustments to a co-management form of governance, the advantages and disadvantages of a multi-layered state water governance system, and whether the de facto apos;managed depletionapos; of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas should be seen as an achievement or a failure.
Pumping / Local communities / Co-management / Regulations / Legal aspects / Aquifers / Water demand / Water storage / Water conservation / Water use / Water supply / Water rights / Water policy / Water governance / Groundwater depletion / Groundwater management
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Muthuwatta, Lal; Eriyagama, Nishadi; Pavelic, Paul; Lagudu, S. 2018. Modeling the potential for floodwater recharge to offset groundwater depletion: a case study from the Ramganga basin, India. Sustainable Water Resources Management,
4(2):331-344. [DOI] More...
The Ganges basin faces considerable spatial and temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Lack of water storage infrastructure has led to this mismatch, wherein there are limited options to store flood water during the wet season and limited groundwater and surface water resources during the dry season. In this current study, a semi-coupled hydrological modeling framework is used to test scenarios that can help bridge this imbalance. A hydrological model (SWAT), groundwater model (MODFLOW) and flood inundation model (HEC-RAS) were applied to the Ramganga basin in India (*19,000 km2) to understand the baseline hydrologic regime and to test scenarios with distributed managed aquifer recharge (MAR) interventions, which when applied to at the basin scale to co-address flooding and groundwater depletion has come to be known as Underground Taming of Floods for Irrigation. The scenarios with MAR, which used available basin runoff to recharge groundwater, yielded favorable results in flood reduction and groundwater level improvement throughout the sub-basin. Groundwater levels improved within 5 years of introducing MAR, resulting in a groundwater elevation increase of up to 7 mwhen compared to baseline conditions. The HEC-RAS model indicated that a 20% reduction in basin outflow converted a 15-year flood peak to an 8-year flood peak, a 5-year peak to 3 years and a 2-year peak to 1 year. In addition, this resulted in a 10% reduction in the inundated area in all return periods tested. Therefore, distributed MAR practices can be effective in reducing the negative impacts from larger return period floods and increasing the groundwater levels.
Case studies / Calibration / Soil water / Hydrological factors / Aquifers / Surface water / Dry season / Wet season / River basins / Water levels / Water resources / Water storage / Water availability / Water demand / Groundwater depletion / Models / Flood irrigation / Flooding
Moges, M. A.; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, S. A.; Steenhuis, T. S. 2018. Watershed modeling for reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus load in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Soils and Sediments,
18(1):309-322. [DOI] More...
Purpose - Agricultural intensification to meet the food needs of the rapidly growing population in developing countries affects water quality. In regions such as the Lake Tana basin, knowledge is lacking on measures to reduce non-point source pollutants in humid tropical monsoon climates. The aim of this paper was, therefore, to develop a non-point model that can predict the placement of practices to reduce the transport of sediment and phosphorus (P) in a (sub) humid watershed.; Materials and methods - In order to achieve the objective, hydrometeorological, sediment, and P data were collected in the watershed since 2014. The parameter efficient semi-distributed watershed model (PED-WM) was calibrated and validated in the Ethiopian highlands to simulate runoff and associated sediments generated through saturation excess. The P module added to PED-WM was used to predict dissolved (DP) and particulate P (PP) loads aside from discharge and sediment loads of the 700 ha of the Awramba watershed of Lake Tana basin. The PED-WM modules were evaluated using the statistical model performance measuring techniques. The model parameter based prediction of source areas for the non-point source sediment and P was also evaluated spatially and compared with the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) of the watershed.; Results and discussion - The water balance component of the non-point source model performed well in predicting discharge, sediment, DP, and PP with NSE of 0.7, 0.65, 0.65, and 0.63, respectively. In addition, the predicted discharge followed the hydrograph with insignificant deviation from its pattern due to seasonality. The model predicted a sediment yield of 28.2 t ha-1 year-1 and P yield of 9.2 kg ha-1 year-1 from Awrmaba. Furthermore, non-point source areas contributed to 2.7 kg ha-1 year-1 (29%) of DP at the outlet. The main runoff and sediment source areas identified using PED-WM were the periodically saturated runoff areas. These saturated areas were also the main source for DP and PP transport in the catchment.; Conclusions - Using the PED-WM with the P module enables the identification of the source areas as well as the prediction of P and sediment loading which yields valuable information for watershed management and placement of best management practices.
Calibration / Hydrometeorology / Runoff / Humid climate / Water balance / Water quality / Intensification / Saturation / River basins / Phosphorus / Sediment / Models / Watershed management
Reddy, V. R.; Rout, S. K.; Pavelic, Paul. 2017. Underground taming of floods in the Ganges basin: technologies, institutions and policies.
In Tsakiris, G.; Tsihrintzis, V. A.; Vangelis, H.; Tigkas, D. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Water Resources and Environment, quot;Panta Rheiquot;, Athens, Greece, 5-9 July 2017. Athens, Greece: European Water Resources Association. pp.2061-2067. More...
Income / Households / Nongovernmental organizations / Policy making / Public sector / Private sector / Socioeconomic environment / Dry season / Surface water / Groundwater management / Water management / Water resources / Water storage / Aquifers / Social legislation / Participatory approaches / Environmental services / Payment for Ecosystem Services / Drought / Flood control / Climate change
Owusu, Seth; Cofie, Olufunke O.; Osei-Owusu, P. K.; Awotwe-Pratt, V.; Mul, Marloes L. 2017. Adapting aquifer storage and recovery technology to the flood-prone areas of northern Ghana for dry-season irrigation.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 35p. (IWMI Working Paper 176) [DOI] More...
The Bhungroo Irrigation Technology (BIT) is a system designed to infiltrate excess ‘standing’ floodwater to be stored underground and abstracted for irrigation during the dry season. The system was developed in India and piloted in three sites in northern Ghana. This paper documents the implementation of BIT, the operating principles and criteria for selecting appropriate sites for the installation of such systems, as well as the potential benefits complementing existing irrigation systems in Ghana. Essential requirements for the installation of BIT include biophysical features such as land-use type, soil type, surface hydrology and slope of the terrain. The hydrogeological characteristics of the subsoil are also vital, and must exhibit high storage capacity and potential for groundwater accessibility. To be profitable and generate benefits for farmers, the technology needs to be situated in close proximity to markets and must have public acceptance.
Costs / Local communities / Crop production / Seasonal cropping / Farmland / Farmers / Food security / Hydraulic conductivity / Hydrological factors / Geology / Soil types / Soil properties / Sloping land / Land use / Socioeconomic environment / Environmental impact / Filtration / Irrigation methods / Irrigation systems / Artificial recharge / Dry season / Floodplains / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater extraction / Water quality / Water drilling / Waterlogging / Water use / Water acquisitions / Water storage / Aquifers
Kadyampakeni, Davie M.; Mul, Marloes L.; Obuobie, E.; Appoh, Richard; Owusu, Afua; Ghansah, Benjamin; Boakye-Acheampong, Enoch; Barron, Jennie. 2017. Agro-climatic and hydrological characterization of selected watersheds in northern Ghana.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 40p. (IWMI Working Paper 173) [DOI] More...
This paper provides the climatic and biophysical context of three watersheds in northern Ghana. The objective of the study is to describe the agro-climatic and hydrological features of the watersheds from a landscape perspective. The analyses show that water surplus occurs about 3 months in a year, with only one month providing a significant surplus. Small-scale irrigation is, therefore, carried out in the dry months between November and June. The quality of water used for irrigation from wells, reservoirs and rivers is good for irrigation and domestic purposes. The soil chemical parameters across the study sites show that the soils are suitable for irrigation and crop system intensification, although it requires substantial fertilizer inputs. The paper concludes that there are opportunities from both a soil quality and water availability perspective to enhance sustainable intensification through small- and medium-scale irrigation in the selected watersheds.
Cation exchange capacity / Meteorological stations / Crop production / Cropping systems / Catchment areas / Irrigation schemes / Rivers / Wells / Reservoir storage / Dry season / Wet season / Farmers / Evapotranspiration / Temperature / Rain / Land use / Land cover mapping / Soil fertility / Soil sampling / Soil quality / Soil texture / Electrical conductivity / pH / Climatic factors / Water deficit / Water management / Water quality / Water balance / Agronomic practices / Analytical method / Hydrology / Agroclimatology / Intensification / Agricultural production / Watersheds
Owusu, Seth; Mul, Marloes L.; Ghansah, Benjamin; Osei-Owusu, P. K.; Awotwe-Pratt, V.; Kadyampakeni, D. 2017. Assessing land suitability for aquifer storage and recharge in northern Ghana using remote sensing and GIS multi-criteria decision analysis technique. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,
3(4):1383-1393. [DOI] More...
Increasing climate variability and challenge in access to water pose major impediments to rainfed agricultural productivity. Extensive flooding of agricultural lands during the rainy season and lack of water during the 8-month long dry season affect the livelihood of the people in the northern Ghana, a situation that calls for better water management practices. The use of aquifer storage and recharge (ASR) based technique, helps to reduce flooding and improve access to water during the dry season; however such technology has specific requirements for successful implementation. This study assesses suitable areas for the technology in the northern Ghana terrain using multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in ArcGIS environment. The result suggests around 66% (48,516 km2) of the crop area in the northern Ghana available for the technology are within moderate to very high suitable sites, of which 44% (29,490 km2) fall into the high and very high suitable sites. This could imply high potential for the artificial groundwater storage system in northern Ghana given other conditions.
Farmers / Socioeconomic environment / Water management / Water storage / Agricultural sector / Agricultural productivity / Rainfed farming / Irrigation / Decision support systems / GIS / Remote sensing / Artificial recharge / Aquifers / Land suitability
CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). 2017. Re-conceptualizing dam design and management for enhanced water and food security.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 12p. (WLE Towards Sustainable Intensification: Insights and Solutions Brief 3) [DOI] More...
Dams provide numerous economic benefits and can mitigate the adverse impacts of water variability and extreme climate events. However, such large-scale water infrastructure has also caused significant social and environmental costs, prompting calls for alternative, nature-based solutions. WLE suggests that collections of built and natural infrastructure, combined with participatory management approaches, can support water and food security, while enhancing livelihoods and environmental outcomes.
Sediment / Nutrients / Habitats / Net primary productivity / Cost benefit analysis / Environmental economics / Economic aspects / Local communities / River basins / Reservoirs / Infrastructure / Ecosystem services / Food security / Water security / Dam construction / Intensification / Sustainability
Worqlul, A. W.; Jeong, J.; Dile, Y. T.; Osorio, J.; Schmitter, Petra; Gerik, T.; Srinivasan, R.; Clark, N. 2017. Assessing potential land suitable for surface irrigation using groundwater in Ethiopia. Applied Geography,
85:1-13. [DOI] More...
Although Ethiopia has abundant land for irrigation, only a fraction of its potential land is being utilized. This study evaluates suitability of lands for irrigation using groundwater in Ethiopia using GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques in order to enhance the countryapos;s agricultural industry. Key factors that significantly affect irrigation suitability evaluated in this study include physical land features (land use, soil, and slope), climate (rainfall and evapotranspiration), and market access (proximity to roads and access to market). These factors were weighted using a pair-wise comparison matrix, then reclassified and overlaid to identify suitable areas for groundwater irrigation using a 1-km grid. Groundwater data from the British Geological Survey were used to estimate the groundwater potential, which indicates the corresponding irrigation potential for major crops. Results indicated that more than 6 million ha of land are suitable for irrigation in Ethiopia. A large portion of the irrigable land is located in the Abbay, Rift Valley, Omo Ghibe, and Awash River basins. These basins have access to shallow groundwater (i.e., depth of groundwater less than 20 m from the surface) making it easier to extract. The comparison between available groundwater and total crop water requirements indicate that groundwater alone may not be sufficient to supply all suitable land. The study estimates that only 8% of the suitable land can be irrigated with the available shallow groundwater. However, groundwater is a viable option for supplementing surface water resources for irrigation in several basins in the country.
Crops / Farmer-led irrigation / Mapping / Population density / River basins / Water availability / Water resources / Water requirements / Evapotranspiration / Rain / Slopes / Soil texture / Agroindustry / Irrigated land / Land use / Land suitability / Geographical information systems / Water storage / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater recharge / Surface irrigation
Chinnasamy, Pennan. 2017. Depleting groundwater – an opportunity for flood storage?: a case study from part of the Ganges River Basin, India. Hydrology Research,
48(2):431-441. [DOI] More...
Storing excess rainwater underground can become key in mitigating the frequency and magnitude of flood events. In this context, assessment of depleted groundwater storage that can be refilled in water surplus periods is imperative. The study uses Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to identify variations in groundwater storage in the monsoonal Ramganga River basin (tributary of the Ganges, with an area of 32,753 km2) in India, over the nine-year period of 2002–2010. Results indicate that basin groundwater storage is depleting at the rate of 1.6 bill. m3 yr 1 . This depleted aquifer volume can be used to store floodwater effectively – up to 76% of the rainfall on average across the Ramganga with a maximum of 94% in parts of the basin. However, the major management challenge is to find and introduce technical and policy interventions to augment recharge rates to capture excess water, at required scales.
Case studies / Discharges / Runoff / Soil moisture / Aquifers / Monsoon climate / Rain / River basins / Flooding / Water levels / Water resources / Water storage / Groundwater depletion / Groundwater recharge
McCartney, Mathew; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria. 2017. Nile river basin.
In Finlayson, C. M.; Everard, M.; Irvine, K. McInnes, R.; Middleton, B.; van Dam, A.; Davidson, N. C. (Eds.). The Wetland book I: structure and function, management and methods. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp.1243-1250. More...
Lakes / Spatial distribution / Rural communities / Fisheries / Agriculture / Ecosystem services / Living standards / Hydrology / Biodiversity / Wetlands / River basin management
Tamene, L.; Adimassu, Zenebe; Aynekulu, E.; Yaekob, T. 2017. Estimating landscape susceptibility to soil erosion using a GIS-based approach in northern Ethiopia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research,
5(3):221-230 [DOI] More...
Soil erosion is a very critical form of land degradation resulting in the loss of soil nutrients and downstream sedimentation of water storages in the highlands of Ethiopia. As it is technically and financially impossible to conserve all landscapes affected by erosion, identification of priority areas of intervention is necessary. Spatially distributed erosion models can help map landscape susceptibility to erosion and identify high erosion risk areas. Integration of erosion models with geographic information systems (GIS) enables assessing evaluate the spatial variability of soil erosion and plan implementing conservation measures at landscape levels. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation adjusted for sediment delivery ratio was used in a GIS system to assess landscape sensitivity to erosion and identify hotspots. The approach was applied in three catchments with size being 10–20 km2 and results were compared against quantitative and semi-quantitative data. The model estimated mean soil loss rates of about 45 t ha-1 y-1 with an average variability of 30% between catchments. The estimated soil loss rate is above the tolerable limit of 10 t ha-1 y-1. The model predicted high soil loss rates at steep slopes and shoulder positions as well as along gullies. The results of the study demonstrate that knowledge of spatial patterns of high soil loss risk areas can help deploy site-specific conservation measures.
Reservoir storage / Rain / Catchment areas / Watersheds / Sedimentation / Sediment transport / Land degradation / Landscape conservation / Geographical information systems / Erosion / Soil conservation / Soil profiles
Muthuwatta, Lal; Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Sood, Aditya; Lagudu, S. 2017. Reviving the “Ganges Water Machine”: where and how much? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
21:2545-2557. [DOI] More...
Runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River basin (GRB) contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the potential for subsurface storage (SSS) in the Ganges basin to mitigate floods in the downstream areas and increase the availability of water during drier months. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate “sub-basin” water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basinwise unmet water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analysis reveals that some of the unmet water demand in the subbasin can be met provided it is possible to capture the runoff in sub-surface storage during the monsoon season (June to September). Some of the groundwater recharge is returned to the stream as baseflow and has the potential to increase dry season river flows. To examine the impacts of groundwater recharge on flood inundation and flows in the dry season (October to May), two groundwater recharge scenarios are tested in the Ramganga sub-basin. Increasing groundwater recharge by 35 and 65 % of the current level would increase the baseflow during the dry season by 1.46 billion m3 (34.5 % of the baseline) and 3.01 billion m3 (71.3 % of the baseline), respectively. Analysis of pumping scenarios indicates that 80 000 to 112 000 ha of additional wheat area can be irrigated in the Ramganga sub-basin by additional SSS without reducing the current baseflow volumes. Augmenting SSS reduces the peak flow and flood inundated areas in Ramganga (by up to 13.0 % for the 65 % scenario compared to the baseline), indicating the effectiveness of SSS in reducing areas inundated under floods in the sub-basin. However, this may not be sufficient to effectively control the flood in the downstream areas of the GRB, such as in the state of Bihar (prone to floods), which receives a total flow of 277 billion m3 from upstream sub-basins.
Flood control / Soil water / Soil management / Agriculture / Water demand / Water availability / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / River basin management / Flooding / Upstream / Monsoon climate / Runoff water / Surface water
Sharda, V. N.; Sikka, Alok K.; Samra, J. S.; Islam, A. 2017. Water harvesting and recycling: Indian experience.
New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research 337p. More...
Case studies / Ponds / Watershed management / Irrigation systems / Catchment areas / Cost benefit analysis / Seepage / Infiltration / Spillways / Dams / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Runoff water / Socioeconomic development / Land use / Sedimentation / Reservoir storage / Groundwater potential / Groundwater development / Tank irrigation / River basins / Rainwater / Water storage / Water demand / Water availability / Water resources / Corporate culture / Community involvement / Economic analysis / Water harvesting
Thapa, B. R.; Ishidaira, H.; Pandey, Vishnu Prasad; Shakya, N. M. 2017. A multi-model approach for analyzing water balance dynamics in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,
9:149-162. [DOI] More...
Study region: Kathmandu Valley, Capital city of Nepal.
Study focus: This study applied three hydrological models (i.e., SWAT, HBV, and BTOPMC) to analyze the water balance components and their temporal and seasonal variations in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The water balance components were investigated using the same precipitation, climatic data, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) as input variables for each model. The yearly and seasonal variations in each component and the interactions among them were analyzed. There was a close agreement between the monthly observed and calibrated runoff at the watershed scale, and all the three models captured well the flow patterns for most of the seasons.
New hydrological insights for the region: The average annual runoff in the study watershed calculated by the SWAT, HBV, and BTOPMC models was 887, 834, and 865 mm, corresponding to 59%, 55%, and 57% of the annual precipitation, respectively. The average annual evapotranspiration (ET) was 625, 623, and 718 mm, and the estimated yearly average total water storage (TWS) was 5, -35, and 29 mm, respectively. The long-term average TWS component was similar in all three models. ET had the lowest inter-annual variation and runoff had the greatest inter-annual variation in all models. Predictive analysis using the three models suggested a reasonable range for estimates of runoff, ET, and TWS. Although there was variation in the estimates among the different models, our results indicate a possible range of variation for those values, which is a useful finding for the short- and long-term planning of water resource development projects in the study area. The effects of historical water use, water stress, and climatic projections using multi-model water balance approaches offer a useful direction for future studies to enhance our understanding of anthropogenic effects in the Kathmandu Valley.
Valleys / Meteorological stations / Forecasting / Performance indexes / Strategies / Calibration / Evapotranspiration / Rain / Precipitation / Runoff / Watersheds / Water storage / Water security / Water resources / Models / Hydrological cycle / Water balance
Ghosh, S.; Thakur, P. K.; Sharma, R.; Nandy, S.; Garg, V.; Amarnath, Giriraj; Bhattacharyya, S. 2017. The potential applications of satellite altimetry with SARAL [Satellite with ARGOS and ALTIKA]/AltiKa for Indian inland waters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section A-Physical Sciences,
19p. (Online first). [DOI] More...
The satellite radar altimetry datasets are now extensively used for continental water monitoring although it was primarily designed for oceanic surface and ice cap studies. Water level estimated from satellite altimetry can help to assess many hydrological parameters like river discharge and reservoir volume. These parameters can be employed for calibration and validation purposes of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, rating curve (stage-discharge relationship) generation, near real-time flood forecasting, reservoir operations and transboundary water related issues. Satellite with Argos and AltiKa (SARAL/AltiKa), a joint venture of Indian Space Research Organisation and Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, is one of the pioneer missions in the history of satellite radar altimetry. It is first high-frequency (Ka-band, 35.75 GHz) mission with the highest sampling rate (40 Hz). The applications of radar altimetry to inland hydrology have been significantly increased in recent years in India. Major studies have been carried out in Ganga, Brahmaputra, Tapi and Godavari river basins with AltiKa data. AltiKa datasets have been successfully used for retrieving water level in reservoir and river, estimating river discharge and calculating reservoir sedimentation. Considering the stress on India’s fresh water resources and the importance of SARAL/AltiKa mission, this work was carried out. The present review paper may be helpful to understand the working principle of altimetry, altimetry waveform, waveform retracking methods, water stage, river discharge and changes in reservoir’s water storage calculation, and the status of altimetry applications to inland hydrology, specifically solicitation of SARAL/AltiKa in the Indian context.
Calibration / Models / Hydrology / Measurement / Sedimentation / Reservoirs / Flow discharge / River basins / Water levels / Radar / Satellite observation / Monitoring / Surface water / Inland waters / Earth observation satellites
de Silva, Sanjiv; Miratori, K.; Bastakoti, Ram C.; Ratner, B. D. 2017. Collective action and governance challenges in the Tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia.
In Suhardiman, Diana; Nicol, Alan; Mapedza, Everisto (Eds.). Water governance and collective action: multi-scale challenges. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.108-119. (Earthscan Water Text) More...
Local organizations / Community management / Fisheries / Natural resources management / Democracy / Lakes / Governance / Collective action
Moges, M. A.; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, S. A.; Langan, Simon; Dagnew, D. C.; Akale, A. T.; Steenhuis, T. S. 2017. Suitability of watershed models to predict distributed hydrologic response in the Awramba Watershed in Lake Tana Basin. Land Degradation and Development,
28(4):1386-1397. [DOI] More...
Planning effective landscape interventions is an important tool to fight against land degradation and requires knowledge on spatial distribution of runoff. The objective of this paper was to test models that predict temporal and spatial distribution of runoff. The selected models were PED-WM, HBV-IHMS and SWAT. We choose 7 km2 Awramba watershed in the Lake Tana basin with detailed hydrological information for testing these models. Discharge at the outlet, rainfall and distributed information on infiltration rates, water table and extent of the saturated area were collected from 2013 to 2015. The maximum saturated area was 6.5% of the watershed. Infiltration rates exceeded rainfall intensities 91% of the time. Hence saturation excess runoff was the main runoff mechanism. Models were calibrated for the rainy seasons 2013, 2014 and validated for 2015. For daily flow validation, the PED-WM model (Nash Sutcliff efficiency, NSE = 0.61) outperformed HBV-IHMS (NSE = 0.51) and SWAT (NSE = 0.48). Performance on monthly time step was similar. Difference in model behavior depended on runoff mechanism. In PED-WM saturation excess is the main direct runoff process and could predict the maximum extent of the saturated area closely at 6.9%. HBV-IHMS model runoff simulation depended on soil moisture status and evapotranspiration, and hence was able to simulate saturation excess flow but not the extent of the saturated area. In SWAT where infiltration excess is the main runoff mechanism could only predict the monthly discharges well. This study shows that prevailing runoff mechanisms and distribution of runoff source areas should be used for proper model selection.
Water levels / Water table / Groundwater / Calibration / Wet season / Infiltration water / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Spatial distribution / River basin management / Land degradation / Models / Catchment areas / Hydrology / Watershed management
Moges, M. A.; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, S. A.; Ayana, E. K.; Ketema, A. A.; Nigussie, T. E.; Steenhuis, T. S. 2017. Water Quality Assessment by Measuring and Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Images for the Current and Previous Trend Perspective: Lake Tana Ethiopia. Water Research,
9:1564-1585. [DOI] More...
Recently there are signs of water quality impairment in Lake Tana, the largest fresh water in Ethiopia. The lake is the growth corridor of the government and supports millions of livelihood around. In order to sustain the benefit and maintain the ecosystem of the lake, the lake health has to be kept safe. Therefore monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of lake is very vital. This study focuses on current and previous trends water quality of the lake through measurements and Landsat Images near entry of Gumera River. Statistical analysis of the physical (Turbidity and STD and biological (Cha-a,) and chemical (DPC) water quality parameters were done. Linear and non-linear regression models between water quality parameter and reflectance of Landsat 7 ETM+ images were fitted based on band combinations. Pervious trend in turbidity was analyzed based on the regression models. The results showed that reflectance and turbidity satisfactorily result with an R2 ranging from 0.61 - 0.68. Form 1999-2014 the turbidity of the lake has indicated an increasing trend. Delta development near the entry of Gumera River has been enlarged by 48% because of an increase sediment inflow. The sign in the decreasing water quality of the lake was attributed to the non-point source sediment and nutrient inflow to the lake with high erosion rate from the watersheds. Measures to reduce the non-point source sediment and nutrient inflow by targeting the source areas (hot spots) in the agricultural watersheds need to be priority for stakeholders working on the soil and water conservation. Moreover, reducing the recession agriculture around the lake and wetland management could be crucial for improving lake water quality.
Remote sensing / Phosphorus / River basins / Soil conservation / Water conservation / Watersheds / Nutrients / Sediment / Lakes / Deltas / Landsat / Assessment / Water quality
Dickens, Chris; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Nhamo, Luxon. 2017. Guidelines and indicators for Target 6.6 of the SDGs: “change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time”.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 56p. More...
Environmental health / Reservoirs / Stream flow / Flow discharge / Water quality / Remote sensing / Earth observation satellites / Groundwater / Rivers / Ponds / Lakes / Mangroves / Peatlands / Paddy fields / Forests / Wetlands / Swamps / Marshes / Monitoring / Indicators / Guidelines / Ecosystem services / Sustainable development
Suhardiman, Diana; Nicol, Alan; Mapedza, Everisto. 2017. Water governance and collective action: multi-scale challenges.
Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan 190p. (Earthscan Water Text) More...
River basin management / Cooperation / Mining / Gold / Lakes / Stakeholders / Peasant workers / Land ownership / Agriculture / Community involvement / Cooperatives / Groundwater / Watersheds / Dams / Political aspects / International waters / Water control / Water management / Water security / Water law / Collective action / Water governance
Suhardiman, Diana; Nicol, Alan; Mapedza, Everisto. 2017. Introduction.
In Suhardiman, Diana; Nicol, Alan; Mapedza, Everisto (Eds.). Water governance and collective action: multi-scale challenges. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.1-8. (Earthscan Water Text) More...
River basin management / Cooperation / Mining / Gold / Lakes / Stakeholders / Peasant workers / Land ownership / Agriculture / Community involvement / Cooperatives / Groundwater / Watershed management / Political aspects / International waters / Water control / Water management / Water security / Water law / Collective action / Water governance
Cai, X.; Altchenko, Yvan; Chavula, G. 2017. Availability and use of water resources.
In Lautze, Jonathan; Phiri, Z.; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Saruchera, D. (Eds.). 2017. The Zambezi River Basin: water and sustainable development. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.7-28. (Earthscan Series on Major River Basins of the World) More...
Food security / Investment / Economic aspects / Climate change / Reservoir storage / Dams / Groundwater / Domestic water / Surface water / Water demand / Water supply / Water storage / Water use / Water availability / Water management / Water resources
Slaets, J. I. F.; Piepho, H.-P.; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, T.; Cadisch, G. 2017. Quantifying uncertainty on sediment loads using bootstrap confidence intervals. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
21:571-588. [DOI] More...
Load estimates are more informative than constituent concentrations alone, as they allow quantification of on- and off-site impacts of environmental processes concerning pollutants, nutrients and sediment, such as soil fertility loss, reservoir sedimentation and irrigation channel siltation. While statistical models used to predict constituent concentrations have been developed considerably over the last few years, measures of uncertainty on constituent loads are rarely reported. Loads are the product of two predictions, constituent concentration and discharge, integrated over a time period, which does not make it straightforward to produce a standard error or a confidence interval. In this paper, a linear mixed model is used to estimate sediment concentrations. A bootstrap method is then developed that accounts for the uncertainty in the concentration and discharge predictions, allowing temporal correlation in the constituent data, and can be used when data transformations are required. The method was tested for a small watershed in Northwest Vietnam for the period 2010–2011. The results showed that confidence intervals were asymmetric, with the highest uncertainty in the upper limit, and that a load of 6262 Mg year-1 had a 95 % confidence interval of (4331, 12 267) in 2010 and a load of 5543 Mg an interval of (3593, 8975) in 2011. Additionally, the approach demonstrated that direct estimates from the data were biased downwards compared to bootstrap median estimates. These results imply that constituent loads predicted from regression-type water quality models could frequently be underestimating sediment yields and their environmental impact.
Hydrological factors / Uncertainty / Rain / Catchment areas / Discharges / Water quality / Watersheds / Reservoirs / Soil fertility / Nutrients / Pollutants / Uncertainty / Sediment
Woldetsadik, D.; Drechsel, Pay; Marschner, B.; Itanna, F.; Gebrekidan, H. 2017. Effect of biochar derived from faecal matter on yield and nutrient content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils. Environmental Systems Research,
6(1):1-12. [DOI] More...
Background: Faecal matter biochar offers an interesting value proposition where the pyrolysis process guaranties a 100% pathogen elimination, as well as significant reduction in transport and storage weight and volume. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of (1) biochar produced from dried faecal matter from household based septic tanks, and (2) N fertilizer, as well as their interaction on yield and nutrient status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), lettuce was grown over two growing cycles under glasshouse on two contrasting soils amended once at the start with factorial combination of faecal matter biochar at four rates (0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1) with 0, 25 and 50 kg N ha-1 in randomized complete block design.; Results: For both soils, maximum fresh yields were recorded with biochar and combined application of biochar with N treatments. However, the greatest biochar addition effects (with or without N) with regard to relative yield were seen in less fertile sandy loam soil. We have also observed that faecal matter biochar application resulted in noticeable positive residual effects on lettuce yield and tissue nutrient concentrations in the 2nd growing cycle. For both soils, most nutrients analyzed (N, P, K, Mg, Cu and Zn) were within or marginally above optimum ranges for lettuce under biochar amendment.; Conclusions: The application of faecal matter biochar enhances yield and tissue nutrient concentrations of lettuce in two contrasting soils, suggesting that faecal matter biochar could be used as an effective fertilizer for lettuce production at least for two growing cycles. Moreover, the conversion of the faecal matter feedstock into charred product may offer additional waste management benefit as it offers an additional (microbiologically safe) product compared to the more common co-composting.
Yields / Residues / Composting / Biochar / Soil fertility / Soil amendments / Lettuces / Nitrogen fertilizers / Septic tanks / Nutrients / Faecal sludge / Waste management
Mul, Marloes; Pettinotti, L.; Amonoo, Naana Adwoa; Bekoe-Obeng, E.; Obuobie, E. 2017. Dependence of riparian communities on ecosystem services in northern Ghana.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 43p. (IWMI Working Paper 179) [DOI] More...
This study investigated the dependence of three riparian communities on ecosystem services in northern Ghana. Participatory mapping and ranking exercises in gender-segregated groups were used to elicit information on the communities’ livelihoods. The most important ecosystem-based activities (EBA) are farming, fishing, livestock watering and grazing, collection of wild fruits and vegetables, and provision of water for domestic use. The major EBA are dependent on the seasonal flows of the White Volta River, which are under pressure due to climatic and other anthropogenic changes. For example, observed delays in the start of the rainy season are affecting rainfed agricultural activities on the floodplains. Delayed planting on the floodplains results in damage to, or loss of, crops as floods arrive before the harvest. Moreover, the Bagr Dam in Burkina Faso, built upstream of the communities, has impacted the natural river flow. The planned Pwalugu Dam may, depending on the final operations, support or affect EBA. We, therefore, recommend that operations of the Pwalugu Dam should take into consideration the flow requirements of EBA downstream of the dam.
Agriculture / Income / Food security / Dry season / Rain / Climate change / Gender / Domestic consumption / Household consumption / Floodplains / Stream flow / River basins / Dams / Ponds / Water storage / Woodlands / Shrubs / Forest reserves / Infrastructure / Natural resources / Seasonality / Mapping / Living standards / Socioeconomic environment / Participatory rural appraisal / Communities / Riparian zones / Ecosystem services
Zegeye, A. D.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Mekuria, Wolde; Dagnaw, D. C.; Addisse, M. B.; Tilahun, S. A.; Kasse, T. A. 2017. Effect of gully headcut treatment on sediment load and gully expansion in the sub humid Ethiopian Highlands. Environment and Ecology Research,
5(2):138-144. [DOI] More...
The Ethiopian government has been implementing a land restoration program that aimed to restore degraded ecosystems and double agricultural productivity throughout the country since 2010. However, the success of the restoration program has been limited due to the lack of integrating gully erosion control measures. Consequently, many reservoirs in Ethiopia and downstream riparian countries have lost their storage capacity due to sedimentation, and studies demonstrated that gully erosion is one of the degradation hotspots within watersheds and contribute considerable proportion of the total sediment loads from a particular watershed. This study was conducted in one of large gullies in the Debre-Mawi watershed, northwestern Ethiopia to quantify the effect of gully head treatment in reducing the amount of sediment load generated from uplands and from the gully itself. We measured discharge, and sediment load and concentration in 2013 and 2014 at the upstream (inlet) and downstream ends (outlet) of the studied gully. Before the 2014 rainy phase, a gully headcut was stabilized with gabions at the bed and the gully bank was regarded to 45o. The gully head retreated 12 m in 2013 but gully head retreat was stopped following the implementation of the treatment in 2014. The total sediment load and sediment concentration at the outlet was reduced by 42% and 30% respectively, in 2014 (i.e., after treatment) when compared to 2013 (i.e., before treatment). The result of this study support that controlling the upward retreat of gully head is effective in reducing sediment load and concentration as well as upward movement and expansion of gullies. However, maintenance of gully head control measures is the key to sustain the benefits.
Concentrating / Watershed management / Water resources / Water conservation / Soil conservation / Lakes / River banks / Highlands / Humid zones / Sedimentation / Gully erosion
Rajurkar, G. B.; Patel, N.; Natarajan, Rajmohan; Rajput, T. B. S.; Prathapar, S. A.; Varghese, C. 2016. Irrigation application efficiency and uniformity of water distribution using multi-outlet pipe and resource conservation technologies. Journal of Applied and Natural Science,
Irrigation experiments were conducted during November to April under wheat crop in the winter season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 in the farmer’s field at Galibkhedi village located in Karnal District, Haryana State, India. In the study, collapsible multi-outlet pipe (MOP) along with single outlets pipe (SOP) was tested in farmer’s field under wheat cultivation. Irrigation was carried out in five treatments including tillage (T) with SOP and MOP; zero-tillage (ZT) with SOP and MOP, and furrow irrigation with raised bed (FIRB). Iso-time profile of waterfront spreading and advance indicated that irrigation water distribution was uniform under the plot irrigated using MOP as compared to plot irrigated using SOP. In addition, water distribution was uniform under zero tilled plots as compared to tilled plot. Results implied that MOP has several advantages over SOP in terms of application efficiency (AE) and uniformity of water distribution. Average application efficiency for the first study year was found to be in the order of ZT-MOP (82.41%) gt; FIRB (76.79%) gt; ZT-SOP (75.25%) gt; T-MOP (74.85%) gt; T-SOP (69.79%). Average application efficien-cy for the second study year was found to be in the same order as first year with some deviation in values. In the second year values of mean application efficiencies were ZT-MOP (82.58%) gt; FIRB (77.13%) gt; ZT-SOP (73.04%) gt; T-MOP (69.65%) gt; T-SOP (66.13%). Overall, this study concludes that irrigation under wheat crop using collapsible multi-outlet pipe (MOP) with zero tillage practices is a suitable option for surface irrigation that accomplishes uniform distribution of water with higher application efficiency.
Soil water / Farmers / Wheat / Cultivation / Planting / Seasonal cropping / Crop production / Zero tillage / Technology / Resource conservation / Pipe drainage / Water storage / Water distribution / Irrigation water / Irrigation systems / Irrigation efficiency
Sood, Aditya; Seidou, O.; Forkuor, G.; Annor, F. O.; McCartney, Matthew. 2016. Simulating current and future Volta Basin water development scenarios.
In Williams, Timothy O.; Mul, Marloes L.; Biney, C. A.; Smakhtin, Vladimir (Eds.). The Volta River Basin: water for food, economic growth and environment. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.245-273. More...
Soil moisture / Calibration / Climate change / Models / Hydrology / Reservoir storage / Water allocation / Water storage / Water yield / Water resources development / River basin development
Kasei, R. A.; Amisigo, B.; Mul, Marloes L. 2016. Managing floods and droughts.
In Williams, Timothy O.; Mul, Marloes L.; Biney, C. A.; Smakhtin, Vladimir (Eds.). The Volta River Basin: water for food, economic growth and environment. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.76-91. More...
Urban development / Deforestation / Land use / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Resilience / River basins / Risk management / Risk reduction / Rain / Drought / Flooding / Natural disasters
Kibret, S.; Lautze, Jonathan; McCartney, Matthew; Nhamo, Luxon; Wilson, G. G. 2016. Malaria and large dams in sub-Saharan Africa: future impacts in a changing climate. Malaria Journal,
15:1-14. [DOI] More...
Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has embarked on a new era of dam building to improve food security and promote economic development. Nonetheless, the future impacts of dams on malaria transmission are poorly understood and seldom investigated in the context of climate and demographic change.
Methods: The distribution of malaria in the vicinity of 1268 existing dams in SSA was mapped under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathways (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Population projections and malaria incidence estimates were used to compute population at risk of malaria in both RCPs. Assuming no change in socio-economic interventions that may mitigate impacts, the change in malaria stability and malaria burden in the vicinity of the dams was calculated for the two RCPs through to the 2080s. Results were compared against the 2010 baseline. The annual number of malaria cases associated with dams and climate change was determined for each of the RCPs.
Results: The number of dams located in malarious areas is projected to increase in both RCPs. Population growth will add to the risk of transmission. The population at risk of malaria around existing dams and associated reservoirs, is estimated to increase from 15 million in 2010 to 21–23 million in the 2020s, 25–26 million in the 2050s and 28–29 million in the 2080s, depending on RCP. The number of malaria cases associated with dams in malarious areas is expected to increase from 1.1 million in 2010 to 1.2–1.6 million in the 2020s, 2.1–3.0 million in the 2050s and 2.4–3.0 million in the 2080s depending on RCP. The number of cases will always be higher in RCP 8.5 than RCP 2.6.
Conclusion: In the absence of changes in other factors that affect transmission (e.g., socio-economic), the impact of dams on malaria in SSA will be significantly exacerbated by climate change and increases in population. Areas without malaria transmission at present, which will transition to regions of unstable transmission, may be worst affected. Modifying conventional water management frameworks to improve malaria control, holds the potential to mitigate some of this increase and should be more actively implemented.
Sociocultural environment / Population growth / Disease prevention / Health hazards / Public health / Climate change / Reservoirs / Dams / Malaria
Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Natarajan, R.; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Kakumanu, Krishna Reddy; Prathapar, Sanmugam A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.; Sharma, A.; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Goel, M. K. 2016. Reviving the Ganges water machine: potential and challenges to meet increasing water demand in the Ganges River Basin.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 42p. (IWMI Research Report 167) [DOI] More...
Although the Ganges River Basin (GRB) has abundant water resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch in water supply and demand, which creates severe water-related challenges for the people living in the basin, the rapidly growing economy and the environment. Addressing these increasing challenges will depend on how people manage the basin’s groundwater resources, on which the reliance will increase further due to limited prospects for additional surface storage development. This report assesses the potential of the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), a concept proposed 40 years ago, to meet the increasing water demand through groundwater, and mitigate the impacts of floods and droughts. The GWM provides additional subsurface storage (SSS) through the accelerated use of groundwater prior to the onset of the monsoon season, and subsequent recharging of this SSS through monsoon surface runoff. It was identified that there is potential to enhance SSS through managed aquifer recharge during the monsoon season, and to use solar energy for groundwater pumping, which is financially more viable than using diesel as practiced in many areas at present. The report further explores the limitations associated with water quality issues for pumping and recharge in the GRB, and discusses other related challenges, including availability of land for recharge structures and people’s willingness to increase the cropping intensity beyond the present level.
Cropping systems / Pumping / Renewable energy / Solar energy / Aquifers / Cost benefit analysis / Drought / Flooding / Monsoon climate / Climate change / Industrial uses / Runoff water / Surface water / Irrigation water / Domestic water / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater depletion / Groundwater irrigation / River basin management / Water accounting / Water quality / Water storage / Water use / Water supply / Water resources / Water demand
Ebrahim, Girma Y.; Villholth, Karen G. 2016. Estimating shallow groundwater availability in small catchments using streamflow recession and instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa. Journal of Hydrology,
541:754-765. [DOI] More...
Groundwater is an important resource for multiple uses in South Africa. Hence, setting limits to its sustainable abstraction while assuring basic human needs is required. Due to prevalent data scarcity related to groundwater replenishment, which is the traditional basis for estimating groundwater availability, the present article presents a novel method for determining allocatable groundwater in quaternary (fourth-order) catchments through information on streamflow. Using established methodologies for assessing baseflow, recession flow, and instream ecological flow requirement, the methodology develops a combined stepwise methodology to determine annual available groundwater storage volume using linear reservoir theory, essentially linking low flows proportionally to upstream groundwater storages. The approach was trialled for twenty-one perennial and relatively undisturbed catchments with long-term and reliable streamflow records. Using the Desktop Reserve Model, instream flow requirements necessary to meet the present ecological state of the streams were determined, and baseflows in excess of these flows were converted into a conservative estimates of allocatable groundwater storages on an annual basis. Results show that groundwater development potential exists in fourteen of the catchments, with upper limits to allocatable groundwater volumes (including present uses) ranging from 0.02 to 3.54 × 106 m3 a-1 (0.10–11.83 mm a-1) per catchment. With a secured availability of these volume 75% of the years, variability between years is assumed to be manageable. A significant (R2 = 0.88) correlation between baseflow index and the drainage time scale for the catchments underscores the physical basis of the methodology and also enables the reduction of the procedure by one step, omitting recession flow analysis. The method serves as an important complementary tool for the assessment of the groundwater part of the Reserve and the Groundwater Resource Directed Measures in South Africa and could be adapted and applied elsewhere.
Uncertainty / Time series analysis / Ecological factors / Rain / Drainage / Hydrogeology / Recharge / Aquifers / Models / Stream flow / Rivers / Catchment areas / Water storage / Water allocation / Water availability / Groundwater assessment
Surinaidu, L.; Nandan, M. J.; Prathapar, Sanmugam; Rao, V. V. S. G.; Natarajan, Rajmohan. 2016. Groundwater evaporation ponds: a viable option for the management of shallow saline waterlogged areas. Hydrology,
3(3):1-12 [DOI] More...
The province of Punjab is the main food basket of India. In recent years, many regions of Punjab are facing acute waterlogging problems and increased secondary salinity, which have negative impacts on food security of the nation. In particular, these problems are more pronounced in the Muktsar district of Punjab. The observed groundwater levels trend between 2005 and 2011 implies that groundwater levels are coming towards the land surface at the rate of 0.5 m/year in Lambi and Malout blocks. In this study, a groundwater flow model was constructed using MODFLOW to understand the groundwater table dynamics and to test the groundwater evaporation ponds to draw down the groundwater levels in the waterlogging areas of Muktsar district. The predicted flow model results indicate that groundwater levels could be depleted at the rate of 0.3 m/year between 2012 and 2018 after the construction of Groundwater Evaporation Ponds (GEP). In addition, the constructed ponds can be used for aquaculture that generates additional income. The proposed GEP method may be a promising tool and suitable for the reduction of waterlogging in any region if there is no proper surface drainage, and also for enhancement of agricultural production that improves the social and economic status of the farming community.
Calibration / Aquifers / Hydrogeology / Land degradation / Flow discharge / Food security / Ponds / Water balance / Waterlogging / Saline water / Salinity / Evaporation / Groundwater level / Groundwater management
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Sunde, M. G. 2016. Improving spatiotemporal groundwater estimates after natural disasters using remotely sensed data: a case study of the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Earth Science Informatics,
9(1):101-111. [DOI] More...
The Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26, 2004 devastated coastal ecosystems across South Asia. Along the coastal regions of South India, increased groundwater levels (GWL), largely caused by saltwater intrusion, infiltration from inundated land, and disturbance of freshwater lenses, were reported. Many agencies allocated funding for restoration and rehabilitation projects. However, to streamline funding allocation efforts, district-level groundwater inundation/recession data would have been a useful tool for planners. Thus, to ensure better preparedness for future disaster relief operations, it is crucial to quantify pre- and post-tsunami groundwater levels across coastal districts in India. Since regional scale GWL field observations are not often available, this study instead used space gravimetry data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), along with soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS), to quantify GWL fluctuations caused by the tsunami. A time-series analysis of equivalent groundwater thickness was developed for February 2004–December 2005 and the results indicated a net increase of 274 % in GWLs along coastal regions in Tamil Nadu following the tsunami. The net recharge volume of groundwater due to the tsunami was 16.8 km3, just 15 % lower than the total annual groundwater recharge (19.8 km3) for the state of Tamil Nadu. Additionally, GWLs returned to average within 3 months following the tsunami. The analysis demonstrated the utility of remotely sensed data in predicting and assessing the impacts of natural disasters.
Case studies / Ecosystems / Soil moisture / Coastal area / Remote sensing / Salt water intrusion / Flooding / Rain / Tsunamis / Disaster risk management / Natural disasters / Water storage / Water levels / Groundwater
Molle, Francois; Gaafar, I.; El-Agha, D. E.; Rap, Edwin. 2016. Irrigation efficiency and the Nile Delta water balance.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 53p. More...
Ponds / Aquaculture / Irrigated farming / Industrial uses / Domestic water / Pumping / Evaporation / Evapotranspiration / Recharge / Aquifers / Drainage / Rivers / Deltas / Rain / Groundwater management / Water use / Water reuse / Water balance / Irrigation efficiency
Chemin, Yann. 2016. A new methodology for virtual water level Gauges. International Journal of Geoinformatics,
Monitoring water stored in lakes and reservoirs is much needed in various countries for energy generation, food security and mitigating floods, among recurrent global issues. Natural and human-made open water bodies do not all have monitoring systems, this lack of regular information generates uncertainties in modeling, and increases unaccounted time-bound residuals in water balances. A large amount of water bodies storage variations are not monitored around the World. Here we show that this can be changed by the creation and the implementation of the concept of water Level Virtual Gauges (wLVGs) based on slope tracks upstream of water bodies, correlated to publicly available satellite remote sensing information returning water levels bi-monthly on average, sometimes weekly. An operational RMSE is found to be 12-52 cm height, depending on the characteristics of the upstream slopes used to calibrate wLVGs. This methodology is simple enough to be implemented for all medium to large reservoirs, but is alsofound successful for smaller rural reservoirs in tropical/sub-tropical countries. We anticipate that this can open globally distributed pathways to monitor open water bodies across the World, improve public databases on water storages and give management information for non/less-monitored water bodies.
Monitoring / Calibration / Energy generation / Reservoir storage / Lakes / Water balance / Water storage / Water levels / Virtual water
Sakthivadivel, R. 2016. Prosopis juliflora in the irrigation tanks of Tamil Nadu. IWMI-Tata Water Policy Research Highlight,
7. 8p. More...
Prosopis / Cost benefit analysis / Environmental impact / Crop production / Economic aspects / Rain / Farmers / Health hazards / Water supply / Water levels / Groundwater management / Tank irrigation
Reis, J.; Culver, T. B.; Block, P. J.; McCartney, Matthew P. 2016. Evaluating the impact and uncertainty of reservoir operation for malaria control as the climate changes in Ethiopia. Climatic Change,
136(3):601-614. [DOI] More...
Promising environmental mechanisms to control malaria are presently underutilized. Water level fluctuations to interrupt larval development have recently been studied and proposed as a low-impact malaria intervention in Ethiopia. One impediment to implementing such new environmental policies is the uncertain impact of climate change on water resources, which could upend reservoir operation policies. Here we quantified the potential impact of the malaria management under future climate states. Simulated timeseries were constructed by resampling historical precipitation, temperature, and evaporation data (1994–2002), imposing a 2 C temperature increase and precipitation changes with a range of 20 %. Runoff was generated for each climate scenario using the model GR4J. The runoff was used as input into a calibrated HEC ResSim model of reservoir operations. The malaria operation management increased the baseline scenario median energy generation by 18.2 GWh y-1 and decreased the energy generation at the 0.5 percentile (during dry conditions) by 7.3 GWh y-1. In scenarios with -20 % precipitation, malaria control increased average annual energy generation by 1.3 GWh y-1 but only decreased the lowest 0.5 percentile of energy by 0.2 GWh y-1; the irrigation demand was not met on 8.5 more days, on average, per year. Applying the malaria control rule to scenarios with +20 % precipitation decreased the likelihood of flooding by an average of 1.0 day per year. While the malaria control would divert some water away from other reservoir operational goals, the intervention requires 3.3–3.7 % of the annual precipitation budget, which is much less than reduction from potential droughts.
Environmental flows / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Irrigation / Energy generation / Water resources / Water levels / Evaporation / Temperature / Precipitation / Climate change / Reservoir operation / Malaria
Surinaidu, L.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Singh, S. 2016. Reviving the Ganges water machine: accelerating surface water and groundwater interactions in the Ramganga sub-basin. Journal of Hydrology,
540:207-219. [DOI] More...
Reviving the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), coined 40 years ago, is the most opportune solution for mitigating the impacts of recurrent droughts and floods in the Ganges River Basin in South Asia. GWM create subsurface storage (SSS) by pumping more groundwater from the aquifers before the monsoon for irrigation and other uses and recharge it during the monsoon. The present study uses fully processed and physically based numerical models, MODFLOW and SWAT, in a semi-coupled modelling framework to examine the technical feasibility of recharging the SSS. The aquifer was simulated as a two-layer system using hydrogeological and groundwater data, model was calibrated from 1999 to 2005 and validated from 2006 to 2010. It assesses the impacts of gradual increase of SSS in 10 years from the base year 2010 under two scenarios (increased rainfall or controlled pumping and recharge) to meet a potential unmet demand of 1.68 billion cubic meters (Bm3) in the Ramganga sub-basin with an area of 18,668 km2. The results show that 3–4 m of subsurface storage can be created by groundwater pumping of 0.25 Bm3/year by 2020. Under the controlled pumping and recharge scenario, groundwater recharge and river seepage could increase by 14% (4.21–4.80 Bm3) and 31% (1.10–1.44 Bm3), respectively. However, baseflow will decrease by 30% (0.18–0.12 Bm3) over the same time period. The results also show that recharge increased 44% (4.21–6.05 Bm3) under an increased rainfall scenario. Simultaneously, river seepage and baseflows would increase 36% (1.10–1.14 Bm3) and 11% (0.18–0.20 Bm3), respectively. A well-designed managed aquifer recharge program is required to eliminate the negative impact of river flows in the low flow season.
Rain / Artificial recharge / Flow discharge / Calibration / Models / Hydrogeology / Seepage / River basins / Aquifers / Pumping / Water balance / Water levels / Water use / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / Monsoon climate / Surface water
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Prathapar, Sanmugam A. 2016. Methods to investigate the hydrology of the Himalayan springs: a review.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 28p. (IWMI Working Paper 169) [DOI] More...
Springs are the major source of freshwater in many small mountainous watersheds within the Himalayan region. In recent years, their flow rates have diminished, but the reasons for this are not self-evident, and hence this paper reviews the methods to investigate Himalayan springs. The review reveals that chemical and isotope analyses – mostly water dating and stable isotope (e.g., d18O) analyses – could be an appropriate entry point to commence field investigations, because of their potential to map complex spring pathways, including linkages between aquifers. This should be combined with the building of hydrogeological maps with the available data. Output from desktop analyses, field investigations and hydrogeological maps could then contribute to the establishment of a conceptual model, which could form the basis for a numerical model.
Hydrogeology / Flow discharge / Mountains / Temperature / Rain / Climate change / Isotope analysis / Catchment areas / Monitoring / Pumps / Meltwater / Water rates / Watershed management / Groundwater / Water resources / Water springs / Water storage / Freshwater / Hydrology
Grafton, R. Q.; McLindin, M.; Hussey, K.; Wyrwoll, P.; Wichelns, D.; Ringler, C.; Garrick, D.; Pittock, J.; Wheeler, S.; Orr, S.; Matthews, N.; Ansink, E.; Aureli, A.; Connell, D.; De Stefano, L.; Dowsley, K.; Farolfi, S.; Hall, J.; Katic, Pamela; Lankford, B.; Leckie, H.; McCartney, Matthew; Pohlner, H.; Ratna, N.; Rubarenzya, M. H.; Raman, S. N. S.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J. 2016. Responding to global challenges in food, energy, environment and water: risks and options assessment for decision-making. Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies,
3(2):275-299. [DOI] More...
We analyse the threats of global environmental change, as they relate to food security. First, we review three discourses: (i) ‘sustainable intensification’, or the increase of food supplies without compromising food producing inputs, such as soils and water; (ii) the ‘nexus’ that seeks to understand links across food, energy, environment and water systems; and (iii) ‘resilience thinking’ that focuses on how to ensure the critical capacities of food, energy and water systems are maintained in the presence of uncertainties and threats. Second, we build on these discourses to present the causal, risks and options assessment for decision-making process to improve decisionmaking in the presence of risks. The process provides a structured, but flexible, approach that moves from problem diagnosis to better risk-based decision-making and outcomes by responding to causal risks within and across food, energy, environment and water systems.
Poverty / Farmers / Stakeholders / Households / Decision making / Water resources / Environmental effects / Resilience / Intensification / Sustainable development / Energy / Food production / Food security / Risk assessment
Slaets, J. I. F.; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, T.; Hue, D. T. T.; Piepho, H. P.; Vien, T. D.; Cadisch, G. 2016. Sediment-associated organic carbon and nitrogen inputs from erosion and irrigation to rice fields in a mountainous watershed in Northwest Vietnam. Biogeochemistry,
129(1):93-113 [DOI] More...
Maintaining indigenous nutrient supply and positive nutrient balances are key factors in sustaining rice yields. Irrigation systems act as conveyers for water, sediments and nutrients throughout landscapes, especially in mountainous, cultivated tropical areas where erosivity is usually high. Contributions of erosion and irrigation to the nutrient balance of paddy fields, however, are rarely assessed. In this study, a turbidity-based method was used to quantify sediment-associated organic carbon and nitrogen as well as dissolved nitrogen inputs from erosion and irrigation to a 13 ha rice area in Northwest Vietnam. The irrigation source is a surface reservoir, and both reservoir and irrigation channel are surrounded by permanent upland maize cultivation on the steep slopes. Additionally, organic carbon and nitrogen loads in paddy outflow were determined to obtain nutrient budgets. Irrigation contributed 90 % of sediment-associated organic carbon inputs and virtually all nitrogen inputs. Analysis of ammonium and nitrate in total nitrogen loads showed that 24 % of the total N inputs from irrigation to the rice area, or 0.28 Mg ha-1 a-1, were plant-available. Loads measured at the outlet of rice fields showed that paddies were a trap for sediment-associated nutrients: balancing inputs and outflow, a net load of 1.09 Mg ha-1 a-1 of sediment-associated organic carbon and 0.68 Mg ha-1 a-1 of sediment-associated nitrogen remained in the rice fields. Sediment-associated organic carbon and nitrogen inputs thus form an important contribution to the indigenous nutrient supply of rice in these maize-paddy systems, while the rice fields simultaneously capture nutrients, protecting downstream areas from the effects of land use intensification on surrounding slopes. These results underscore the importance of upland-lowland linkages in tropical, mountainous, erosion-prone areas.
Water quality / Surface water / Shifting cultivation / Runoff / Land use / Reservoirs / Landscape / Nutrient balance / Watersheds / Highlands / Maize / Rice fields / Irrigation water / Erosion / Nitrogen fertilizers / Organic nitrogen compounds / Carbon / Organic fertilizers / Soil fertility / Sedimentation
Slaets, J. I. F.; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, T.; Vien, T. D.; Cadisch, G. 2016. Sediment trap efficiency of paddy fields at the watershed scale in a mountainous catchment in northwest Vietnam. Biogeosciences,
13:3267-3281. [DOI] More...
Composite agricultural systems with permanent maize cultivation in the uplands and irrigated rice in the valleys are very common in mountainous southeast Asia. The soil loss and fertility decline of the upland fields is well documented, but little is known about reallocation of these sediments within the landscape. In this study, a turbidity-based linear mixed model was used to quantify sediment inputs, from surface reservoir irrigation water and from direct overland flow, into a paddy area of 13 ha. Simultaneously, the sediment load exported from the rice fields was determined. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to analyze sediment particle size. Our results showed that per year, 64Mgha-1 of sediments were imported into paddy fields, of which around 75% were delivered by irrigation water and the remainder by direct overland flow during rainfall events. Overland flow contributed one-third of the received sandy fraction, while irrigated sediments were predominantly silty. Overall, rice fields were a net sink for sediments, trapping 28Mgha-1 a-1 or almost half of total sediment inputs. As paddy outflow consisted almost exclusively of silt- and clay-sized material, 24Mgha-1 a-1 of the trapped amount of sediment was estimated to be sandy. Under continued intensive upland maize cultivation, such a sustained input of coarse material could jeopardize paddy soil fertility, puddling capacity and ultimately food security of the inhabitants of these mountainous areas. Preventing direct overland flow from entering the paddy fields, however, could reduce sand inputs by up to 34 %.
Rain / Reservoir storage / Erosion / Soil fertility / Irrigation water / Rice / Maize / Agriculture / Cropping systems / Catchment areas / Highlands / Watersheds / Paddy fields / Sedimentation
Bastakoti, Ram C.; Prathapar, S. A.; Okwany, Romulus O. 2016. Community pond rehabilitation to deal with climate variability: a case study in Nepal Terai. Water Resources and Rural Development,
7:20-35. [DOI] More...
A large number of small- to medium-sized community ponds exist in most parts of the Terai region in Nepal. Such ponds could be a viable alternative for other forms of surface irrigation. But, with the lack of efficient management, many of these ponds remain underutilized. An effort was made to facilitate the rehabilitation of such a pond in a selected village of Rupandehi District in Western Terai region of Nepal. This paper aims to evaluate the changed water availability situation in post-monsoon seasons after the pond rehabilitation. The paper also evaluates the feasibility of such interventions especially focusing on the potential to provide additional water and improve agricultural productivity. Results showed small increases in quantifiable indicators such as water availability, cropping intensity, productivity and income. The new institutional setup improved water allocation, improved operation and maintenance, and increased social awareness among the people about the importance of underutilized water resources. The intervention has the potential to be replicated in similar contexts.
Case studies / Income / Households / Crops / Agricultural production / Water allocation / Water productivity / Water resources / Water availability / Irrigation water / Irrigation canals / Surface irrigation / Rehabilitation / Multiple use / Collective action / Community involvement / Ponds / Monsoon climate / Climate change
Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, Sumit; Jain, S. K. 2016. Reviving the Ganges water machine: potential. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
20(3):1085-1101. [DOI] More...
The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3–4 months (June–September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8–9 months (October–May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface–subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November–March) and hot weather (April–May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July–November) and Boro (December–May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub-basins in the western part of the Ganges basin. Overall, a revived GWM plan has the potential to meet 45–84 Bm3year-1 of unmet water demand.
Runoff / Recharge / Flooding / Environmental flows / Farmland / Irrigated land / Riparian zones / River basins / Surface water / Groundwater management / Water storage / Water supply / Water use / Water resources / Monsoon climate
Kadyampakeni, Davie M.; Ellis, Tim; Sidibe, Yoro. 2016. Evaluating seasonal soil water dynamics using a simple soil water balance model in northern Ghana.
Paper presented at the African Soil Science Society Conference, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 8-12 February 2016. 14p. More...
Soil water management is critical for sustainable crop production, particularly in drought-prone environments. A range of strategies can be used to address spatial (need to improve in-situ infiltration) and temporal (need to improve water holding capacity /storage) to increase soil water availability for crop water uptake and improved yield production and productivity. This paper presents the results from field studies of rainfall and run-off monitoring in rainfed maize-based cropping systems in northern Ghana. Rainfall was measured using rain gauges and run-off was estimated using run-off pits in selected fields plots. Long-term 20-year weather data were used in simulation experiments using a deterministic water balance model to represent smallholder rainfed maize crop system. The field studies in the three regions of northern Ghana resulted in the development of regression rainfall-runoff relationships with R2 in the range 0.75 to 0.97 for fields with/without in situ. Further, estimation of size of water conservation/storage structures could be designed based on long-term rainfall-runoff relations to increase timely crop water availability and reduce spatial losses of water through surface runoff.
Models / Smallholders / Maize / Rainfed farming / Monitoring / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Climate change / Cropping systems / Crop production / Infiltration water / Water conservation / Water requirements / Water storage / Water availability / Water balance / Water management / Soil moisture / Soil water / Agriculture
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Agoramoorthy, G. 2016. India's groundwater storage trends influenced by tube well intensification. Ground Water,
6p. (Online first) [DOI] More...
Agriculture is a major occupation for people who inhabit the state of West Bengal in India. In order to boost irrigation, 570 tube wells per year were installed during 2002-2008, and 12,000 wells per year were installed during 2009-2013, contributing to higher groundwater (GW) withdrawal. However, the impact of tube wells on GW storage levels has not been well-studied, both spatially and temporally. Hence, this study used remote sensing data from NASAapos;s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the Global Land Data Assimilation Systems to assess change in GW storage. Results showed that GW is being depleted at 8, 5.3, and 14.7 cm (Billion Cubic Meters)/year during the study period. After tube well intensification, the state-wide average net GW recharge was 15.33 BCM/year, while the net GW discharge was at 19 BCM/year. The spatiotemporal GW storage data presented in this paper will benefit managers and policymakers in identifying suitable mitigation plans for future management of GW resources.
Soil moisture / Rain / Flow discharge / Policy making / Remote sensing / Sustainable agriculture / Intensification / Tube wells / Water policy / Water resources / Water levels / Water storage / Groundwater management / Groundwater extraction
Katus, S.; Suhardiman, Diana; Senaratna Sellamutu, Sonali. 2016. When local power meets hydropower: Reconceptualizing resettlement along the Nam Gnouang River in Laos. Geoforum,
72:6-15. [DOI] More...
In Laos, hydropower development is occurring at rapid, though controversial pace. While hydropower development could in principle contribute to the country’s development objectives to promote economic growth and reduce poverty, it also impacts people’s livelihoods especially local communities living along the river. Focusing on the transition of Nam Gnouang River into a reservoir, this article looks at the process of resettlement of four neighboring villages in Bolikhamxai Province, Laos into one resettlement site, Ban Keosengkham. Conceptualizing hydropower development as a ‘technology’ of power, it illustrates how power relations between villagers, local government authorities, and dam developers determine resettlement processes and outcomes.
Villages / Reservoir storage / Energy generation / Rivers / Local communities / Local government / Poverty / Economic growth / Living standards / Rural settlement / Water power
Schmitter, Petra; Goedbloed, A.; Galelli, S.; Babovic, V. 2016. Effect of catchment-scale green roof deployment on stormwater generation and reuse in a tropical city. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management,
142(7):1-13. [DOI] More...
Low-impact development (LID) comprises a broad spectrum of stormwater management technologies for mitigating the impacts of urbanization on hydrological processes. Among these technologies, green roofs are one of the most adopted solutions, especially in densely populated metropolitan areas, where roofs take up a significant portion of the impervious surfaces and land areas are scarce. While the in situ hydrological performance of green roofs—i.e., reduction of runoff volume and peak discharge—is well addressed in literature, less is known about their impact on stormwater management and reuse activities at a catchment or city scale. This study developed an integrated urban water cycle model (IUWCM) to quantitatively assess the effect of uniform green roof deployment (i.e., 25, 50, and 100% conversion of traditional roofs) over the period 2009–2011 in the Marina Reservoir catchment, a 100-km2, highly urbanized area located in the heart of Singapore. The IUWCM consists of two components: (1) a physically based model for extensive green roofs integrated within a one-dimensional numerical hydrological-hydraulic catchment model linked with (2) an optimization-based model describing the operation of the downstream, stormwater-fed reservoir. The event-based hydrological performance of green roofs varied significantly throughout the simulation period with a median of about 5% and 12% for the catchment scale reduction of runoff volume and peak discharge (100% conversion of traditional roofs). The high variability and lower performance (with respect to temperate climates) are strongly related to the tropical weather and climatic conditions—e.g., antecedent dry weather period and maximum rainfall intensity. Average annual volume reductions were 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4% for the 25, 50, and 100% green roof scenarios, respectively. The reduction of the stormwater generated at the catchment level through green roof implementation had a positive impact on flood protection along Marina Reservoir shores and the energy costs encountered when operating the reservoir. Vice versa, the drinking water supply, which depends on the amount of available stormwater, decreased due to the evapotranspiration losses from green roofs. Better performance in terms of stormwater reuse could only be obtained by increasing the time of concentration of the catchment. This may be achieved through the combination of green roofs with other LID structures.
Weather / Rainfall-runoff relationships / Discharges / Urbanization / Reservoir operation / Models / Hydraulic conductivity / Hydrological cycle / Vegetation / Water management / Water reuse / Precipitation / Drainage / Catchment areas
De Silva, Sanjiv; Curnow, J.; Ariyatne, A. 2016. Groundwater rising: agrarian resilience against climatic impacts on water resources.
In Shamsuddoha, Md.; Pandey, M. S.; Chowdhury, R. K. (Eds.). Climate change in the bay of bengal region exploring sectoral cooperation for sustaiable development. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Coastal Association for Social Transformation (COAST) Trust. pp.93-109. More...
Case studies / Farmers / Households / Cultivation / Wells / Rainfed farming / Dry season / Rice / Food security / Tank irrigation / Rain / Industrial uses / Domestic water / Irrigation water / Water storage / Water use / Surface water / Water resources / Climate change / Climatic factors / Agrarian structure / Groundwater
Sarwar, M. K.; Chaudary, Z. A.; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif; Khan, D. 2016. Evaluation of air vents and ramp angles on the performance of orifice spillway aerators. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,
The performance of steep slope ( gt; 30o) orifice spillway aerators by varying air vent size and ramp angles were experimentally studied. Three air vents of different sizes and five ramps with different angles were tested on a physical model of Bunji dam spillway, which was constructed at Irrigation Research Station Nandipur, Gujranwala. In each case, the cavity length, cavity pressure, flow velocity and water depth at the aerator were measured by changing operating conditions. Non-dimensional jet length ( ), air entrainment co-efficient () and non-dimensional cavity pressure (Pn) were computed to evaluate the performance of the aerator against ramp angle and air vent size. Results noted an improvement in the performance of aerator with the increase of air vent size. However, the ramp initially improved the performance of the aerator but at higher reservoir level with large gate opening, no significant improvement in the performance of the aerator was noted, rather negative impact was observed due to reduction in cavity pressure.
Hydraulics / Reservoirs / Impact assessment / Spillways / Dam construction / Energy technology / Flow discharge / Stream flow / Water power / Irrigation efficiency / Irrigation engineering
Shah, Tushaar; Amarasinghe, Upali A. 2016. River linking project: a solution or problem to India's water woes?
In Narain, V.; Narayanamoorthy, A. (Eds). Indian water policy at the crossroads: resources, technology and reforms. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp.109-130. More...
Investment / Cost benefit analysis / Economic aspects / Conflict / International waters / Resource management / Social costs / Environmental impact / Hydrological factors / Ecosystem services / Agriculture / Rainfed farming / Irrigation programs / Irrigation efficiency / Yield increases / Food supply / Water supply / Water shortage / Water storage / Water transfer
Ayantunde, A. A.; Karambiri, M.; Yameogo, V.; Cofie, Olufunke O. 2016. Multiple uses of small reservoirs in crop-livestock agro-ecosystems of the Volta River Basin with an emphasis on livestock management.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 29p. (IWMI Working Paper 171) [DOI] More...
This working paper was based on the study on multiple uses of small reservoirs in the Volta River Basin of Burkina Faso. The study was conducted in communities using five small reservoirs in Yatenga province. The aim of the study was to document the multiple uses of small reservoirs in the study sites with an emphasis on access to, and use by, livestock, and conflicts that arise over the use of these reservoirs. This paper consists of four main sections: introduction or background to the study, methodology, results and discussion, and conclusion, including practical recommendations.
Community involvement / Conflict / Farmers / Stakeholders / Pastures / Animal feeding / Vegetable growing / Farming systems / Groundwater recharge / Fishing / Water availability / Water use / Domestic water / Irrigation water / Catchment areas / River basins / Crop production / Cattle / Watering / Livestock management / Crop-based irrigation / Agroecosystems / Reservoirs / Small scale systems / Multiple use
Curnow, J.; de Silva, Sanjiv. 2016. Traditional Knowledge Applied to the Management of Small Tank Wetland Systems in Sri Lanka.
In Finlayson, C. M.; Everard, M.; Irvine, K.; McInnes, R. J.; Middleton, B. A.; van Dam, A. A.; Davidson, N. C. (Eds.). The wetland book I: structure and function, management, and methods. Dresden, Germany: Springer. pp.1-5 [DOI] More...
The foundation of rice production in the dry zone of Sri Lanka is a hydraulic civilization spanning at least 2,000 years, and based on constructed small irrigation tanks. Dotted across much of the dry zone, and often constituting cascades, the traditional management of these tanks for dry season irrigation water brought together sophisticated engineering skills, deep ecological knowledge and social organisation around the practical need for cooperation and spiritual belief systems. While these small tanks are often referred to with respect to their centrality to irrigating rice, the staple crop, the use of both natural and built elements in managing the tanks and their surrounding landscapes in fact constitute a remarkable multi-functional system that has provided a range of ecosystem services for human well-being. Despite its ancient roots, the ecological principles inherent in the traditional knowledge shaping this system resonate closely with modern concepts around natural resource management such as wise use, sustainability, social ecological systems and green infrastructure.
Natural resources management / Arid zones / Culture / Irrigation / Water management / Wetlands / Tanks / Small scale systems / Indigenous knowledge
Sugden, Fraser; Punch, S. 2016. Changing aspirations, education, and migration: young people’s declining agroecological knowledge in rural Asia.
In Nicola, A.; Natascha, K.; Tracey, S. (Eds.). Geographies of global issues: change and threat. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp.483-499. (Geographies of Children and Young People 8) More...
This chapter explores the interrelationships between economic change and environmental issues, by showing how aspiration, education, and migration are variously connected to a loss of agroecological knowledges for rural young people. It reviews a series of case studies from Vietnam, India, and China on the implications for rural youth of changed aspirations and ecological and economic stress. The economic and cultural pressures of globalization mean young people increasingly aspire for a life outside of agrarian- and natural resource-based livelihoods. A consequence of this change has been the migration of young people to urban centers and a drive for families to invest in education. Thishasfar reaching consequences for communities.Those who stay behind face an increased labor burden, and economic pressures can be aggravated when the promise of improved livelihoods outside is notrealized. The chapter also points to the negative implications of these changed aspirations on the intergenerational transfer of agroecological knowledge. Thus, in relation to issues of environment and development, the chapter considers why this complex set of relationships between aspiration, education, and migration is important in the context of children and young people’s lives.
Case studies / River basins / Calibration / Food production / Food security / Nutrients / Supplemental irrigation / Assessment / Soils / Decision support systems / Ecological factors / Sustainable agriculture / Onions / Dry season / Agricultural production / Sediment / Ponds / Irrigation water / Crop yield / Climate change / Stream flow / Downstream / Upstream / Intensification / Water productivity / Water yield / Water use / Watersheds / Water quality / Water requirements / Water harvesting / Ecosystem services
Hiwasaki, L.; Bolliger, L.; Lacombe, Guillaume; Raneri, J.; Schut, M.; Staal, S. 2016. Integrated systems research for sustainable smallholder agriculture in the Central Mekong: achievements and challenges of implementing integrated systems research.
Hanoi, Vietnam: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Southeast Asia Regional Program 178p. More...
Case studies / Gender / Agricultural research / Research and development / Empowerment / Food production / Food security / Economic aspects / Marketing techniques / Environmental management / Systems analysis / Natural resources management / CGIAR / Research institutions / Nongovernmental organizations / Nutrition / Land cover / Land degradation / Landscape / Highlands / Land use / Living standards / Watersheds / Water storage / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Water availability / Soil conservation / Soil fertility / Livestock / Plantation crops / Crop management / River basin management / Humid tropics / Farmers / Smallholders / Sustainable agriculture / Integrated management
Weeratunge, N.; Joffre, O.; Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali; Bouahom, B.; Keophoxay, Anousith. 2016. Gender and household decision-making in a Lao village: implications for livelihoods in hydropower development. Gender, Place and Culture,
23(11):1599-1614. [DOI] More...
Hydropower development with concomitant changes in water and land regimes often results in livelihood transformation of affected people, entailing changes in intra-household decision-making upon which livelihood strategies are based. Economic factors underlying gender dimensions of household decision-making have been studied rigorously since the 1970s. However, empirical data on gender and decision-making within households, needed for evidence-based action, remain scarce. This is more so in hydropower contexts. This article explores gender and livelihood-related decision-making within rural households in the context of hydropower development in Lao PDR. Based on a social well-being conceptual approach with data from a household survey and qualitative interviews, it focuses on household decisions in an ethnic minority resettlement site soon after displacement, from an interpretive perspective. The article, first, aims to assess the extent to which household decision-making is gendered and secondly, to understand the complex reasoning behind household decisions, especially the relevance of material, relational, and subjective factors. It argues that while most household decisions are ostensibly considered as ‘joint’ in the study site, the nuanced nature of gendered values, norms, practices, relations, attitudes, and feelings underlying these decisions are important to assessing why households might or might not adopt livelihood interventions proposed by hydropower developers.
Cultivation / Equity / Cost benefit analysis / Labour / Social welfare / Reservoir operation / Rural settlement / Upland rice / Income / Economic aspects / Water power / Living standards / Households / Decision making / Men / Women / Gender
Shah, Tushaar; Pradhan, P.; Rasul, G. 2016. Water challenges of the Ganges Basin: an agenda for accelerated reform.
In Bharati, Luna; Sharma, Bharat R.; Smakhtin, Vladimir (Eds.). The Ganges River Basin: status and challenges in water, environment and livelihoods. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.304-320. (Earthscan Series on Major River Basins of the World) More...
Farmers / Sanitation / Performance evaluation / Solar energy / Irrigation systems / State intervention / International cooperation / Economic aspects / Water market / Tube wells / Water supply / Water storage / Aquifers / Groundwater irrigation / Water resources / Institutional reform / River basin management
Jain, S. K.; Jeuland, M. A.; Bharati, Luna; Khan, Z. H. 2016. Surface water resources.
In Bharati, Luna; Sharma, Bharat R.; Smakhtin, Vladimir (Eds.). The Ganges River Basin: status and challenges in water, environment and livelihoods. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.8-23. (Earthscan Series on Major River Basins of the World) More...
Assessment / Infrastructure / Temperature / Precipitation / Models / Hydrology / Dams / Canals / Hydrometeorology / Flow discharge / Tributaries / River basins / Water use / Water storage / Surface water / Water resources
Rao, Krishna C.; Kvarnstrom, E.; Di Mario, L.; Drechsel, Pay. 2016. Business models for fecal sludge management.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 80p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 06) [DOI] More...
On-site sanitation systems, such as septic tanks and pit latrines, are the predominant feature across rural and urban areas in most developing countries. However, their management is one of the most neglected sanitation challenges. While under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the set-up of toilet systems received the most attention, business models for the sanitation service chain, including pit desludging, sludge transport, treatment and disposal or resource recovery, are only emerging. Based on the analysis of over 40 fecal sludge management (FSM) cases from Asia, Africa and Latin America, this report shows opportunities as well as bottlenecks that FSM is facing from an institutional and entrepreneurial perspective.
Case studies / Incentives / Household / Landscape / Urban areas / Farmers / Taxes / Nutrients / Septic tanks / Transport / Regulations / Licences / Partnerships / Institutions / Private enterprises / Organic fertilizers / Biogas / Energy recovery / Cost recovery / Finance / Stakeholders / Defaecation / Latrines / Sanitation / Public health / Composts / Pollution / Solid wastes / Waste water treatment plants / Waste treatment / Sewerage / Dumping / Desludging / Waste disposal / Models / Business management / Recycling / Resource recovery / Resource management / Faecal sludge
Price, J. I.; Janmaat, J.; Sugden, Fraser; Bharati, Luna. 2016. Water storage systems and preference heterogeneity in water-scarce environments: a choice experiment in Nepal’s Koshi River Basin. Water Resources and Economics,
13:6-18. [DOI] More...
Many rural communities in Nepal experience considerable water stress during the dry season. Water storage systems (WSSs) have been proposed to supplement rain-fed irrigation and augment domestic water services in these communities. We evaluate household preferences for WSSs using a choice experiment and latent class modeling techniques. Results indicate the presence of three classes. The majority of households (E92%) belong to two equally-sized classes, a relatively privileged group (i.e. wealthier, better educated, etc.) with strong preferences for supplemental irrigation and a less privileged group that is mainly interested in improved domestic water services. The remaining class’ preferences are dominated by the cost attribute and are consistent with households facing severe cash constraints. Estimated welfare effects reveal that WSSs disproportionately benefit the privileged, although this disparity is mitigated with the provision of domestic water. These findings highlight the potential welfare gains from WSS investments, but stress the need for multi-purpose water resource development and the potential for elite capture.
Econometrics / Welfare / Households / Dry season / Domestic water / Water resources / Water supply / Water stress / Rural communities / Rainfed farming / Supplemental irrigation / Water storage
Okwany, Romulus O.; Prathapar, Sanmugam; Bastakoti, Ram C.; Mondal, M. K. 2016. Shallow subsurface drainage for managing seasonal flooding in Ganges floodplain, Bangladesh. Irrigation and Drainage,
65(5):712-723. [DOI] More...
The impact of shallow subsurface drainage was investigated as a pilot study on a 0.13 ha plot of a farmer’s field located in Batiaghata, Khulna District, Bangladesh, in the floodplain of the Bay of Bengal. The drainage design differed from traditional subsurface tile drains in two respects: (i) the depth of drains was shallow (30 cm); and (ii) the design did not include a sump and accessories such as pumps (drainage outlets were tidal).
A monsoonal paddy rice crop followed by a winter sunflower crop was evaluated. The experimental treatment was a shallow subsurface drainage system with a drain depth of 0.3 m and drain spacing of 8 m. Measurements of surface flooding depth and groundwater table depth were made weekly and subsurface drainage discharge during managed drainage of the field was measured to determine system responsiveness. The managed subsurface drainage enabled the establishment of the winter sunflower crop 1.5 months earlier than the usual local practice, increased the yield and facilitated safe harvest, avoiding pre-monsoonal rainfall damage. Farmers expressed increased interest in managed subsurface drainage for its potential for early establishment of rabi crops and increased yields in the study area. This study outlines the potential benefits resulting from subsurface drainage in Khulna District.
Floodplains / Community involvement / Farmers / Monitoring / Evaporation / Precipitation / Soil moisture / Harvesting / Sunflowers / Winter crops / Rice / Seasonal cropping / Monsoon climate / Canals / Ponds / Surface water / Water levels / Groundwater table / Water management / Flood control / Subsurface drainage
Nigatu, Z. M.; Rientjes, T.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru. 2016. Hydrological impact assessment of climate change on Lake Tana’s water balance, Ethiopia. American Journal of Climate Change,
5:27-37. [DOI] More...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydrological impacts of climate change on the water balance of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Impact assessments are by downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) output and hydrological modeling. For A2 and B2 emission scenarios, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature estimates from the HadCM3 GCM were used. GCM output was downscaled using the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM 4.2). Impact analyses were applied for three future time periods: early, mid and late 21st century. Over-lake evaporation is estimated by Hardgrave’s method, and over-lake precipitation is estimated by inverse distance weighing interpolation, whereas inflows from gauged and ungauged catchments are simulated by the HBV hydrological model. Findings indicate increases in maximum and minimum temperature on annual base for both emission scenarios. The projection of mean annual over lake precipitation for both A2 and B2 emission scenarios shows increasing pattern for 21st century in comparison to the baseline period. The increase of mean annual precipitation for A2 emission scenario is 9% (112 mm/year), 10% (125 mm/year) and 11% (137 mm/year) for the three future periods respectively. B2 emission scenario mean annual precipitation shows increase by 9% (111 mm/year), 10% (122 mm/year) and 10% (130 mm/year) respectively for the three future periods. Findings indicate consistent increases of lake storage for all three future periods for both A2 and B2 emission scenarios.
Flow discharge / Surface water / Catchment areas / Evaporation / Temperature / Precipitation / Emission / Models / Statistical methods / Water balance / Lakes / Climate change / Impact assessment / Hydrology
Bird, Jeremy; Roy, Srabani; Shah, Tushaar; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Amarnath, Giriraj; Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Pavelic, Paul; McCornick, Peter. 2016. Adapting to climate variability and change in India.
In Biswas, A. K.; Tortajada, C. (Eds.). Water security, climate change and sustainable development. Gateway East: Singapore. pp.41-63. (Water Resources Development and Management) More...
Responding to rainfall variability has always been one of the most critical risks facing farmers. It is also an integral part of the job of water managers, whether it be designing interventions for flood management, improving the reliability of water supply for irrigation or advising on priorities during drought conditions. The conventional tools and approaches employed are no longer sufficient to manage the increasing uncertainty and incidence of extreme climate events, and the consequent effects these have on human vulnerability and food security. To be effective, the technological advances need to be matched with physical, institutional and management innovations that transcend sectors, and place adaptation and responsiveness to variability at the centre of the approach. This chapter examines a number of these challenges and possible solutions at a range of scales, from ‘climate-smart villages’ to national policy, with a focus on Asia and India, in particular.
Pumps / Solar energy / Irrigation systems / River basins / Food security / Irrigation / Drought / Flooding / Surface water / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Water security / Water management / Farmers / Rain / Climate change adaptation
Reis, J.; Culver, T. B.; Lacombe, Guillaume; Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali. 2015. Reservoir operation for recession agriculture in Mekong basin, Laos. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management,
141(7):1-9. [DOI] More...
As hydropower dam construction in rapidly growing economies dislodges communities, rural development experts must help the displaced make their livelihoods in new lacustrine environments. One question is whether the dam infrastructure can directly benefit those who remain within the vicinity of the reservoir. Integrated water resource management seeks to concurrently consider hydrological, socioeconomic, and ecological factors, yet water managers lack the information needed to include livelihoods in their analyses. The objective of this paper is to develop tools and plans for coordinating hydropower reservoir operation and management for rural livelihoods. Specifically, this study investigates how dam management may accommodate vegetable farming on the banks of a reservoir. The intervention investigated is to lower water levels during the cultivation period in order to expose shoreline gardens. Based on the recession agriculture rule, evaluated through simulation of a dam in Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the average annual hydropower production was reduced by between 0.4 and 8.1%, depending on the agricultural goal, with the loss to power occurring mainly in the months April to June. By focusing on hydropower reservoir systems, the techniques developed in this study have the potential to be applied to support communities throughout the world that farm on the shorelines of water reservoirs.
Case studies / River basins / Vegetable growing / Living standards / Rural areas / Dams / Water power / Water levels / Water management / Water resources / Reservoirs / Agriculture
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2015. Improving water management in Myanmar’s dry zone for food security, livelihoods and health.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 52p. [DOI] More...
Information management / Soil conservation / Farmers / Rainfed farming / Land degradation / Landscape / Investment / Pumping / Irrigation schemes / Irrigated land / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater irrigation / Multiple use / Domestic water / Wells / Ponds / Reservoir storage / Water accounting / Water conservation / Water use / Water resources / Runoff / Rivers / Agroecosystems / Health / Living standards / Food security / Arid zones / Water management
Kibret, S.; Lautze, Jonathan; McCartney, Matthew; Wilson, G. G.; Nhamo, Luxon. 2015. Malaria impact of large dams in sub-Saharan Africa: maps, estimates and predictions. Malaria Journal,
14:1-12. [DOI] More...
Background: While there is growing recognition of the malaria impacts of large dams in sub-Saharan Africa, the cumulative malaria impact of reservoirs associated with current and future dam developments has not been quantified. The objective of this study was to estimate the current and predict the future impact of large dams on malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings across sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods: The locations of 1268 existing and 78 planned large dams in sub-Saharan Africa were mapped against the malaria stability index (stable, unstable and no malaria). The Plasmodium falciparum infection rate (PfIR) was determined for populations at different distances (lt;1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9 km) from the associated reservoirs using the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) and WorldPop databases. Results derived from MAP were verified by comparison with the results of detailed epidemiological studies conducted at 11 dams.
Results: Of the 1268 existing dams, 723 are located in malarious areas. Currently, about 15 million people live in close proximity (lt;5 km) to the reservoirs associated with these dams. A total of 1.1 million malaria cases annually are associated with them: 919,000 cases due to the presence of 416 dams in areas of unstable transmission and 204,000 cases due to the presence of 307 dams in areas of stable transmission. Of the 78 planned dams, 60 will be located in malarious areas and these will create an additional 56,000 cases annually. The variation in annual PfIR in communities as a function of distance from reservoirs was statistically significant in areas of unstable transmission but not in areas of stable transmission.
Conclusion: In sub-Saharan Africa, dams contribute significantly to malaria risk particularly in areas of unstable transmission. Additional malaria control measures are thus required to reduce the impact of dams on malaria.
Case studies / Climate change / Risk management / Reservoirs / Dams / Malaria
Janmaat, J.; Lapp, S.; Wannop, T.; Bharati, Luna; Sugden, Fraser. 2015. Demonstrating complexity with a roleplaying simulation: investing in water in the Indrawati Subbasin, Nepal.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 38p. (IWMI Research Report 163) [DOI] More...
Rural people in Nepal and other developing nations are part of complex, social-ecological systems. Efforts to provide assistance to these people must integrate knowledge from a variety of perspectives. This report documents the use of a role-playing game, supported by an agent-based model, to demonstrate the interaction between migration, social capital and the effectiveness of water storage. The importance of these interactions was highlighted by fieldwork conducted at several sites in the Koshi River Basin. The model underlying the game was a stylized representation based on the Indrawati Subbasin northeast of Kathmandu, Nepal. The report highlights that (a) role-playing tournaments can be an effective way to engage technical and policy experts with the complex interactions between the social and physical dimensions of watershed management; and (b) migration and the economic changes which drive these interactions are forces that need to be accepted, and investments in water storage need to be selected depending on how they fit into these trends.
Sustainability / Education / Capacity building / Policy making / Rural communities / Social structure / Labour productivity / Precipitation / Climate change / Crop production / Investment / Budgets / Income / Economic aspects / Households / Drinking water / Watershed management / River basins / Calibration / Water storage
Lopez, R. R.; Vincent, L.; Rap, Edwin. 2015. Re-engineering closing watersheds: the negotiated expansion of a dam-based irrigation system in Bolivia. International Journal of Water Resources Development,
31(1):50-63. [DOI] More...
The expansion of the Totora Khocha dam-based irrigation system in the Pucara watershed is a case of planned re-engineering of a closing watershed. This article shows how, when irrigation systems expand in space and across boundaries to capture new water, they also involve new claims by existing and emergent users. This results in complex processes of design, contestation and negotiated redesign, where irrigation projects are being produced by the negotiated construction of water networks. Therefore, the design process in a closing watershed is better approached as a dynamic and negotiated process of engineering than as a prescriptive mode of network building.
Case studies / Networks / Water supply / Reservoirs / Dams / Watersheds / Irrigated land / Irrigation programs / Irrigation systems
Sood, Aditya; Smakhtin, Vladimir. 2015. Global hydrological models : a review. Hydrological Sciences Journal,
60(4):549-565. [DOI] More...
Global Hydrological Models (GHMs) have effectively become a separate research field in the last two decades. The paper reviews and compares 12 known global modeling efforts since 1989, the year the first GHM was published. Structure, strengths and weaknesses of individual models are examined, and the objectives of model development and their initial applications are documented. Issues such as model uncertainty, data scarcity, integration with remote sensing data and spatial resolution are discussed.
Satellite observation / Calibration / Precipitation / Evapotranspiration / Climate change / Soil moisture / Vegetation / Water storage / Remote sensing / Models / Hydrology
Mul, Marloes L.; Williams, Timothy O.; Cofie, Olufunke. 2015. Paysage scientifique, politique et financier de l’Agriculture Intelligente face au Climat (AIC) en Afrique de l’Ouest : le secteur des ressources en eau. In French.
In Zougmore, R.; Sy Traore, A.; Mbodj, Y. (Eds.). Paysage scientifique, politique et financier de l’Agriculture Intelligente face au Climat en Afrique de l’Ouest. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). pp.47-59. (Also in English) (CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Working Paper 118) More...
Corporate culture / Environmental sustainability / Investment / Farmers / Smallholders / Rain / Financing / Political aspects / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Water resources / Landscape / Agriculture / Adaptation / Climate change
Mul, Marloes L.; Williams, Timothy O.; Cofie, Olufunke. 2015. Overview of the scientific, political and financial landscapes of Climate-Smart Agriculture in West Africa: sector of water resources.
In Zougmore, R.; Sy Traore, A.; Mbodj, Y. (Eds.). Overview of the scientific, political and financial landscape of climate-smart agriculture in West Africa. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). pp.47-59. (Also in French) (CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Working Paper 118) More...
Corporate culture / Environmental sustainability / Investment / Farmers / Smallholders / Rain / Financing / Political aspects / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Water resources / Landscape / Agriculture / Adaptation / Climate change
Barron, Jennie; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Morris. J.; de Bruin, A.; Wang, G.; Fencl, A. 2015. Mapping the potential success of agricultural water management interventions for smallholders: where are the best opportunities? Water Resources and Rural Development,
6:24-49. (Special issue: Managing Rainwater and Small Reservoirs in Sub-Saharan Africa). [DOI] More...
From field to basin scales, there are many appropriate interventions used to manage rainfall efficiently and productively in smallholder farming systems. Yet, successful targeting and scaling-out of these approaches remains a challenge. This paper presents an innovative approach in decision support called ‘Targeting Agricultural Water Management Interventions’ (TAGMI) that addresses this challenge with application in Limpopo and Volta river basins (available at www.seimapping.org/tagmi). The online open-access TAGMI uses country-scale Bayesian network models to assess the likelihood of success for outscaling various agricultural water management (AWM) interventions at sub-national level. The web tool integrates multiple sources of expertise on the enabling environment for outscaling based on key social, human, physical, financial, and natural factors. It estimates the relative probability of success of an AWM intervention across the Limpopo and Volta river basins. Here we present TAGMI as a ‘proof of concept’, current areas of high, medium, and low probability of success for three AWM technologies common in Limpopo and Volta River Basins: the soil water conservation/in situ rainwater harvesting technologies in rain-fed systems, small-scale private irrigation and small reservoirs used for communal irrigation purposes. We then apply a climate change scenario and discuss the robustness in potential AWM, according to the TAGMI tool. Finally, we discuss the need for further development of DSS for AWM interventions, and the need for generic or specific information on ‘best practices of implementation’ for successful uptake of technologies in poverty-constrained smallholder farming systems.
Climate change / Water conservation / Soil water / Farmers / Smallholders / River basins / Technology transfer / Bayesian theory / Reservoir operation / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Rainfed farming / Small scale farming / Farming systems / Smallholders / Water management / Agriculture
Ebrahim, Girma Yimer; Villholth, Karen Grothe. 2015. Assessment of groundwater availability from recession flows and instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa.
Gezina, Pretoria, South Africa: Water Research Commission 60p. (Water Research Commission Report KV 339/15) More...
Groundwater is an important resource for multiple uses in South Africa. However, setting limits to its sustainable abstraction while assuring basic human needs is a must. Due to prevalent data scarcity related to groundwater replenishment, which is the traditional basis for estimating groundwater availability, the present report presents a novel method for determining allocatable groundwater in quaternary catchment through information on streamflows. Using established methodologies for assessing baseflows, recession flows, and instream ecological flow requirements, the methodology develops a combined stepwise methodology to determine annual groundwater storage volumes in the catchments using linear reservoir theory, essentially linking low flows proportionally to upstream groundwater storages. The approach was trialled for twenty-one perennial and relatively undisturbed quaternary catchments with long-term and good streamflow records. Using the Desktop Reserve Model to estimate instream ecological flow requirements of the streams and equating these with ecological groundwater reserve, excess baseflows were converted into groundwater storages on an annual basis. Results show that groundwater development potential exists in nineteen of the catchments, with upper limits to allocatable groundwater volumes ranging from 0.01 to 1.58 MCM/yr over the catchments. With a secured availability of these volumes 75% of the years, variability between years is assumed to be manageable. A significant (R2 = 0.86) correlation between baseflow index and the drainage time scale for the catchments underscored the physical basis of the methodology and also enables the reduction of the procedure by one step, omitting recession flow analysis. The method serves as an important complementary tool for the assessment of the groundwater part of the Reserve and the groundwater directed measures.
Aquifers / Ecological factors / Multiple use / Rain / Environmental flows / Drainage / Catchment areas / Rivers / Flow discharge / Stream flow / Water requirements / Water allocation / Water availability / Water storage / Groundwater extraction / Groundwater recharge
Smakhtin, Vladimir; Pavelic, Paul; Amarnath, Giriraj; McCartney, Matthew. 2015. Managing water variability, from floods to droughts.
New York, NY, USA: UN. Department of Economic and Social Affairs 3p. More...
Water storage / Economic aspects / Risk reduction / Natural disasters / Drought / Flooding / Water management
Mul, Marloes; Obuobie, E.; Appoh, Richard; Kankam-Yeboah, K.; Bekoe-Obeng, E.; Amisigo, B.; Logah, F. Y.; Ghansah, Benjamin; McCartney, Matthew. 2015. Evaluation des ressources en eau du bassin de la Volta. In French.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 84p. (Also in English) (IWMI Working Paper 166/Document de travail IWMI 166) [DOI] More...
Le projet WISE UP to climate vise a demontrer lapos;utilite des infrastructures naturelles comme une solution basee sur la nature pour lapos;adaptation au changement climatique et le developpement durable. Dans le bassin de la Volta, les infrastructures naturelles, comme les construites, offrent des benefices pour la subsistance des personnes. Comprendre les interrelations entre ces deux types dapos;infrastructures est une condition indispensable a une gestion et un developpement durables des ressources en eau. Cela est particulierement vrai dans un contexte ou les pressions sur les ressources en eau sapos;intensifient, et ou les impacts du changement climatique augmentent. Ce rapport donne un apercu des caracteristiques biophysiques, des services ecosystemiques, et de leur relation avec les moyens de subsistance dans le bassin.
Economic aspects / Institutions / Riparian zones / Energy generation / Hydrology / Land use / Sedimentation / Soils / Geology / Industry / Fishing / Livestock / Strategies / Policy making / Dams / Lakes / Wetlands / Infrastructure / Natural resources / Ecosystem services / Water availability / Water power / Water demand / Water use / Water quality / Water governance / Water management / International waters / River basins / Environmental impact assessment / Water resources
Xie, J.; Zhang, K.; Hu, L.; Pavelic, Paul; Wang, Y.; Chen, M. 2015. Field-based simulation of a demonstration site for carbon dioxide sequestration in low-permeability saline aquifers in the Ordos Basin, China. Hydrogeology Journal,
23(7):1465-1480. [DOI] More...
Saline formations are considered to be candidates for carbon sequestration due to their great depths, large storage volumes, and widespread occurrence. However, injecting carbon dioxide into low-permeability reservoirs is challenging. An active demonstration project for carbon dioxide sequestration in the Ordos Basin, China, began in 2010. The site is characterized by a deep, multi-layered saline reservoir with permeability mostly below 1.0×10-14 m2. Field observations so far suggest that only small-to-moderate pressure buildup has taken place due to injection. The Triassic Liujiagou sandstone at the top of the reservoir has surprisingly high injectivity and accepts approximately 80 % of the injected mass at the site. Based on these key observations, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed and applied, to predict the plume dynamics and pressure propagation, and in the assessment of storage safety. The model is assembled with the most recent data and the simulations are calibrated to the latest available observations. The model explains most of the observed phenomena at the site. With the current operation scheme, the CO2 plume at the uppermost reservoir would reach a lateral distance of 658 m by the end of the project in 2015, and approximately 1,000 m after 100 years since injection. The resulting pressure buildup in the reservoir was below 5 MPa, far below the threshold to cause fracturing of the sealing cap (around 33 MPa).
Permeability / Porosity / Temperature / Wells / Reservoir storage / Geological process / River basins / Aquifers / Saline water / Carbon sequestration / Carbon dioxide
Starkl, M.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Essl, L.; Jampani, Mahesh; Kumar, D.; Asolekar; S. R. 2015. Rapid assessment and SWOT analysis of non-technical aspects of natural wastewater treatment systems.
In Wintgens. T.; Nattorp, A.; Elango, L.; Asolekar, S. R. (Eds.). Natural water treatment systems for safe and sustainable water supply in the Indian context: Saph Pani, London, UK: IWA Publishing. pp. 283-300. More...
Case studies / Eichhornia / Rural communities / Economic aspects / Corporate culture / Social aspects / Health services / Wetlands / Ponds / Environmental impact assessment / Agriculture / Wastewater irrigation / Wastewater treatment
Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Sonkamble, S.; Jampani, Mahesh; Wajihuddin, Md.; Lakshmanan, E.; Starkl, M.; Sarah, S.; Fahimuddin, Md.; Ahmed, S. 2015. Developing integrated management plans for natural treatment systems in urbanised areas: case studies from Hyderabad and Chennai.
In Wintgens. T.; Nattorp, A.; Elango, L.; Asolekar, S. R. (Eds.). Natural water treatment systems for safe and sustainable water supply in the Indian context: Saph Pani, London, UK: IWA Publishing. pp. 251-264. More...
Case studies / Contamination / Stakeholders / Dams / Ponds / Wetlands / Urban wastes / Lakes / Drinking water treatment / Waste management / Sewerage / Water quality / Water supply / Sanitation / Pollution prevention / Waste water treatment plants / Urban areas / Integrated management
Douxchamps, Sabine; Ayantunde, A.; Panyan, E. K.; Ouattara, K.; Kabore, A.; Karbo, N.; Sawadogo, B. 2015. Agricultural water management and livelihoods in the crop - livestock systems of the Volta Basin. Water Resources and Rural Development,
6:92-104. (Special issue: Managing Rainwater and Small Reservoirs in Sub-Saharan Africa). [DOI] More...
With mixed crop-livestock systems projected to be the principal source of food in developing countries in the coming decades, opportunities exist for smallholders to participate and benefit from emerging crop and livestock markets in the Volta Basin. Given the economic, social and environmental vulnerability due to high water scarcity and variability in the basin, improvements in agricultural water management (AWM) are needed to ensure sustainable benefits. A survey was conducted among 326 crop-livestock households in four water scarce sites of the basin in Burkina Faso and Ghana to characterize households in terms of access to water, services and information, AWM intensity and livelihoods, and to explore the linkages between these characteristics. The sources of water were more diverse for study sites in Ghana than in Burkina, allowing different types of AWM strategies. Most of the farmers perceived a strong positive impact of AWM strategies on their livelihoods. Almost 70% of the variation in livelihood assets was explained by variation in AWM intensity, affecting mainly food consumption, sources of income and housing index. With increasing access to water, services and information, AWM intensity significantly increased, as well as labour for water-related activities and food consumption. This increase in AWM was significantly related to an increase in livelihood assets (R2 = 52%). Policies should be developed to improve access to information and services as well as access to market in rural areas of the Volta Basin, to enhance positive impact of AWM strategies on livelihoods of the rural households.
Strategies / Access to information / Food consumption / Income / Labour / Households / Indicators / Living standards / Reservoirs / Water availability / Livestock / Crop production / Water management / Agriculture
Mohanty, R. K.; Mishra, Atmaram; Panda, D. K.; Patil, D. U. 2015. Effects of water exchange protocols on water quality, sedimentation rate and production performance of Penaeus monodon in earthen ponds. Aquaculture Research,
46(10):2457-2468. [DOI] More...
This study was carried out in farmers’ fields to quantify the total water and consumptive water use in grow-out culture of Penaeus monodon under recommended package of practice with two different water management protocols: T1, with no water exchange and T2, with regulated water exchange. Treatment-wise estimated total water use, was 2.09 and 2.43 ha-m 122 day 1, while the computed consumptive water use index (m3 kg 1 biomass) was 5.35 and 6.02 in T1 and T2 respectively. Lower rates of water exchange (T2) showed significantly improved (P lt; 0.05) crop performance in terms of performance index (19.75 0.75), production-size index (74.1 3.4), survival rate (80.13 1.7%) and productivity (2.44 0.08 t) over the zero water exchange. The shrimp pond water quality suitability index (WQSI) infers that regulated water exchange (T2) improved the overall suitability of water quality for shrimp culture. WQSI up to 90 days of culture ranged between 7.5–9.0 in T2, needs little management while in the last month of rearing, it was good with moderate management requirements. Treatment-wise sediment load ranged between 50.4–56.3 m3 t1 shrimp biomass. High intensity of water exchange and low apparent feed conversion ratio influenced in lowering the sedimentation rate. Regulated water exchange protocol (T2) performed well (higher net total water productivity and net consumptive water productivity) against no water exchange (T1). A higher OV:CC ratio (ratio of the output value to the cost of cultivation) indicated that T2 had a distinct edge over the T1 protocol.
Biomass / Environmental aspects / Ponds / Penaeus monodon / Sedimentation / Water balance / Water productivity / Water quality / Water use / Aquaculture
Muthuwatta, Lal; Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Sood, Aditya; Lagudu, S. 2015. Reviving the “Ganges Water Machine”: where and how much? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions,
12:741-763 [DOI] More...
Surface runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River Basin contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the parts (sub-basins) of the Ganges that have the potential for augmenting subsurface storage (SSS), increase the availability of water for agriculture and other uses, and mitigate the floods in the downstream areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate sub-basin-wise water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise un-met water demand for agriculture. Hy-drological analyses revealed that five sub-basins produced more than 10 billion cubic meters (B m3) of annual surface runoff consistently during the simulation period. In these sub-basins, less than 50 % of the annual surface runoff is sufficient to irrigate all irrigable land in both the Rabi (November to March) and summer (April to May) seasons. Further, for most of the sub-basins, there is sufficient water to meet the un-met water demand, provided that it is possible to capture the surface runoff during the wet season. It is estimated that the average flow to Bihar State from the upstream of the Ganges, a downstream basin location, is 277 121 B m3, which is more than double the rainfall in the state alone. Strong relationships between outflows from the upstream sub-basins and the inflows to Bihar State suggested that flood inundation in the state could be reduced by capturing a portion of the upstream flows during the peak runoff periods.
Flood control / Soil water / Soil management / Agriculture / Water demand / Water availability / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / River basin management / Flooding / Upstream / Monsoon climate / Runoff water / Surface water
Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, Sumit; Jain, S. K. 2015. Reviving the Ganges water machine: why? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions,
12:8727-8759. [DOI] More...
The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3–4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8–9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of in- terventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface–subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the “Ganges Water Machine”. One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society – women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.
Rain / Runoff / Recharge / Flooding / Environmental flows / Irrigated land / Riparian zones / River basins / Surface water / Groundwater management / Water demand / Water storage / Water supply / Water use / Water resources / Monsoon climate
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Misra, Gourav; Shah, Tushaar; Maheshwari, B.; Prathapar, Sanmugam. 2015. Evaluating the effectiveness of water infrastructures for increasing groundwater recharge and agricultural production – a case study of Gujarat, India. Agricultural Water Management,
158:179-188. [DOI] More...
Groundwater for agricultural purposes is of utmost importance in the Indian state of Gujarat. To augment existing agricultural water resources, the Gujarat Government invested in many large-scale and smallscale water infrastructures (WI). In order to increase water storage and groundwater recharge and to justify further investments in WI, a better understanding on the impacts of past WIs is needed. This study uses data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), along with soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation Systems, to estimate water storage before and after the intensification in the investment in WIs. In addition, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor was used to show changes in seasonal cropped areas during the same period. The analysis of data showed that the water storage in the state was estimated to be 24 BCM in 2003–2004 and 30 BCM in 2010–2011, an increase of 29% pre and post WI intensification. The Pixel Crop Duration Index (PCDI) indicated an increase in cropped area (at district level) in 2010–2011 when compared with 2003–2004 period, by 30% on yearly basis and about 80% during non-monsoon period. Results also indicates a significant net increase in water storage (by 5890 M m3 after water used for crop intensification) and increase in agricultural crop area (by 63,862 km2) in Gujarat during the period of intensification in infrastructures for water storage and groundwater recharge. Results also indicate that some districts have higher net water storage (compared to 2003), however the cropped area duration - PCDI has not increased much (e.g., Valsad and Navsari). The findings of this study can increase the understanding of the potential of WIs and provide valuable guidance for increasing cropped area in high water storage regions of Gujarat.
Case studies / Vegetation / Rain / Monsoon climate / Seasonal cropping / Farmland / Soil moisture / Investment / Remote sensing / Watersheds / Water availability / Water storage / Agricultural production / Groundwater recharge
Gunawardena, J.; Muthuwatta, Lal; Fernando, M. J. J.; Rathnayake, S.; Rodrigo, T. M. A. S. K.; Gunawardena, A. 2015. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environment Management and Planning, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, 23-24 February 2015.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: Central Environmental Authority (CEA) 55p. More...
Coral reefs / Coastal area / Arid zones / Case studies / Malaria / Health hazards / Vermicomposting / Vegetable growing / Farmers / Fishing / Food production / Aquatic insects / Biofertilizers / Leachates / Denitrification / Noise pollution / Pollutant load / Toxic substances / Performance evaluation / Waste management / Bioremediation / Energy generation / Tanks / River basins / Aquifers / Watersheds / Solar radiation / Sand / Erosion / Soil salinity / Maps / Remote sensing / GIS / Satellite surveys / Models / Meteorology / Carbon / Constructed wetlands / Paddy fields / Land use / Water deficit / Groundwater pollution / Water quality / Freshwater / Wildlife / Biodiversity / Agroforestry / Rubber industry / Tea / Drug plants / Forest plantations / Environmental management
Nicol, Alan; Langan, Simon; Victor, M.; Gonsalves, J. 2015. Water-smart agriculture in East Africa.
: Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE); Kampala, Uganda: Global Water Initiative East Africa (GWI EA) 352p. [DOI] More...
Case studies / Collective action / Learning / Natural resources management / Gender / Dams / Smallholders / Incentives / Income / Wetlands / Catchment areas / Arid lands / Sustainable development / Erosion / Highlands / Participatory approaches / Soil conservation / Rehabilitation / Groundwater / Water storage / Water use / Water conservation / Water harvesting / Rain / Watershed management / Land management / Livestock production / Maize / Rice / Sorghum / Crops / Drought tolerance / Food security / Adaptation / Climate change / Vegetable growing / Drip irrigation / Irrigation schemes / Small scale farming / Water productivity / Agriculture
Balana, Bedru Babulo. 2015. Trade-offs or synergies?: assessment of ecosystem services in multi-use small reservoirs in Burkina Faso [Abstract only].
In Nyssen J., Enyew A., Poesen J et al. (Eds.). International Conference on Tropical Lakes in a Changing Environment: Water, Land, Biology, Climate and Humans (TropiLakes), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 23-29 September 2015. Book of Abstracts. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: Bahir Dar University. pp.42-43. More...
Small reservoirs (SRs) development, as a strategy to enhance food and water security in water-scarce regions, has long attracted the interests of governments and development agents. The main argument put forward was that by providing water for small-scale agriculture, they can cushion the impacts of drought and rainfall variability on vulnerable and less-developed regions. Because of the dominance of interests in small-scale irrigation, performance assessments of SRs have concentrated on irrigation outcomes. The multiple non-irrigation uses/benefits and potential negative externalities were largely neglected in the measurement of their performance. The publication of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 triggered the concept of ‘ecosystem services’ and prompted both academia and policy decisions to consider multiple effects/impacts of human activities on natural capital, ecosystem services, and human wellbeing. Along the lines of the surge in thoughts in ‘ecosystem services’, SRs, besides irrigation use, could generate multiple benefits such as improved access to domestic water, enhance women’s position, recreation, livelihood diversification, fisheries, water availability for livestock, limiting floods, and increased biodiversity. On the other hand, SRs may have unwanted side-effects such as environmental deterioration, decrease in water quality, adverse health impacts (e.g., harbour mosquitos), and reduce environmental flows and ground water recharge. Thus, SRs’ performance need to be assessed against these multiple benefits/dis-benefits and whether there exist trade-offs or synergetic relationship.
In the context of ecosystem services (ES), trade-offs between ES arise from management and/or utilization choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, quality and relative mix of ES. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one or more ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, trade-offs may be an explicit choice; in others, it may take place without explicit account or even without awareness of the decision makers. As human activities transform ecosystems to obtain more of specific services, other services tend to diminish (trade-offs). Understanding how trade-offs operate temporally and spatially in various ecosystems and analysis of either to minimize the trade-offs or find synergetic solutions could provide decision support evidence for sustainable management of natural resources and human wellbeing.
Most parts of Burkina Faso (BF) suffer from physical water scarcity and irregular distribution of groundwater. SR development has been promoted as a key strategy aiming at enhancing water and food security in BF. A conservative estimate shows that there are about 1500 SRs in BF. These are used for small-scale irrigations, livestock, and domestic purposes. From 2002 BF has initiated a program to develop village irrigation, which facilitates the exploitation of all the irrigable areas around the SR
Water quality / Domestic water / Small scale farming / Food security / Water security / Health hazards / Assessment / Reservoirs / Multiple use / Ecosystem services
Cofie, Olufunke; Amede, T. 2015. Managing rainwater and small reservoirs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Water Resources and Rural Development,
6:1-104. (Special issue with contributions by IWMI authors). [DOI] More...
Case studies / Livestock / Living standards / Smallholders / Institutional constraints / Performance evaluation / Small scale systems / Irrigation schemes / Reservoirs / Tillage / Productivity / Crop yield / Maize / Intensification / Agricultural production / Sustainable agriculture / Water conservation / Water harvesting / Rain water management
Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Yan, F.; Habib, E. 2015. Accuracy of the CMORPH satellite-rainfall product over Lake Tana Basin in eastern Africa. Atmospheric Research,
163:177-187. [DOI] More...
In this study, we assessed the accuracy of rainfall occurrence, amount and distribution over the Lake Tana basin in Ethiopia, Eastern Africa, as represented in the NOAA satellite-based Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) rainfall product. This analysis is carried out at high spatial and temporal resolutions (8 × 8 km2 and daily) using observations from rain gauges as a reference for the period covering January 2003 to December 2006. Graphical comparisons and several statistical metrics such as bias, correlation coefficient, and standard deviation of rainfall differences are used to perform the evaluation analysis. Spatial maps of these statistical metrics were developed to assess the spatial dependency in the CMORPH accuracy. The bias is decomposed into different components, hit, missed, and false, in order to gain additional insight into the possible sources of systematic deviations in CMORPH. Overall, CMORPH was able to capture the seasonal and spatial patterns of rainfall over the basin, but with varying degrees of accuracy that depend on topography, latitude and lake-versus-land conditions within the basin. The results show that CMORPH captured rain occurrence relatively well in both wet and dry seasons over the southern part of the basin but it significantly overestimated those over the lake and its southern shore. The bias of CMORPH in the study area is characterized by seasonal and spatial variations (-25 to 30% in wet season and -40 to 60% in dry season). False as well as missed rains contribute significantly to the total rainfall amounts over the basin. Significant levels of the differences are observed at the daily resolution of CMORPH. The relation between CMORPH and gauge rainfall amounts is stronger (correlationmostly N0.4) in thewet season than in the dry (mostly b0.4).
Dry season / Wet season / Spatial distribution / Remote sensing / Lakes / River basins / Satellites / Rain
Karimov, Akmal; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Mavlonov, A.; Borisov, V.; Gracheva, I.; Miryusupov, F.; Akhmedov, A.; Anzelm, K.; Yakubov, S.; Karimov, A. A. 2015. Managed aquifer recharge: potential component of water management in the Syrdarya River Basin. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering,
Special Issue: 8th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge. 20(3):1-12. [DOI] More...
This paper argues that sequential in-channel reservoirs in the Syrdarya River Basin of Central Asia are not sufficient to meet the needs of both upstream and downstream water users. Some of the consequences of the use of in-channel reservoirs include fresh water discharges into the saline depression and flooding of irrigated land in winter and water shortages in summer, which causes low water productivity. This study examines the feasibility of two alternative management strategies (1) building additional off-channel reservoirs, and (2) managed aquifer recharge (MAR). First, the potential for MAR in the upstream Fergana Valley is estimated through a regional assessment of MAR potential, field-scale pilot experiments, and simulation modeling. Second, the potential for MAR is analyzed for lift canal irrigation areas, which cover 70% of the irrigated highlands and the foothills in the river midstream, with a focus on energy use intensity and water and energy productivity. Third, the potential for building off-channel reservoirs and MAR is compared in the downstream portion of the river. Specifically for the Makhtaral Irrigation Project (MIP), a scenario of shifting from lift canal irrigation and groundwater extraction for drainage purposes is compared with groundwater irrigation and MAR. The MIP, located in the tail-end of the transboundary Dustyk Canal, faces waterlogging and salinity issues because of the shallow water table. The study concludes that transboundary cooperation in transboundary water transfers for MAR may increase the amount of water that could be stored underground. Overall, it is shown that there is a high potential for MAR in the Syrdarya River Basin with benefits at both the state and farm levels.
Valleys / Reservoirs / Salinity / Water use / Energy consumption / Water power / Drainage / Irrigation canals / Irrigated land / River basins / Downstream / Upstream / Water storage / Water resources / Water table / Groundwater recharge / Aquifers / Water management
Pavelic, Paul; Brindha, Karthikeyan; Amarnath, Giriraj; Eriyagama, Nishadi; Muthuwatta, Lal; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Gangopadhyay, Prasun K.; Malik, Ravinder Paul Singh; Mishra, Atmaram; Sharma, Bharat R.; Hanjra, Munir A.; Reddy, R. V.; Mishra, V. K.; Verma, C. L.; Kant, L. 2015. Controlling floods and droughts through underground storage: from concept to pilot implementation in the Ganges River Basin.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 33p. (IWMI Research Report 165) [DOI] More...
The concept of ‘Underground Taming of Floods for Irrigation’ (UTFI) is introduced as an approach for co-managing floods and droughts at the river basin scale. UTFI involves strategic recharge of aquifers upstream during periods of high flow, thereby preventing local and downstream flooding, and simultaneously providing additional groundwater for irrigation during the dry season for livelihood improvement. Three key stages in moving UTFI from the concept stage to mainstream implementation are discussed. An analysis of prospects in the Ganges River Basin are revealed from the earliest stage of mapping of suitability at the watershed level through to the latest stages of identifying and setting up the first pilot trial in the Upper Ganges, where a comprehensive evaluation is under way. If UTFI can be verified then there is enormous potential to apply it to address climate change adaptation/mitigation and disaster risk reduction challenges globally.
Case studies / Impact assessment / Disaster risk reduction / Flow discharge / Subsurface runof / Underground storage / Water resources / Water storage / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater depletion / Corporate culture / Cost benefit analysis / Economic aspects / River basins / Drought / Floodplains / Flood irrigation / Flood control / Climate change
Xenarios, S.; Polatidis, H.; McCartney, Matthew; Nemes, A. 2015. Developing a user-based decision-aid framework for water storage systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. Water Economics and Policy,
1(4):1-30. [DOI] More...
The development of water storage schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is considered a major aid for those regions with unequal water distribution, limited accessibility and anticipated climate change impacts. Great attention is given by many SSA countries to set up different water storage schemes that may improve rural and urban development on a national level. The funding for the water storage schemes is often derived from foreign agencies which conduct feasibility studies for the financing of potential investments. Often however, the feasibility studies rely on a single monetary criterion which may not identify the most appropriate water storage in each case. In addition, limited data availability in many SSA countries increases the difficulty of identifying the most suitable storage option. This paper develops a multicriteria framework for the integrated evaluation of water storage strategies in Sub-Saharan African countries. A set of economic, agronomic and opinion-based criteria are assessed through the PROMETHEE II outranking approach. The introduction of crop modeling complements the limited field data available in agronomic criteria and enhances the scientific rigor of the method. Ethiopia is adopted as a representative case of SSA countries where a diverse set of water storage options is currently under construction, often financed by foreign agencies.
Income / Households / Farmers / Dams / Reservoir storage / Water productivity / Waterborne diseases / Water quality / Water storage
Savoskul, Oxana; Shevnina, E. 2015. Irrigated crop production in the Syr Darya Basin: climate change rehearsal in the 1990s.
In Hoanh, Chu Thai; Johnston, Robyn; Smakhtin, Vladimir. Climate change and agricultural water management in developing countries. Wallingford, UK: CABI. pp.176-192. (CABI Climate Change Series 8) More...
River basins / Reservoirs / Agriculture / Water availability / Water use / Water management / Water demand / Water allocation / Climate change / Crop production / Irrigated farming
Kam, S. P.; Nhuong, T.; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Hien, N. X. 2015. Aquaculture adaptation to climate change in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta.
In Hoanh, Chu Thai; Johnston, Robyn; Smakhtin, Vladimir. Climate change and agricultural water management in developing countries. Wallingford, UK: CABI. pp.135-153. (CABI Climate Change Series 8) More...
Seasonal cropping / Water management / Water resources / Deltas / Costs / Economic analysis / Ponds / Flooding / Farmers / Shrimp culture / Aquaculture / Adaptation / Climate change
Mul, Marloes; Obuobie, E.; Appoh, Richard; Kankam-Yeboah, K.; Bekoe-Obeng, E.; Amisigo, B.; Logah, F. Y.; Ghansah, Benjamin; McCartney, Matthew. 2015. Water resources assessment of the Volta River Basin.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 78p. (IWMI Working Paper 166) [DOI] More...
The ‘WISE-UP to climate’ project aims to demonstrate the value of natural infrastructure as a ‘nature-based solution’ for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. Within the Volta River Basin, both natural and built infrastructure provide livelihood benefits for people. Understanding the interrelationships between the two types of infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable water resources development and management. This is particularly true as pressures on water resources intensify and the impacts of climate change increase. This report provides an overview of the biophysical characteristics, ecosystem services and links to livelihoods within the basin.
Economic aspects / Institutions / Riparian zones / Energy generation / Hydrology / Land use / Sedimentation / Soils / Geology / Industry / Fishing / Livestock / Strategies / Policy making / Dams / Lakes / Wetlands / Infrastructure / Natural resources / Ecosystem services / Water availability / Water power / Water demand / Water use / Water quality / Water governance / Water management / International waters / River basins / Environmental impact assessment / Water resources
Tadesse, A.; Dagnew, D. C.; Belete, M. A.; Tilahun, S. A.; Mekuria, Wolde; Steenhuis, T. 2015. Impact of soil and water conservation practices on sediment losses and discharge in the headwaters of the Lake Tana Basin in the Ethiopian highlands [Abstract only].
Paper presented at the 10th Alexander von Humboldt Conference 2015 on Water-Food-Energy River and Society in the Tropics. EGU Topical Conference Series, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 18-20 November 2015. 1p. More...
Donor and governmental sponsored soil and water conservation measures has been carried out in the last half century in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. However, sediment loads in to the lake has never been reduced suggesting that the effectiveness of integrated soil and water conservation measures reducing soil loss needs to be investigated. The present study was conducted in two watersheds (Tikur-Wuha covers 500 ha and Guali covers190 ha) located in the headwaters of Lake Tana to investigate the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on discharge and sediment loads. In both watersheds different soil and water conservation technologies have been implemented since 2010 by the Tana Belese integrated watershed management project: gully treatment, stone buds, soil bunds, stone faced soil bunds, water ways, cut- off drains, hill side terracing, micro basins and area closures. Daily rainfall, runoff and sediment concentration were collected from 2010 – 2012. The results showed that average runoff volume was reduced by 13% in Tikur-wuha and by 7% in Guali from 2010-2012. The sediment load in Tikur-wuha watershed was reduced by 48% in 2011 and 30% in 2012, while sediment load in Guali watershed was reduced by 1% and 35% in 2011 and 2012 respectively. The results support that the implemented integrated SWC measures through government sponsored with full participation of the community and through incorporating different SWC technology options were effective in reducing runoff and sediment load. We recommend fortifying the government led SWC campaign with full participation of the local community to reduce soil erosion and siltation of Lake Tana.
Runoff / Highlands / River basins / Discharges / Watersheds / Water erosion / Sediment / Water conservation / Soil conservation
Bekchanov, Maksud; Sood, Aditya; Jeuland, M. 2015. Review of hydro-economic models to address river basin management problems: structure, applications and research gaps.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 60p. (IWMI Working Paper 167) [DOI] More...
Across the globe, the prospect of increasing water demands coupled with the potential for reduced water availability is calling for implementation of a range of technological, institutional, and economic instruments to address growing water scarcity. Hydro-economic models (HEMs), which integrate the complex hydrologic and economic interrelationships inherent in most water resources systems, provide an effective means of diagnosing and devising solutions to water-related problems across varied spatial and temporal scales. This study reviews recent advances in hydro-economic modeling and characterizes the types of issues that are typically explored in the hydro-economic modeling literature. Our findings suggest that additional efforts are needed to more realistically account for the range and complexity of interlinkages between water systems and society, particularly with regards to ecology and water quality, and the food and energy sectors. Additionally, the forces that depend on water and operate on the broader economy, for example in interregional trade should be investigated further. Moreover, effects on the distribution of income within countries, and on migration should be considered in basin management modeling studies.
Institutions / Food security / Dam construction / Climate change / Indicators / Ecosystem services / Environmental flows / Catchment areas / Reservoir storage / Groundwater recharge / International waters / Virtual water / Water footprint / Water allocation / Water supply / Water use / Water quality / Water management / Water resources / Water power / Water demand / Models / Economic impact / Hydrology / River basin management
Yiak, D. L.; Tilahun, S. A.; Schmitter, Petra; Nakawuka, Prossie; Steenhuis, T. S. 2015. Groundwater recharge of Robit - Bata Experimental Watershed, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia [Abstract only].
Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on the Advancements of Science and Technology [ICAST], Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 8-9 May 2015. 1p. More...
Irrigation development is a policy priority for the Laka Tana basin. However available baseflow can irrigate less than 3% of area. The irrigated area can be increased from water stored in constructed reservoirs, pumping water from Lake Tana and by using groundwater. While groundwater has the greatest potential for increasing irrigation in the near future, the main drawback is a lack of information on sustainable groundwater use and specifically the ground water recharge. Therefore the objective of this research is to calculate the annual recharge to the ground water. The study is conducted in Robit-Bata, an experimental watershed of 911 ha, located at the south-eastern edge of Lake Tana. Farmers have excavated more than 300 hand dug wells for irrigation and we used 50 shallow groundwater wells and observed water table fluctuation and precipitation for the past one year. The annual recharge was estimated using water – level fluctuation method. Specific yield was taken to be the difference of porosity and field capacity of the subsurface formation. The annual average areal groundwater recharge of the watershed was 200 mm/year, which is 12% of the rainfall and ranged from 80mm to 500mm for the various locations in the watershed. The greatest recharge amounts were found at the foot of the hillside in river course plane areas consisting mostly weathered basalt rock. Here the groundwater was up to 15 m deep and rose steadily during the rainy monsoon phase. Smaller amount of recharge occurred both near the top of the hills with tough rock formation and in the, flat areas near to stream sandy and clay deposits and groundwater at, shallow well depth. Our study indicates that the current use of the groundwater is sustainable, but will become unsustainable if many more wells are constructed. Sufficiency and sustainable use of the shallow groundwater needs further research.
Rain / River basins / Water table / Water use / Watersheds / Groundwater irrigation / Groundwater recharge
Syme, G. J.; Reddy, V. R.; Ahmed, S.; Rao, K. V.; Pavelic, Paul; Merritt, W.; Chiranjeevi, T. 2015. Analytical framework, study design, and methodology.
In Reddy, V. R.; Syme, G. J. (Eds.). Integrated assessment of scale impacts of watershed intervention: assessing hydrogeological and bio-physical influences on livelihoods. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. pp.23-54. More...
Electricity / Living standards / Drought / Households / Rain / Stakeholders / Socioeconomic environment / Watersheds / Water levels / Water storage / Water resources / Groundwater recharge / Models / Hydrology
Bekchanov, Maksud; Ringler, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Jeuland, M. 2015. How would the Rogun Dam affect water and energy scarcity in Central Asia? Water International,
40(5-6):856-876. [DOI] More...
The construction of the Rogun Dam in the Amu Darya Basin to increase upstream energy generation creates potential trade-offs with existing downstream irrigation, due to the different timing of energy and irrigation water demands. The present analysis, based on a hydro-economic optimization model, shows that cooperative basin-wide maximization of benefits would lead to large increases in upstream hydropower production and only minor changes in downstream irrigation benefits. However, if upstream stations, including Rogun, are managed unilaterally to maximize energy production, hydropower benefits might more than double while irrigation benefits greatly decrease, thereby substantially reducing overall basin benefits.
Reservoirs / Water availability / Irrigation water / Water power / Water allocation / Upstream / River basin management / Models / Economic aspects / Hydrology / Energy generation / Energy demand / Water scarcity
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Bharati, Luna; Bhattarai, Utsav; Khadka, Ambika; Dahal, Vaskar; Wahid, S. 2015. Impact of planned water resource development on current and future water demand of the Koshi river basin, Nepal. Water International,
40(7):1004-1020. [DOI] More...
Water resources of the Koshi Basin (87,311km2) are largely untapped, and while proposals for their development exist, their impacts on current and future water demands are not quantified. The current study is the first to evaluate the impacts of 11 proposed development projects on hydropower generation and water storage. Results revealed that 29733GWh hydropower can be generated and 8382Million m3 (MCM) of water can be stored annually. This can satisfy unmet demands in current (660MCM) basin situation and future scenarios - i.e. population, agricultural and industrial growth – that are projected to have 920, 970 and 1003MCM unmet-demands, respectively by 2050.
Models / River basins / Industrialization / Domestic water / Irrigation water / Water supply / Water storage / Electricity generation / Water power / Water demand / Water resources development
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Maheshwari, B.; Prathapar, Sanmugam. 2015. Understanding groundwater storage changes and recharge in Rajasthan, India through remote sensing. Water,
7(10):5547-5565. [DOI] More...
Groundwater management practices need to take hydrogeology, the agro-climate and demand for groundwater into account. Since agroclimatic zones have already been demarcated by the Government of India, it would aid policy makers to understand the status of groundwater recharge and discharge in each agroclimatic zone. However, developing effective policies to manage groundwater at agroclimatic zone and state levels is constrained due to a paucity of temporal data and information. With the launch of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission in 2002, it is now possible to obtain frequent data at broad spatial scales and use it to examine past trends in rain induced recharge and groundwater use. In this study, the GRACE data were used to estimate changes to monthly total water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage in different agroclimatic zones of Rajasthan, India. Furthermore, the long-term annual and seasonal groundwater storage trends in the state were estimated using the GRACE data and the trends were compared with those in rainfall data. The methodology based on GRACE data was found to be useful in detecting large scale trends in groundwater storage changes covering different agroclimatic zones. The analysis of data shows that groundwater storage trends depend on rainfall in previous years and, therefore, on the antecedent moisture conditions. Overall, the study indicates that if suitable groundwater recharge methods and sites are identified for the state, there is potential to achieve more groundwater recharge than what is currently occurring and, thus, enhancing the availability of water for irrigated agriculture.
Case studies / Agriculture / Irrigated farming / Agroclimatic zones / Rainfall patterns / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Remote sensing / Water resources / Water use / Water storage / Groundwater extraction
Chinnasamy, Pennan; Agoramoorthy, G. 2015. Groundwater storage and depletion trends in Tamil Nadu State, India. Water Resources Management,
29(7):2139-2152. [DOI] More...
Groundwater irrigation is the most predominant method used across India. The south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is one of the largest producers of agricultural products, and is largely dependent on groundwater for irrigation. The impact of increased irrigation due to intensification of agricultural activities on groundwater levels has not been well researched, both spatially and temporally. Hence this study has used remote sensing data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the Global Land Data Assimilation Systems to assess the total change in groundwater storage across the state of Tamil Nadu over a period of 11 years, from 2002 to 2012. The results show groundwater depletion at the rate of 21.4 km3 yr-1, which is 8% more than the annual recharge rate (19.81 km3 yr-1) owing to the total rainfall of 1016 mm yr1. Maximum depletion was observed in 2008, while the least depletion was observed in 2002 with rates of 41.15 and 0.32 cm yr-1, respectively. Districts such as Dharmapuri, Vellore and Thiruvannamali encountered intense groundwater depletion. Observed spatiotemporal groundwater storage will benefit India’s water resource managers and policymakers for the future management of groundwater resources to enhance food and water security.
Models / Sustainability / Satellite surveys / Remote sensing / Soil moisture / Green revolution / Agriculture / Dams / Rain / Irrigation water / Water resources / Water storage / Groundwater recharge / Groundwater depletion
Eriyagama, Nishadi; Muthuwatta, Lal; Thilakarathne, Madusanka. 2014. Minimizing flood damage and augmenting dry season water availability: prospects for floodwater harvesting and underground storage in Sri Lanka.
In Sri Lanka. Ministry of Disaster Management. Proceedings of the Disaster Management Conference: The future we want- Safer Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 24-26 September 2014. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Ministry of Disaster Management. pp.379-381. More...
Flood water harvesting and underground storage is a concept that has received significant attention in many regions of the world. Its intention is to capture floodwater from currently flooded areas and to store it for later use, in order to both, reduce damage caused by floods, as well as to satisfy demands for water during drier periods. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the prospects for its realization in Sri Lanka. A coarse scale suitability index is constructed and mapped at district level in order to identify the districts having higher prospects for its implementation. Preliminary results indicate three main clusters of highly suitable districts, subject to favourable geological conditions. Cluster 1 consists of Ampara and Batticalao, Cluster 2 of Kurunegala, Anuradhapura and Mannar, and Cluster 3 of Ratnapura. The potential for groundwater recharge of the highly suitable clusters need special investigation prior to arriving at concrete conclusions. If successfully implemented, this concept may prove a valuable intervention for adapting to current and future floods and droughts.
Groundwater recharge / Groundwater management / Drought / Dry season / Water availability / Water harvesting / Flooding
de Fraiture, C.; Kouali, Gael Ndanga; Sally, Hilmy; Kabre, P. 2014. Pirates or pioneers?: unplanned irrigation around small reservoirs in Burkina Faso. Agricultural Water Management,
131:212-220. [DOI] More...
Small reservoirs in Burkina Faso are constructed for many purposes such as domestic water uses, livestock watering and irrigated rice production downstream of the dam. Increasingly farmers use individually owned motorized pumps to draw water directly from the reservoir and irrigate vegetables upstream of the dam. This practice, while tolerated, is unauthorized and referred to as ‘irrigation pirate’ in French. Upstream vegetable cultivation is successful because it is more profitable than downstream rice cultivation. Often, the ‘unofficial’ irrigated area around the reservoir is much larger than the official command area below the dam. However, in the absence of an overarching authority to manage the water source, this may lead to conflicts and resource degradation. We take the example of the Korsimoro reservoir in Burkina Faso to illustrate the positive and negative impacts of spontaneous individual irrigation around communally managed water bodies.
Farmers / Water users / Water use / Resource management / Small scale systems / Vegetable growing / Irrigated farming / Downstream / Upstream / Rservoirs
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2014. IWMI Annual report 2013.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 14p. [DOI] More...
Climate change / Wetlands / Groundwater / Water storage / Water use / Water resources / Water security
Brindha, Karthikeyan; Elango, L. 2014. Geochemical modelling of the effects of a proposed uranium tailings pond on groundwater quality. Technical article. Mine Water and the Environment,
33:110-120 [DOI] More...
The impact of a proposed uranium tailings pond on groundwater quality was assessed by geochemical modelling. Groundwater samples were collected from six dug wells in the Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, in southern India, once every 2 months from March 2008 to January 2010, and analysed for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, and uranium. Prediction of groundwater quality was carried out for 100 years using PHREEQC to assess the effects of infiltration of water from the proposed tailings pond. The sensitivity of the model for variations in porosity, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, and concentration of uranium in the tailings was evaluated. Geochemical modelling predicts that if the chemical composition of the tailings water is maintained at about the expected mean concentrations, and an appropriate liner is installed with an infiltration rate B1.0 9 10-9 m/s, the concentration of solutes in the groundwater will be increased from present background levels for a down-gradient distance of up to 500 m for the anticipated life of the mine, i.e. 16 years. The concentration of ions in groundwater would exceed background concentrations for up to 100 m at the end of 100 years. This study was used to predict the optimum chemical composition for the tailings and the extent, in terms of time and distance, that the groundwater concentration of various ions would be increased by infiltration of wastes from the tailings pond.
Wells / Infiltration water / Water quality / Groundwater / Ponds / Mining / Uranium / Elements / Hydraulic conductivity / Hydrology / Models / Geochemistry
Shah, Tushaar; Indu, R. 2014. Productivity and the poor?: political economy of village pond fishery in the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Water International,
39(4):563-576 [DOI] More...
India’s 2.25 million ha of village tanks were for centuries loosely managed as multiple use common property resources, including for fishing by artisanal fisher-folk, the lowest in the social hierarchy. During the 1970s and after, the aquaculture productivity revolution created a vibrant new political economy by increasing manyfold the value of fishing rights in these tanks. This productivity boom was expected to improve the lot of poor artisanal fisher communities. But has this happened? This study across the Indo-Gangetic Basin suggests increasing elite capture of these community-owned resources. Capital, technology and muscle power have determined who benefits; artisanal fishers have none of these.
Farmers / Fish culture / Costs / River basins / Productivity / Ponds / Political aspects / Economic aspects / Fisheries / Aquaculture
Keraita, B.; Drechsel, Pay; Klutse, A.; Cofie, Olufunke O. 2014. On-farm treatment options for wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge with special reference to West Africa.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) 36p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 01) [DOI] More...
Moringa / Helminths / Sedimentation / Farmers / Health hazards / Wetlands / Wells / Ponds / Weirs / Filtration / Reservoirs / Contamination / Sewage sludge / Faecal coliforms / Irrigation water / Water storage / Water quality / Wastewater treatment / On-farm research
Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali; Phuong, N. D.; Bouahom, B.; Joffre, O.; Pant, J.; Keophoxay, Anousith. 2014. Hydropower development and livelihoods: a quest for a balanced approach through research and partnerships.
In Aqua-Media International. Fifth International Conference on Water Resources and Hydropower Development in Asia, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 11-13 March 2014. Wallington, Surrey, UK: Aqua-Media International. 9p. More...
Case studies / Rice / Economic aspects / Cassava / Farmers / Households / Living standards / Reservoirs / Water power
Prathapar, Sanmugam A.; Bawain, A. A. 2014. Impact of sedimentation on groundwater recharge at Sahalanowt Dam, Salalah, Oman. Technical note. Water International,
39(3):381-393. [DOI] More...
Recharge dams in Oman detain floods to recharge groundwater. The impact of sedimentation on recharge at Wadi Sahalanowt Recharge Dam, in Salalah, Oman, was evaluated using field data and numerical modelling. Analysis of the thickness of sediments after flood events shows that maximum depositions were at the same locations after each event, coinciding with the lowest positions in the wadi. Numerical modelling suggests that the current practice of periodic removal of sediments will restore the storage capacity of the reservoir, but that ploughing or raking of the underlying native sedimentary rocks could be required to significantly improve infiltration rates.
Flooding / Water levels / Models / Infiltration / Reservoirs / Dams / Hydraulic conductivity / Sedimentation / Groundwater recharge
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2014. Wetlands and people.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 32p. [DOI] More...
Case studies / Income / Economic aspects / Social aspects / Rice / Fish farming / Poverty / Living standards / Lakes / Deltas / Dams / River basins / Ecosystems / Natural resources management / Wetlands
Silva, E. I. L.; Manthrithilake, Herath; Pitigala, D.; Silva, E. N. S. 2014. Environmental flow in Sri Lanka: ancient anicuts versus modern dams. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences,
19:3-14. [DOI] More...
Environmental flow describes the stream flow (quantity and regime) required to sustain upstream and downstream habitats, riparian vegetation, human livelihoods and wildlife. When natural rivers or tributaries are held back by weirs, anicuts, barrages or dams, for a variety of purposes such as diversion for irrigation, hydropower generation or flood control often the downstream flow requirement is ignored or neglected. Although there is no universally accepted definition, convention or law on environmental flow, it has been now recognized that environmental flow is essential for sustainability of riparian ecosystem and their services, which are essential for our own existence, livelihoods and many more. This paper looks at physical structures constructed across rivers and tributaries in Sri Lanka since ancient times to date (including mini-hydro power stations) with a view to understand whether simple ancient wisdoms are more appropriate than modern structures for nature conservation. There are tangible evidence to defend that the ancient anicuts known as “amuna” surged sufficient water in tributaries and rivers, to sustain the environment than modern engineering works which has created dead river beds immediately downstream in many streams and rivers.
History / Modernization / Diversion / Tributaries / Water power / Reservoirs / Weirs / Dams / Traditional technology / Hydraulic structures / Irrigation systems / Stream flow / River basin development / Environmental flows
Venot, J.-P.; Suhardiman, Diana. 2014. Governing the ungovernable: practices and circumstances of governance in the irrigation sector. International Journal of Water Governance,
Since the early 2000s, governance has been at the core of the international water agenda. This has elicited calls for reforms in the irrigation sector, including efforts to address the problem of corruption. Nevertheless, the history of policy reform in the irrigation sector is one of repeated institutional refinements, which have hardly materialized into grounded policy measures and practices. Though international donors, policy makers, irrigation scholars and practitioners have long agreed to invest in the ‘soft issues’ of irrigation, most policy interventions have retained a focus on infrastructure-oriented development. This paper identifies decisive factors that preserve the status quo in irrigation development. We draw our analysis on empirical data from countries with a recent (Ghana, West Africa) and long (Indonesia) irrigation history. Beyond the idiosyncrasies of the two case studies that highlight that everyday practices are embedded in, and constrained by, existing institutional rules and mechanisms, but also contribute to shaping these, we make a broader theoretical point. We argue that the ‘business-as-usual’ trajectory that characterizes the irrigation sector is also rooted in the very concept of governance, which is fundamentally about “governing”, that is a practice aiming at steering people towards defined ends, and through different means such as infrastructure, management practices and policies.
Case studies / Farmers / Reservoirs / Investment / Water user associations / Water resources / Bureaucracy / Policy making / Governance / Development / Irrigation management
Hanjra, Munir A.; Lautze, Jonathan. 2014. Appendix: other new terms in water management.
In Lautze, Jonathan (Ed.). Key concepts in water resource management: a review and critical evaluation. Oxon, UK: Routledge - Earthscan. pp.111-126. (Earthscan Water Text) More...
River basins / Smallholders / Agriculture / Ecology / Surface water / Water storage / Water quality / Water management
Gebregziabher, Gebrehaweria; Haileslassie, A. 2014. Assessments of key small-scale irrigation technologies, agricultural water management options and integrated irrigated fodder in Ethiopia.
Unpublished Discussion Paper prepared by Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Small-Scale Irrigation Project for Stakeholder Consultation Workshop. 30p. More...
Smallholders / Landscape / Rural areas / River basins / Living standards / Food security / Adaptation / Climate change / Water storage / Poverty / Projects / Groundwater irrigation / Cost benefit analysis / Multiple use / Water use / Groundwater / Watershed management / Assessment / Waste management / Agriculture / Technology / Irrigation methods / Small scale farming
Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Asolekar, S. R.; Essl, L.; Grischek, T.; Gupta, P. K.; Heinze, K; Jampani, Mahesh; Kimothi, C.; Kumar, D.; Lesch, M.; Sandhu, C.; Semwal, M.; Singh, P. D. K.; Starkl, M. 2014. Report on initial sustainability assessment. Saph Pani Deliverable 6.1. [Project report of the Enhancement of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Methods for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in India (Saph Pani)].
Vienna, Austria: Center for Environmental Management and Decision Support (CEMDS) 109p. More...
Case studies / Ponds / Economic aspects / Corporate culture / Social aspects / Health hazards / Environmental effects / Wetlands / Wastewater treatment / Assessment / Sustainability
Sugden, Fraser; Shrestha, L.; Bharati, Luna; Gurung, P.; Maharjan, L.; Janmaat, J.; Price, J. I.; Sherpa, Tashi Yang Chung; Bhattarai, Utsav; Koirala, S.; Timilsina, B. 2014. Climate change, out-migration and agrarian stress: the potential for upscaling small-scale water storage in Nepal.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 38p. (IWMI Research Report 159) [DOI] More...
Climate change could have a critical impact on agriculture in Nepal due to dry-season water shortages, and changes in the variability of water availability and associated uncertainty. This makes water storage systems (most notably ponds and tanks) increasingly important. This report explores the potential role of small-scale water storage infrastructure in two subbasins within the larger Koshi River Basin in central and eastern Nepal, yet shows that upscaling such infrastructure requires an appreciation of the other drivers of change in agriculture aside from climate (e.g., rising cost of living and poor terms of trade for agriculture). It also identifies the social relations and dynamics (distribution of land, water and labor) which could mediate the success of future interventions. It is clear from the research that, while small-scale water storage has the potential to significantly strengthen livelihoods in the Nepali hills, it is necessary to tailor projects to the existing political-economic context.
Case studies / Property rights / Land management / Social aspects / Political aspects / Economic aspects / Models / Hydrology / Agrarian structure / Women farmers / Gender / Water availability / Migration / Tanks / Ponds / Water storage / Climate change
Mishra, Atmaram; Ghosh, S.; Mohanty, R. K.; Brahmanand, P. S.; Verma, H. C. 2014. Secondary storage reservoir: a potential option for rainwater harvesting in irrigated command for improved irrigation and agricultural performance. Economic Affairs,
59(3):389-402. [DOI] More...
Present study recommends an option to overcome the limited water availability in surface irrigation system through provision of secondary reservoirs in the command. The harvested water can be utilized for irrigation in the dry season, short duration fish culture, etc. Approximately 10% of the command area is required for the secondary reservoir with assumption of 50% capacity of the main reservoir will be available for irrigating dry season crops. The demonstration of use of water from the secondary reservoir in addition to the water from main reservoir has resulted in substantial crop and fish yield. The gross and net returns from various cropping patterns considered using irrigation water from main reservoir (MR) and from main and secondary reservoir (MR+SR). Among the cropping patterns considered, rice-tomato cropping pattern resulted in highest net return of INR 29,457/ha followed by rice-brinjal cropping pattern (INR 22,430/ha) with benefit cost ratio of 2.07 and 1.79, respectively. Highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.09 was obtained for rice-sunflower cropping system due to relatively lower cost of cultivation of sunflower. The highest incremental value of net returns of 3710 /ha was obtained with rice-tomato cropping system. The low input-based scientific fish culture in the secondary reservoir has enhanced the fish yield by three fold over traditional practice increasing the gross return from the system. The economic analysis also revealed that the intervention is economically viable.
Fish culture / Farmers / Economic analysis / Crop management / Dry season / Agricultural development / Irrigation projects / Irrigation water / Water harvesting / Rainwater / Reservoir storage
Mohanty, R. K.; Mishra, Atmaram; Patil, D. U. 2014. Water budgeting in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon culture using different water and feed management systems. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,
14:487-496. [DOI] More...
We quantify the total water use (TWU) and consumptive water use index (CWUI) in grow-out culture of Penaeus monodon at different water and feeding management protocols using the water balance equation. Under two different water management protocols, treatment-wise TWU, was 2.09 and 2.43 ha-m 122 d-1 in T1 (no water exchange) and T2 (water exchange on ‘requirement’ basis depending on water quality), respectively. The computed CWUI (m3 kg-1 biomass), was 5.35 and 6.02 in T1 and T2, respectively. Lower rates of water exchange (T2) showed significantly improved water quality, crop performance and productivity over the zero water exchange protocol. Similarly, under three different feed management protocols, treatment-wise estimated TWU was 2.52, 2.44 and 2.41 ha-m 119d-1, while the computed CWUI was 7.28, 6.88 and 6.34 in T1 (Regular feeding, 4-times a day), T2 (2-weeks feeding followed by 1-week no feed) and T3 (4-weeks feeding followed by 1-week no feed), respectively. Higher the feed input, higher was the TWU and CWUI. It was also recorded that longer the refeeding period, higher was the growth performance and yield as in the case of T3. This feeding practice also helped in lowering the feed input (7.5% in T2 and 5.5% in T3), thus minimizes the input cost and improve production efficiency.
Sediment / Ponds / Protocols / Water management / Water quality / Water use / Water budget / Feeds / Shrimp culture / Penaeus monodon / Aquaculture
Mohanty, R. K.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, Atmaram; Panda, D. K.; Patil, D. U. 2014. Water budgeting and management: enhancing aquacultural water productivity.
Orissa, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Directorate of Water Management 70p. (Research Bulletin 63) More...
Economic aspects / Ponds / Salinity / Nutrients / Protocols / Feeds / Sediment / Farming / Shrimp culture / Fish culture / Aquaculture / Water quality / Water productivity / Water management / Water budget
Katic, Pamela G.; Lautze, Jonathan; Namara, R. E. 2014. Impacts of small built infrastructure in inland valleys in Burkina Faso and Mali: rationale for a systems approach that thinks beyond rice? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,
76-78:83-97.(Special Issue on quot;Transboundary Water Cooperation: Building Partnershipsquot; (Part 2)) [DOI] More...
The potential to increase agricultural production in inland valleys in West Africa has received a good degree of attention in both national development strategies and academic literature, and improving agriculture productivity in inland valleys has been an active area of donor engagement. Despite this attention, documentation of the degree to which benefits are enhanced through construction of built water storage infrastructure in such sites is somewhat scant. This paper examines evidence from eight inland valley sites with recently-built water retention infrastructure (4 in southwest Burkina Faso, 4 in southeast Mali) to determine how economic returns derived from agricultural production have changed through built infrastructure construction. Farmer interviews were undertaken at each site to identify costs and benefits of agricultural production before and after small built infrastructure construction. Overall results indicate that net present value increased substantially after built infrastructure was constructed. The results nonetheless highlight substantial variation in economic impacts across sites. A central variable explaining such variation appears to be the degree to which water retention is exploited for groundwater-based offseason cultivation. These findings will help development planners to better predict the degree and nature of change engendered by water storage projects in inland valley sites, and help to ground-truth grand statements about the development potential of this piece of natural infrastructure.
Gender / Soils / Off season cultivation / Farmers / Investment / Finance / Cost benefit analysis / Economic aspects / Infrastructure / Valleys / Rice / Agricultural production / Irrigation / Water storage
Pak, M.; Wegerich, Kai; Kazbekov, Jusipbek. 2014. Re-examining conflict and cooperation in Central Asia: a case study from the Isfara River, Ferghana Valley. International Journal of Water Resources Development,
30(2):230-245. [DOI] More...
While conflict and cooperation in Central Asia are mainly focused on the larger basins (Amu and Syr Darya) and the implementation of the agreement reached directly after independence (1991), here an analysis of the history of water-sharing agreements in the Isfara Basin is presented. The paper reveals that there have been fierce negotiations and renegotiations even during the Soviet Union period between the Central Asian riparian republics; agreement was reached mainly though engineering solutions that brought more water to the basin. The paper highlights that although water-sharing agreements were reached early on, the technical capability of implementing these agreements was lacking. Similarly, even after independence, agreements had been reached but lack of water control hindered their implementation.
Case studies / Cooperation / Conflict / Reservoirs / Valleys / River basins / Water allocation / Agreements / Water sharing / International waters / Water management
McCornick, Peter; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Bharati, Luna; Johnston, Robyn; McCartney, Matthew; Sugden, Fraser; Clement, Floriane; McIntyre, Beverly. 2014. Afrontar el cambio: Cuidar del agua, de la agricultura y de la seguridad alimentaria en una era de incertidumbre climatica. In Spanish.
Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 36p. [DOI] More...
Environmental flows / Women / Gender / Soil moisture / Malaria / Health hazards / Food security / Rainfed farming / Agriculture / Irrigation schemes / River basins / Aquifers / Groundwater recharge / Water storage / Water governance / Water productivity / Water management / Water resources / Climate change
Jeuland, M.; Baker, J.; Bartlett, R.; Lacombe, Guillaume. 2014. The costs of uncoordinated infrastructure management in multi-reservoir river basins. Environmental Research Letters,
9(10):1-10. [DOI] More...
Though there are surprisingly few estimates of the economic benefits of coordinated infrastructure development and operations in international river basins, there is a widespread belief that improved cooperation is beneficial for managing water scarcity and variability. Hydro-economic optimization models are commonly-used for identifying efficient allocation of water across time and space, but such models typically assume full coordination. In the real world, investment and operational decisions for specific projects are often made without full consideration of potential downstream impacts. This paper describes a tractable methodology for evaluating the economic benefits of infrastructure coordination. We demonstrate its application over a range of water availability scenarios in a catchment of the Mekong located in Lao PDR, the Nam Ngum River Basin. Results from this basin suggest that coordination improves system net benefits from irrigation and hydropower by approximately 3–12% (or US$12-53 million/yr) assuming moderate levels of flood control, and that the magnitude of coordination benefits generally increases with the level of water availability and with inflow variability. Similar analyses would be useful for developing a systematic understanding of the factors that increase the costs of non-cooperation in river basin systems worldwide, and would likely help to improve targeting of efforts to stimulate complicated negotiations over water resources.
Dams / Irrigati