Key Facts

A study in rural Thailand found that households typically use up to nine different water sources around their homesteads for their various domestic and livelihood needs
Up to 100 liters of water per day are needed within a short round-trip from the homestead for small-scale productive uses to take place at a significant level
Improving daily water supply services from 20 liters to 100 liters per person has the potential to generate an additional annual income of up to $400 per year for a family of five

Photos: Tom Van Cakenberghe, David Brazier, Frank Rijsberman


  1. IWMI working paper 137 – Multiple sources of water for multiple purposes in Northeast Thailand
  2. Multiple-use ladder (based on Van Koppen and Hussain, 2007, and Renwick et al., 2007) in INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIPLE-USE WATER SERVICES Characterising the multiple use approach at community level: findings from case studies in 8 countries S. Smits, B. van Koppen and P. Moriarty [Netherlands]
  3. Multiple Use Water Services for the Poor: Assessing the State of Knowledge, Final report December 2007, Winrock International, IRC Water and Sanitation Centre, International Water Management Institute