RRR business model profiles

RRR business model profiles

Rapid urbanization and population growth are putting tremendous strain on farmers, who are already struggling with depleted soils, to feed this growing urban population, while also generating massive socio-environmental costs where waste management does not meet demand. Given the resource value of municipal waste in view of energy, nutrients and water, there are significant opportunities for resource recovery and reuse (RRR) across the food, waste and sanitation sectors to pave the way for a more circular economy for sustainable growth and urban resilience.

Resource Recovery from Waste

The following profiles present short summaries of business models found in the book, Resource Recovery from Waste: Business Models for Energy, Nutrient and Water Reuse in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. These models are based on over 45 empirical case study examples that have been implemented in various settings. Each model explains the value proposition and value chain of the business, the institutional set up and risks in terms of viability and safety, as well as providing overall performance data. Along with their associated case studies, the models show pathways towards increasing cost recovery to full profitability in the recovery of energy, nutrients and water from waste.


Energy can be recovered from agro-waste, agro-industrial waste, livestock waste, fecal sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste in order to produce energy in solid (briquette), liquid (bio-fuel/ethanol) or gaseous (producer gas and biogas) form for the generation of heat, electricity, or fuel for transport.


There are a wide range of opportunities for waste valorization through nutrient recycling and organic carbon recovery from municipal solid waste, agro-industrial waste, fecal sludge and wastewater.


Wastewater can be treated and reused for various profitable activities, such as agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and can also be used in inter-sectoral water transfers.