Wednesday, March 29, 2023, Lahore: The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Pakistan organized a media workshop for effective reporting on water governance, under the UK Aid-funded Water Resource Accountability in Pakistan (WRAP) Programme Component 1: Climate Resilient Solutions for Improving Water Governance (CRS-IWaG). The workshop aimed to sensitize print, electronic and digital media journalists on […]
The workshop aimed to bring together key stakeholders, including federal and provincial government officials, policymakers, water experts, and practitioners, to discuss and deliberate on the importance of Water Accounting and its implications for sustainable water management in Pakistan.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Pakistan organized a two-day training workshop on Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in district Okara.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Pakistan organized a two-day capacity building training workshop for officials from Punjab Irrigation Department (PID) and On Farm Water Management (OFWM), and faculty and students from University of Okara and University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) sub-campus Depalpur.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Pakistan organized a consultative workshop with Okara Chamber of Commerce & Industry on water issues to identify the challenges faced by industrial water users in district Okara.
Experts at a multi-stakeholder consultative workshop said that Pakistan needs to establish an effective network of all segments of the society from scientists to policy makers to civil society with a focus on mainstreaming youth and gender to address growing water security prevailing across the country.
Experts participating in a media exposure field visit informed the journalists that groundwater recharge wells are a cost-effective nature-based solution (NbS) to revive groundwater aquifers and mitigate the risk of urban flooding.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is supporting the Government of Pakistan for flood damage assessment and aiding recovery efforts, following the extreme flooding events across the country.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Pakistan, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) and WaterAid Pakistan organized a media briefing to highlight the artificial groundwater recharge site in Kachnar Park, Islamabad.
Journalists from print and electronic media attended the workshop, who were sensitized on Pakistan’s water security challenges and the need to protect the most vulnerable from water scarcity and deterioration of water resources.
IWMI Pakistan and Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology (KFUEIT), RYK join hands to organize an international workshop on Water, Energy, Food and Ecosystem (WEFE) Nexus for Indus Basin
Chromium (Cr) contamination in paddy soil-rice systems threatens human health through the food chain. This study used a new dataset of 500 paddy soil and plant tissue samples collected in the rice-growing regions of Sindh and Punjab Provinces of Pakistan. Overall, 97.4% of grain samples exceeded the Cr threshold values of 1.0 mg kg-1, determined by the China National Food Standard (CNFS). The Cr in paddy soil, 62.6% samples exceeding the China natural background threshold value (90 mg kg-1) for Cr concentration in paddy soil, and lower than the (pH-dependant gt; 7.5 threshold value for Cr 350 mg kg-1) as determined by China Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for paddy soil (GB15618-2018). Geographically weighted regression (GWR) modelling showed spatially nonstationary correlations, confirming the heterogeneous relationship between dependent (rice grain Cr) and independent paddy soil (pH, SOM, and paddy soil Cr) and plant tissue variables (shoot Cr and root Cr) throughout the study area. The GWR model was then used to determine the critical threshold (CT) for the measured Cr concentrations in the paddy soil system. Overall, 38.4% of paddy soil samples exceeding CT values confirm that the paddy soil Cr risk prevails in the study area. Furthermore, the GWR model was applied to assess the loading capacity (LC), the difference between the CT, and the actual concentration of Cr in paddy soil. Loading capacity identified potential paddy soil Cr pollution risk to rice grain and assessed the risk areas. Overall LC% of samples paddy soil Cr risk areas grade: low-risk grade I (34.6%); moderate-risk grade II (15.8%); high-risk grade III (11.2%); and very high-risk grade IV (38.4%) have been assessed in the study area.
The human health index, total hazard quotient (THQ 1), indicates no potential health risk originating from Cr exposure to the population. However, the excess Cr level in paddy soil and rice grain is still a concern. The current studyapos;s results are also valuable for the national decision-making process regarding Cr contamination in the paddy soil-rice system.
Modelling / Translocation / Bioaccumulation factor / Physicochemical properties / Metals / Risk assessment / Health hazards / Human health / Rice fields / Paddy soils / Contamination / Chromium Record No:H051385
The phenomenon of drought is common in the world, especially in Pakistan. El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the spatial and temporal variability of drought and rainfall in Pakistan. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify homogeneous rainfall regions and their trend regions, as well as the impact of ENSO phases. In this study, monthly rainfall data from 44 weather stations are used during 1980–2019. Moreover, descriptive and exploratory statistics tests (e.g., Pettitt and Mann-Kendall—MK), Sen method, and cluster analysis (CA) are evaluated along with the annual Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on spatiotemporal scales. ENSO occurrences were classified based on the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) for region 3.4. Using the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC) and a significance level of 5%, seven methods were applied to the rainfall series, with the complete method (CCC gt; 0.9082) being the best. According to the CA method, Pakistan has four groups of homogeneous rainfall (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Descriptive and exploratory statistics showed that G1 differs from the other groups in size and spatial distribution. Pettitt’s technique identified the most extreme El Nio years in terms of spatial and temporal drought variability, along with the wettest months (March, August, September, June, and December) in Pakistan. Non-significant increases in Pakistan’s annual precipitation were identified via the MK test, with exceptions in the southern and northern regions, respectively. No significant increase in rainfall in Pakistan was found using the Sen method, especially in regions G2, G3, and G4. The severity of the drought in Pakistan is intensified by El Nio events, which demand attention from public managers in the management of water resources, agriculture, and the country’s economy.
Meteorological stations / Spatial distribution / Trends / El Nino-Southern Oscillation / Time series analysis / Precipitation / Rain / Drought Record No:H051166
Rainfall forecast is useful for farmers to avoid expensive irrigation decisions both in rain-fed and irrigated agricultural areas. In developing countries, farmers have limited knowledge of weather forecast information sources and access to technology such as the internet and smartphones to make use of these forecasts. This paper presents a case of developing Farmers Advisory Service (FAS) in Pakistan that is based on rainfall forecast data. The analysis emphasizes on statistical verification of 16-day rainfall forecast data from a global weather forecast model (Global Forecast System). In-situ data from 15 observatories maintained by Pakistan Meteorological Department in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province has been considered for verification. Scores of various indicators are calculated for the rainfall forecast ranging from simple forecasts of dichotomous outcomes to forecasts of a continuous variable. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to understand how scores of dichotomous indicators vary by changing the threshold to define a rainfall event and forecast lead time interval. The quality of forecast varies across the stations based on the selected skill scores. The findings of verification, sensitivity analysis, and attributes of FAS provide insight into the process of developing a decision support service for the farmers based on the global weather forecast data.
Models / Weather data / Decision making / Information dissemination / Precipitation / Weather forecasting / Rain / Advisory services / Farmers Record No:H051020
Water management in the irrigation-dominated Indus Basin of Pakistan is under pressure to ensure equitable, long-term, stable and flexible water supplies for meeting crop water demands, growing non-agricultural water demands (domestic and industrial supplies), and minimising adverse environmental impacts of one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. In this chapter, we focus on the irrigation system in Punjab by carrying out a sustainability analysis of its current irrigation water application methods. Cai et al.’s (Sustainability analysis for irrigation water management: concepts, methodology, and application to the Aral Sea region. Environment and production technology division, discussion paper no. 86, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2001) analytical framework is used, which comprises indicators of risk and vulnerability, environmental system integrity, and economic acceptability and equity. The analysis suggests that irrigation water management in Punjab is currently unsustainable due to declining surface water supplies and excessive pressure on groundwater to support intensive agriculture and increasing demand from non-agricultural uses. Furthermore, climate change projections suggest reduced overall water availability leading to reduced crop productivity. Groundwater exploitation, unsustainable irrigation and agricultural practices, and industrial effluents are affecting water quality and worsening the overall health of the Indus Basin and its ecosystem. The cost of irrigation water management is economically not viable due to the high level of subsidies for technological interventions at the farm level and minimal water charges. The gap between collected water charges and overall operation and maintenance costs has reached USD 76 million. Water productivity in the Punjab is one of the lowest in the South Asia region due to use of traditional irrigation practices with low irrigation and application efficiency. Equitable distribution of water in the province has become a big challenge for water managers given increasing water allocation conflicts, especially between upstream and downstream water users. We thus suggest adopting an approach that is more inclusive of all major stakeholder interests keeping in view the competing inter-sectoral water demands in future and the ongoing challenges of climate change, urbanisation and economic growth. Such efforts are required to improve water use efficiency as well as equity in the distribution of water among users.
Climate change / Equity / Farmers / Water quality / Water charges / Economic aspects / Groundwater / Surface water / Irrigation methods / Irrigation systems / Water resources / Sustainability / Water use efficiency / Irrigation management / Water management / Irrigation water Record No:H050436
Impact assessments on climate change are essential for the evaluation and management of irrigation water in farming practices in semi-arid environments. This study was conducted to evaluate climate change impacts on water productivity of maize in farming practices in the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) system. Two fields of maize were selected and monitored to calibrate and validate the model. A water productivity analysis was performed using the Soil–Water–Atmosphere–Plant (SWAP) model. Baseline climate data (1980–2010) for the study site were acquired from the weather observatory of the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). Future climate change data were acquired from the Hadley Climate model version 3 (HadCM3). Statistical downscaling was performed using the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) for the A2 and B2 scenarios of HadCM3. The water productivity assessment was performed for the midcentury (2040–2069) scenario. The maximum increase in the average maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) was found in the month of July under the A2 and B2 scenarios. The scenarios show a projected increase of 2.8 C for Tmax and 3.2 C for Tmin under A2 as well as 2.7 C for Tmax and 3.2 C for Tmin under B2 for the midcentury. Similarly, climate change scenarios showed that temperature is projected to decrease, with the average minimum and maximum temperatures of 7.4 and 6.4 C under the A2 scenario and 7.7 and 6.8 C under the B2 scenario in the middle of the century, respectively. However, the highest precipitation will decrease by 56 mm under the A2 and B2 scenarios in the middle of the century for the month of September. The input and output data of the SWAP model were processed in R programming for the easy working of the model. The negative impact of climate change was found under the A2 and B2 scenarios during the midcentury. The maximum decreases in Potential Water Productivity (WPET) and Actual Water Productivity (WPAI) from the baseline period to the midcentury scenario of 1.1 to 0.85 kgm-3 and 0.7 to 0.56 kgm-3 were found under the B2 scenario. Evaluation of irrigation practices directs the water managers in making suitable water management decisions for the improvement of water productivity in the changing climate.
Models / Rain / Temperature / Precipitation / Irrigation systems / Groundwater recharge / Soil hydraulic properties / Semiarid zones / Maize / Crop production / Water productivity / Impact assessment / Climate change Record No:H050210
This paper predicts climate change pattern and outlines suitable adaptation strategies related to irrigated agricultural practices in Hakra Branch Canal Command (HBCC) of Pakistan. Climate change predictions were simulated using models perturbed with climatic data and A2 emission scenario. A biased correction method was applied to the simulated future climatic data. The study site reveals different nature of vulnerabilities to the changing climate based on climate change scenario downscaling. The variation in rainfall patterns, especially the seasonal shifts, would have likely impact on water availability for irrigation and subsequently on the crop growth. A detailed survey was conducted to investigate how farmers in HBCC perceive variations in weather patterns and the proposed adaptation measures. The statistical significance of farmers’ perceptions and decisions about adaptation measures are reported with regard to their location along the secondary canals. The literature offers a range of potential climate change adaptation measures to the farming community that sometimes are not coherent with the national policy and the local practice. Farmers generally feel it difficult to pick a suitable adaptation option that suits their particular conditions. This research proposes a simple yet robust criterion to prioritize the potential climate change adaptation measures. This criterion (colloquially known as 3P) is based on three subjective factors – i.e. policy, prevalence and practicability – and it could be scaled out to other areas where results of climate change studies are available.
Water availability / Precipitation / Temperature / Agricultural production / Farmers / Rain / Irrigated farming / Irrigation canals / Irrigation systems / Climate change adaptation Record No:H048815
Pakistan: getting more from water Author(s): Young, W. J.; Anwar, Arif; Bhatti, Tousif; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Davies, S.; Garthwaite, W. R. III; Gilmont, M.; Leb, C.; Lytton, L.; Makin, Ian; Saeed, B. Published year: 2019. Publisher(s): Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Pages: 191 Series: Water Security Diagnostics
This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water. The report highlights the complex water issues that Pakistan must tackle to improve water security and sheds new light on conventional assumptions around water. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development. The report assesses current water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. It identifies unmitigated water-related risks, as well as opportunities where water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The report analyzes how the performance and architecture of the water sector are related to broader economic, social, and environmental outcomes. It models alternative economic trajectories to identify where intervention can lead to a more water-secure future. A consideration of water sector architecture and performance and how these determine outcome leads to recommendations for improving aspects of sector performance and adjusting sector architecture for better outcomes. The sector performance analysis considers (a) management of the water resource, (b) delivery of water services, and (c) mitigation of water-related risks. The description of sector architecture considers water governance, infrastructure, and financing.
Models / Monitoring / Political aspects / Sediment / Dams / Reservoirs / Rivers / Planning / Risk reduction / Flood control / Climate change / Sanitation / Income / Financing / Economic aspects / Investment / Infrastructure / Law reform / Legal frameworks / Environmental sustainability / Nexus / Energy / Hydropower / Water supply / Irrigated farming / Irrigated sites / Irrigation systems / Institutional reform / Water extraction / Water quality / Water demand / Water balance / Water allocation / Water availability / Water productivity / Agricultural water use / Groundwater management / Water policy / Water governance / Water management / Water resources / Water security Record No:H049423
The Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) lacks a system for measuring canal inflows, storages, and outflows that is trusted by all parties, transparent, and accessible. An earlier attempt for telemetering flows in the IBIS did not deliver. There is now renewed interest in revisiting telemetry in Pakistan’s IBIS at both national and provincial scales. These investments are typically approached with an emphasis on hardware procurement contracts. This paper describes the experience from field installations of flow measurement instruments and communication technology to make the case that canal flows can be measured at high frequency and displayed remotely to the stakeholders with minimal loss of data and lag time between measurement and display. The authors advocate rolling out the telemetry system across IBIS as a data as a service (DaaS) contract rather than as a hardware procurement contract. This research addresses a key issue of how such a DaaS contract can assure data quality, which is often a concern with such contracts. The research findings inform future telemetry investment decisions in large-scale irrigation systems, particularly the IBIS.
Measuring instruments / Quality assurance / Data collection / Rivers / Irrigation canals / Sensors / Estimation / Flow discharge / Telemetry / Irrigation systems Record No:H049422
The apportionment of waters of the Indus River System between the provinces of Pakistan is widely hailed as a historic agreement. This agreement (herein referred to as the Accord) was signed into effect in 1991, just over 25 years ago. The Accord lacks a clearly stated objective and hence it is difficult to review the Accord against its objective. This paper presents a detailed thematic review of the Accord and interprets the literature and data sets that have become available over the last 25 years. Although the Accord leaves room for interpretation, which is often biased to a particular perspective, an obvious starting point that has been highlighted in the literature is to improve water accounting in the Indus basin and to clarify and document the Operating Rules. Over the next 25 years, demographic change, socioeconomic change, and climate change in the Indus Basin will place this Accord under increased scrutiny.
Monitoring / Infrastructure / Environmental flows / Water use / Water distribution / Water allocation / Water resources / Water accounting / Treaties / Agreements / Legislation Record No:H048816
This paper evaluates 30-year (2013–2042) projections of the selected climatic parameters in cotton/wheat agro-climatic zone of Pakistan. A statistical bias correction procedure was adopted to eliminate the systematic errors in output of three selected general circulationmodels (GCM) under A2 emission scenario. A transfer function was developed between the GCM outputs and the observed time series of the climatic parameters (base period: 1980–2004) and applied to GCM future projections. The predictions detected seasonal shifts in rainfall and increasing temperature trend which in combination can affect the crop water requirements (CWR) at different phonological stages of the two major crops (i.e. wheat and cotton). CROPWAT model is used to optimize the shifts in sowing dates as a climate change adaptation option. The results depict that with reference to the existing sowing patterns, early sowing of wheat and late sowing of cotton will favour decreased CWR of these crops.
Irrigation canals / Precipitation / Agriculture / Water supply / Water availability / Water requirements / Rain / Temperature / Emission / Wheats / Cotton industry / Farmland / Sowing date / Agroclimatic zones / Climate change Record No:H047487
Due to extensive groundwater development in the recent past, Pakistan now faces enormous challenges of groundwater management as it struggles to ensure food security for its rapidly growing population. These management challenges require a re-balancing of surface and groundwater monitoring objectives and approaches in the country. This article presents the current status of the groundwater monitoring and management in Pakistan. A compelling case is presented for optimization of material resources in improving groundwater level and quality data by proposing to use farmer organizations as a source of crowd sourced groundwater information. The authors showcase new methods to collect groundwater data and demonstrate use of automatic recording instruments for groundwater monitoring in a tertiary canal command area in the Pakistan’s Punjab. The results suggest that the potential for broader impact by engaging farmer organization and expanding monitoring networks is attractive. A common concern about long term deployment of automatic instruments is that the observation wells are not purged before extracting water quality samples. The authors address this concern through a field experiment by utilizing capabilities of automatic recording instruments.
Aquifers / Surveys / Salinity / Tube wells / Wells / Irrigation canals / Farmers organizations / Food security / Monitoring / Water table / Water quality / Water levels / Groundwater development / Groundwater management Record No:H048019
The paper presents a moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series imagery-based algorithm for detection and mapping of seasonal and annual changes in flood extent, and tests this using the flooding of the Indus River Basin in 2010 – one of the greatest recent disasters that affected more than 25 million people in Pakistan. The algorithm was applied to produce inundation maps for 10 annual flood seasons over the period from 2000 to 2011. The MODIS flood products were validated in comparison with advanced land observing system (ALOS) sensors, which have both advanced visible and near infrared radiometer and phased array type L-band synthetic images using the flood fraction comparison method. A simple threshold method is created to cluster the data to identify the flood pixels in the imagery. Calculations are then made to estimate a flood area for each resolution. A statistical study is performed to analyze false positive and false negative rates using the ALOS sensors as ‘ground truth’. Comparison of two flood products at a grid size of 10 km resulted in the coefficient of determination range of 0.72–0.97. This research points to a relevant spatial resolution that could be effectively used to obtain accurate mapped products of the extent of the inundated area. The approach can be used to quantify the damage caused by floods.
River basins / Rain / Spatial distribution / Mapping / Satellite imagery / Flooding / Disaster risk management / Natural disasters Record No:H047188
Here, more than 100 years of incumbency reports on officers of the irrigation bureaucracy of Punjab, Pakistan, are presented and analyzed. The data highlight how representation changed before and after partition within the irrigation bureaucracy. The data show that the irrigation bureaucracy increased through staffing its representation of local communities and is in its appointments responsive to elected representatives. Therefore, it is argued that empowerment of the local community can be achieved without irrigation management transfer but through the irrigation bureaucracy itself.
Water supply / Water distribution / Equity / Canals / Land ownership / Rural population / Local communities / Empowerment / Public administration / Civil service / Bureaucracy / Political aspects / Technology transfer / Irrigation management Record No:H047637
This review paper intends to portray current scenario of agricultural productivity through yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 48.06 tons per hectare, respectively against 6.80, 4.30, 5.20, 9.20 and 300 tons per hectare potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane, respectively, obtained through research. This reflects a yield gap of 67, 57, 45, 81 and 84 % between average and potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane, respectively. The review also informed that current Pakistan’s average yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 70, 53, 61, 82 and 60%, respectively lower than the average yields obtained internationally. Major constraints include agronomic, irrigation management, environmental, technological, institutional and socio-economic constraints. Future prospects include upscaling of modern technology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.
Drainage systems / Socioeconomic environment / Corporate culture / Technology assessment / Environmental effects / Irrigation management / Agronomic practices / Agricultural research / Sugarcane / Maize / Rice / Cotton / Wheat / Cropping systems / Crop yield / Seed production / Productivity / Agricultural production Record No:H047873
In the present study, MODFLOW-MT3D groundwater model was employed to perform numerical experimentation to develop design and operational parameters for skimming wells based on hydrogeology and groundwater salinity conditions of Chaj Doab, Punjab, Pakistan. Numerical experimentation resulted in: (i) a 1-strainer SW (Skimming Wells) with discharge of 14 l/s (litres per second) and penetration of 30% resulted in more saltwater upconing at 8 hours/day well operation compared to that occurred at 4 hours/day operation; (ii) a 1-strainer well with penetration of 30% and operation of 8 hours/day caused higher saltwater upconing at 14 l/s discharge compared to that at 9 l/s discharge; (iii) a 4-strainer well with penetration of 30% and operation of 8 hours/day also caused more saltwater upconing at 14 l/s well discharge compared to that at 9 l/s discharge. Similar trend was found for a 8-strainer well; and (iv) 1- or 4- or 8-strainer well with 30-60% penetration, 9-14 l/s discharge and 4-8 hours/day operation could provide pumped groundwater of salinity less than 1000 ppm. Considering hydro-chemical performance and costs of wells, a 4-strainer well with 30% penetration, 9-14 l/s discharge and 4-8 hours/day operation is recommended to skim groundwater of salinity less than 1000 ppm in Chaj Doab of Punjab, Pakistan.
The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.
Decision making / River basins / Monitoring / Water allocation / Water supply / Water resources / Watercourses / Water distribution / Water availability / Surface water / Equity / Irrigation systems Record No:H047518
Increasing the productivity of rice–wheat cropping systems is critical for meeting food demand in rapidly growing South Asia. But this must be done with increasingly scarce water resources, bringing greater attention to Resource Conservation Technologies (RCTs) such as zero tillage, laser land leveling and furrow bed planting. While the impacts of RCTs on yields are easy to measure and explain, impacts on water savings are not well understood beyond the field scale because of the complex movement of water. This paper uses both physical measurements and farmer survey data from the rice–wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan to explain the main drivers of RCT adoption and their impacts on land and water productivity and water savings across scales. The primary drivers for RCT adoption (zero tillage wheat and laser land leveling) were reduced costs of production and labor requirements, reduced field scale irrigation water application, and higher yield. While the large proportion of farmers benefiting from RCTs explains overall increases in RCT adoption, a considerable proportion (30% of zero tillage adopters for wheat cultivation) reported yield loss, highlighting the need for further technological refinement and enhancing farmers’ ability to implement RCT. The study also indicates that the field scale reduction in irrigation application did not always translate into real water savings or reductions in water use at farm, cropping system and catchment scales, especially in areas where deep percolation from the root zone could be reused as groundwater irrigation. Finally, the evidence shows that medium and large farmers tended to use the field scale irrigation savings to increase their cropped area. This finding suggests that without regulations and policies to regulate the use of “saved” water, adoption of RCTs can result in overall increased water use with implications for the long-term sustainability of irrigated agriculture.
Water balance / Water use / Groundwater irrigation / Tillage / Wheat / Rice / Cropping systems / Technology / Resource conservation / Water productivity / Water saving Record No:H046050
Evaluation techniques / Water availability / Water distribution / Watercourses / Training courses / Training programmes / Irrigation management / Irrigation canals / Irrigation systems / Farmers organizations / Capacity building Record No:H047533
It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies.
Salinity / Pumping / Groundwater / Canals / Surface water / Farmers / Irrigation water / Irrigation systems / Cost recovery / Economic aspects Record No:H046669
The Indus basin of Pakistan is vulnerable to climate change which would directly affect the livelihoods of poor people engaged in irrigated agriculture. The situation could be worse in middle and lower part of this basin which occupies 90% of the irrigated area. The objective of this research is to analyze the long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower parts of Indus basin of Pakistan. We used monthly data from 1971 to 2010 and applied non-parametric seasonal Kendal test for trend detection in combination with seasonal Kendall slope estimator to quantify the magnitude of trends. The meteorological parameters considered were mean maximum and mean minimum air temperature, and rainfall from 12 meteorological stations located in the study region. We examined the reliability and spatial integrity of data by mass-curve analysis and spatial correlation matrices, respectively. Analysis was performed for four seasons (spring—March to May, summer—June to August, fall—September to November and winter—December to February). The results show that max. temperature has an average increasing trend of magnitude +0.16, +0.03, 0.0 and +0.04 C/decade during all the four seasons, respectively. The average trend of min. temperature during the four seasons also increases with magnitude of +0.29, +0.12, +0.36 and +0.36 C/decade, respectively. Persistence of the increasing trend is more pronounced in the min. temperature as compared to the max. temperature on annual basis. Analysis of rainfall data has not shown any noteworthy trend during winter, fall and on annual basis. However during spring and summer season, the rainfall trends vary from -1.15 to +0.93 and -3.86 to +2.46 mm/decade, respectively. It is further revealed that rainfall trends during all seasons are statistically non-significant. Overall the study area is under a significant warming trend with no changes in rainfall.
Case studies / Parametric programming / Meteorological factors / River basins / Air temperature / Rain / Climate change Record No:H046663
Water for food security: challenges for Pakistan Author(s): Ringler, C.; Anwar, Arif A. Published year: 2013. Journal: Water International Pages: 38(5):505-514. (Special issue on quot;Water for food security: challenges for Pakistanquot; with contributions by IWMI authors)
Floods are one of the most common hazards in the world, affecting people’s lives and livelihoods. Flood hazard mapping and flood shelters suitability analysis are vital elements in appropriate land use planning for flood-prone areas. This paper describes application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in identifying flood hazard zones and flood shelters and are therefore important tools for planners and decision makers. The purpose of this article is to describe a simple and efficient methodology to accurately delineate flood inundated areas, flood-hazard areas, and suitable areas for flood shelter to minimize flood impacts. Possible extent of flooding and suitable location flood shelter sites were modeled and mapped for Sindh Province in Pakistan, using the software ArcGIS model builder. The output was validated using inundation maps based on flood events that took place in 2010 in Pakistan. These were mapped using object-based image analysis (OBIA) implemented in eCognition software. The catastrophic flood of 2010 inundated a total area of 7579 km2, while the modeled result indicated the hazard area to be 6216 km2 out of 46138 km2. Discrepancies in modeled and mapped results are insignificant and acceptable considering the manual flood management interventions which are beyond the capability of models to represent. Thus, this method is robust enough to develop flood hazard zoning maps and map shelter sites for flood management.
Mapping / Models / Image analysis / Case studies / Flood control / Natural disasters / Vegetation / GIS / Remote sensing Record No:H045720
Humanity is facing an enormous challenge in managing water to secure adequate food production. By the middle of this century, the world’s population is projected to reach 9.1 billion, 34 percent higher than today. Nearly all of this increase will occur in developing countries. In order to respond to the expected demand of this larger, more urban and, on average, richer population, food production must increase by about 70% as estimated by the FAO. It is an enormous task because the required increase in food production to meet future needs will have to be achieved with fewer land and water resources. Food insecurity in Pakistan is a product of poverty and inadequate food availability. During the past two decades, 1987-2007, food poverty incidence in the country shows that about one-third of the households were living below the food poverty line and they were not meeting their nutritional requirements. The incidence of food poverty is higher in rural areas (35%), than in urban areas (26%). In Pakistan, irrigated agriculture is vital for future food security because it produces more than 90% of the total grain production. With the decreasing amounts of available water, the challenge of sustaining irrigated agriculture is increasing by the day. This paper reviews the situation in Pakistan and suggests pathways to sustain irrigated agriculture in order to meet future food requirements.
Environmental effects / Poverty / Crop yield / Food production / Water productivity / Water resources / Food security / Irrigated farming Record No:H044918
Climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle and thus it will have significant implications on the regional scale water availability from a number of sources. An index based assessment of the present and future water availability was carried out in this research. The Agricultural Water Availability Index was developed for Rehna doab, Pakistan. The study area was divided in four irrigation circles and further in to a grid of 1000 x 1000 m. The present and future water availability from canal diversions, rainfall, groundwater with its quality consideration and stored soil moisture was assessed. The results revealed that water availability is higher in the eastern parts of the study area and following a general trend it reduces towards the west. The mean index value for the present scenario in the study area was determined as 0.30. It was further investigated that water availability is varying throughout the year. In UCC irrigation circle the Agricultural Water Availability Index varies from -0.17 to 0.28 the minimum value was observed in December and the maximum in August. The corresponding index values for LCC-East, LCC-West and Haveli circle were from -0.16 to 0.15, -0.15 to 0.15 and -0.18 to 0.07 respectively. The current cropping intensities in the four irrigation circles were 152, 113, 115 and 114 percent respectively.An increase rainfall distribution and canal diversions were bserved in all future scenarios. Moreover the future rainfall was observed to have more fluctuation throughout the year. In comparison with the present situation it was noted that under future scenarios the spring season water availability would increase. The overall index value for UCC, LCC-East, LCC West and Haveli circle varies from - 0.21 to 0.65, -0.23 to 0.44, -0.25 to 0.41 and -0.27 to 0.29 respectively. This shows that the present trend of water availability across the circles is also observed in the future scenarios. Moreover the minimum and maximum extremes were observed to be more severe with August being the wettest and November being the driest months. More fluctuation in water availability was observed in Haveli circle, which means that comparatively more arid area are more vulnerable to climate change. This was evident from the spring water availability in Haveli circle where the range if index was from -0.02 to 0.14 for A2T2 and B2T2 scenarios respectively. The extreme water shortages for future scenarios in the months of May and November pose a serious threat to the major crop in the study area. Based on the results it was found that there was a shortage of water at the critical time of sowing of wheat, cotton and sweet pea therefore suitable climate change adaptation options were forwarded to cope with these shortages. It was suggested to adapt water conservation technologies during the sowing period of these crops as it saves time and conserve stored soil moisture for the development of crops.The overall results of this study can be used for making
Adaptation / Calibration / Models / River basins / Irrigation water / Water quality / Soil moisture / Water supply / Surface water / Water resources / Drought / Water scarcity / Cropping systems / Irrigation systems / Aquifers / Runoff / Rain / Hydrological cycle / Climate change / Indicators / Water availability Record No:H045467
The Indus River basin supplies water to the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, providing water for 90% of the food production in Pakistan, which contributes 25% of the country’s gross domestic product. But Pakistan could face severe food shortages intimately linked to water scarcity. It is projected that, by 2025, the shortfall of water requirements will be ,32%, which will result in a food shortage of 70 million tons. Recent estimates suggest that climate change and siltation of main reservoirs will reduce the surface water storage capacity by 30% by 2025. The per capita water storage capacity in Pakistan is only 150 m3, compared with more than 5000 m3 in the United States and Australia and 2200 m3 in China. This reduction in surface supplies and consequent decreases in groundwater abstraction will have a serious effect on irrigated agriculture. Supply-side solutions aimed at providing more water will not be available as in the past. Current low productivity in comparison with what has been achieved in other countries under virtually similar conditions points to the enormous potential that exists. To harness this potential, Pakistan needs to invest soon in increasing storage capacity, improving water-use efficiency, and managing surface-water and groundwater resources in a sustainable way to avoid problems of soil salinization and waterlogging. Building capacity between individuals and organizations, and strengthening institutions are key elements for sustaining irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin.
Economic aspects / International waters / Climate change / Water supply / Water demand / Water storage / Irrigation systems / River basins / Waterlogging / Soil salinity / Irrigated farming / Food security / Water management Record No:H044311
This case study from Chakera village, Faisalabad City, Pakistan describes the transition from canal-water irrigation to wastewater irrigation over a period of several decades. It shows that while the initial motivation for wastewater use was water scarcity and a lack of choice, farmers soon realized there were benefits associated with this alternative water supply. In the subsequent decades, they made great efforts and overcame organizational, infrastructural and legal obstacles to establish wastewater irrigation as the only irrigation on most of the village’s agricultural area.
Agricultural land / Canals / Case studies / Periurban areas / Sanitation / Wastewater irrigation / Wastewater treatment / Water stress / Water scarcity / Water reuse Record No:H044200
Climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle and thus it will have significant implications on the regional scale water availability from a number of sources. An index based assessment of the present and future water availability was carried out in this research. The Agricultural Water Availability Index was developed for Rechna doab, Pakistan. The study area was divided in four irrigation circles and further in to a grid of 1000 x 1000 m. The present and future water availability from canal diversions, rainfall, groundwater with its quality consideration and stored soil moisture was assessed. The results revealed that water availability is higher in the eastern parts of the study area and following a general trend it reduces towards the west. The mean index value for the present scenario in the study area was determined as 0.30. It was further investigated that water availability is varying throughout the year. In UCC irrigation circle the Agricultural Water Availability Index varies from -0.17 to 0.28 the minimum value was observed in December and the maximum in August. The corresponding index values for LCC-East, LCC-West and Haveli circle were from -0.16 to 0.15, -0.15 to 0.15 and -0.18 to 0.07 respectively. The current cropping intensities in the four irrigation circles were 152, 113, 115 and 114 percent respectively.
An increase rainfall distribution and canal diversions were observed in all future scenarios. Moreover the future rainfall was observed to have more fluctuation throughout the year. In comparison with the present situation it was noted that under future scenarios the spring season water availability would increase. The overall index value for UCC, LCC-East, LCC West and Haveli circle varies from -0.21 to 0.65, -0.23 to 0.44, -0.25 to 0.41 and -0.27 to 0.29 respectively. This shows that the present trend of water availability across the circles is also observed in the future scenarios. Moreover the minimum and maximum extremes were observed to be more severe with August being the wettest and November being the driest months. More fluctuation in water availability was observed in Haveli circle, which means that comparatively more arid area are more vulnerable to climate change. This was evident from the spring water availability in Haveli circle where the range if index was from -0.02 to 0.14 for A2T2 and B2T2 scenarios respectively. The extreme water shortages for future scenarios in the months of May and November pose a serious threat to the major crop in the study area. Based on the results it was found that there was a shortage of water at the critical time of sowing of wheat, cotton and sweet pea therefore suitable climate change adaptation options were forwarded to cope with these shortages. It was suggested to adapt water conservation technologies during the sowing period of these crops as it saves time and conserve stored soil moisture for the development of crops.
The overall results of this study can be used for
Models / Groundwater / Soil moisture / Indicators / Water quality / Water scarcity / Cropping systems / Irrigation water / Irrigation systems / Aquifers / Runoff / Rain / Climate change / Water availability / Agriculture Record No:H044363
Raw sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in urban areas of developing countries to meet water shortages. Although it is a good source of plant nutrients, such sewage also increases the heavy metal load to soils, which may impact the food chain. Management options for sewage contaminated soils includes addition of nontoxic compounds such as lime, calcium sulfate and organic matter, which form insoluble metal complexes, thus reducing metal phytoavailability to plants. In this paper we review the variation in irrigation quality of sewage at different sites and its impact on the quality of soils and vegetables. Although quality of sewage was highly variable at source, yet the effluent from food industries was relatively safe for irrigation. In comparison effluent samples collected from textile, dyeing, calendaring, steel industry, hospitals and clinical laboratories, foundries and tanneries were hazardous with respect to soluble salts, sodium adsorption ratio and heavy metals like zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt and cadmium. The sewage quality in main drains was better than that at the industry outlet, but was still not safe for irrigation. In general, higher accumulation of metals in fruits and vegetable roots was recorded compared to that in plant leaves. Edible parts of vegetables (fruits and/or leaves) accumulated metals more than the permissible limits despite the soils contained ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable metals within a safe range. In either case further scientific investigations are needed to ensure safe management strategies. Cadmium appeared to be the most threatening metal especially in leafy vegetables. It is advisable to avoid leafy vegetables cultivation in sewage irrigated areas everywhere to restrict its entry into food chain.
Wastewater irrigation / Vegetable growing / Soil properties / Sewage / Water quality / Health hazards / Heavy metals Record No:H042869
In Pakistan, on-demand availability of groundwater has transformed the concept of low and uncertain crop yields into more assured crop production. Increased crop yields has resulted in food security and improved rural livelihoods. However, this growth has also led to problems of overdraft, falling water tables and degradation of groundwater quality, and yields generally remain well below potential levels. Over the last three decades, Pakistan has tried several direct and indirect management strategies for groundwater management. However the success has been limited. This paper argues that techno-institutional approaches such as introducing water rights, direct or indirect pricing and permit systems are fraught with difficulties in Pakistan due to its high population density and multitude of tiny users. Therefore there is a need to develop frameworks and management tools that are best suited to Pakistani needs. Pakistan should follow both supply and demand management approaches. For demand management, adoption of water conservation technologies, revision of existing cropping patterns and exploration of alternate water resources should be encouraged. For supply management, implementation of the groundwater regulatory frameworks developed by Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authorities (PIDAs) and introduction of institutional reforms to enhance effective coordination between different organizations responsible for the management of groundwater resources should be given priority.
Groundwater development / Groundwater management Record No:H042529
Water scarcity is one of the most pressing problems for many arid and semi-arid regions. With regard to the need for a more efficient and sustainable use of the existing freshwater resources, one main focus should be on agriculture with its share of 80-90% of the global water consumption (UNEP and GEC 2004). The Indus Basin Irrigation System in Pakistan is the largest irrigation system in the world and the backbone of the country’s economy (ALAM et al. 2007). However, because of an increasing demand for irrigation water and a lack of maintenance of irrigation infrastructure resulting in water losses, many farmers can no longer satisfy their irrigation water requirements with canal water. Beside the use of groundwater, another coping strategy is the use of wastewater for irrigation. This practice is not confined to Pakistan: worldwide, an estimated 200 million farmers irrigate 20 million hectares of land with wastewater (Raschid-Sally and Jayakody 2008). Among scientists and decision makers, a negative perception of wastewater irrigation prevails (CARR et al. 2004). Beside concerns about negative impacts on health and environment, various scholars have stated that wastewater irrigated agriculture might not be sustainable in the long term (PESCOD 1992, CHANG et al. 2002, ENSINK 2006). This study, which was part of a larger research project on wastewater irrigation (AMERASINGHE et al. 2009, WECKENBROCK et al. 2009), focuses on one aspect of agricultural sustainability: economic longterm impacts of wastewater irrigation in a periurban area of Faisalabad, Pakistan. In terms of inputs, the costs of irrigation water for groundwater and wastewater users are compared. In terms of outputs, the comparison is between the economic outputs of agriculture per area of the two groups.
Wastewater irrigation / Water costs / Groundwater irrigation Record No:H043435
Waterlogging and salinity have plagued irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin for the past 30–40 years. Approximately 6 million ha (35–40% of total irrigated area) experience these twin problems. As a result, the production potential of the Indus Basin has been reduced by 25%. Over the last 40 years, the Government of Pakistan has adopted engineering, reclamation, and biological measures to address these problems. Part of the engineering solution involved large-scale Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs) in all four provinces. The program covered 8 million ha and cost approximately US$2 billion. Two big disposal projects were also initiated to solve the drainage disposal problems. To address the saline soil problem, some of the measures tested include leaching of salts by excess irrigation, use of chemicals (such as gypsum and acids), and addition of organic matter and biological measures (such as salt-tolerant plants, grasses, and shrubs). The success of these initiatives has been limited: 35–40% of irrigated land still suffers from high water tables and moderate to severe salinity. Lack of coordination among federal and provincial governments, research institutes, and national and international organizations; conventional farming and irrigation methods used by farmers; limited attention to reclamation and saline agricultural approaches; and lack of resources are some of the reasons for the low success rate. A more concerted effort that includes a greater focus on saline agriculture, capacity building of farmers, and promotion of local interventions to improve self-reliance is necessary for the management of salinity in the Indus Basin. A sustainable solution would also require coordination among different provinces and strengthening of federal and provincial government agencies.
Drainage / Water quality / Groundwater recharge / Irrigation programs / Tube wells / Effluents / Water table / Fodder / Grasses / Biological control / Soil reclamation / Sodic soils / Soil salinity / Canals / Irrigated farming / Salinity control / River basin management Record No:H042213
Canals / Surface water / Groundwater / Equity / Water use / Performance indexes / Remote sensing / Evapotranspiration / Water availability / Water productivity / Irrigation systems / Irrigation programs Record No:H041854
The smallholder irrigators of Pakistan have been under squeeze due to rising energy costs, as they depend heavily on pump and tractor owners for irrigation water and agricultural operations. The recent trends of perpetual increase in the energy prices in general, and diesel prices in particular, have resulted into soaring operational costs of agricultural machinery, causing the pumps and tractor rentals to rise because of monopoly of pump owners in the informal village markets. This paper aims at bringing forth the impacts of successive diesel price increase on irrigation economy of smallholders, and their coping strategies to absorb the energy shocks and sustain their livelihoods. Based on a synthesis of qualitative assessment from 9 village level case studies carried out in NWFP, Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan, where diesel and electric pumps are essential for sustaining irrigated agriculture, the paper confirms that the recent hike in diesel prices have proven to be the proverbial last straw on camel’s back for the livelihoods of small farmers and tenants. While some landless tenants had quitted agriculture as a profession due in part to soaring diesel prices, the major coping strategies of the survivors were [a] switching the power source; [b] high input – high profit strategy; c) water conservation strategy; and d) agriculture exodus strategy. The paper also suggests areas for policy intervention and further research.
Policy / Economic aspects / Water conservation / Villages / Wells / Operating costs / Pumps / Costs / Diesel oil / Energy / Groundwater irrigation Record No:H041394
Waterlogging and salinization are major impediment to the sustainability of irrigated lands and livelihoods of the farmers, especially the smallholders, in the affected areas of the Indus Basin. These problems are the result of a multitude of factors, including seepage from unlined earthen canals system, inadequate provision of surface and subsurface drainage, poor water management practices, insufficient water supplies and use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation. About 6.3 million ha are affected by different levels and types of salinity, out of which nearly half are under irrigated agriculture. Since the early 1960s, several efforts have been made to improve the management of salt-affected and waterlogged soils. These include lowering groundwater levels through deep tubewells, leaching of salts by excess irrigation, application of chemical amendments (e.g. gypsum, acids, organic matter), and the use of biological and physical methods. However, in spite of huge investments, the results have in general been disappointing and the problems of waterlogging and salinity persist. This paper reviews sources, causes and extent of salinity and waterlogging problems in the Indus Basin. Measures taken to overcome these problems over the last four decades are also discussed. The results reveal that the installed drainage systems were initially successful in lowering groundwater table and reducing salinity in affected areas. However, poor operation and maintenance of these systems and provision of inadequate facilities for the disposal of saline drainage effluent resulted in limited overall success. The paper suggests that to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin, technical and financial support is needed and enhanced institutional arrangements including coordination among different federal and provincial government agencies to resolve inter-provincial water allocation and water related issues is required.
Irrigated farming / Tube wells / Recharge / Groundwater / Canals / Drainage / Waterlogging / Salinity control / River basins Record No:H040511
This study uses both farmer surveys and physical measurements to understand the impact RCTs have had on water use and water savings in the irrigated Rice-Wheat Zone of Pakistanapos;s Punjab province. The findings show that field scale water savings achieved from RCTs is not necessarily equivalent to water savings at broader scales and may even result in an increase in overall water depletion.
Zero tillage / Groundwater irrigation / Canals / Water scarcity / Wheat / Rice / Water conservation Record No:H039765
ThisThis report discusses the nature and causes of secondary salinization, reviews strategies developed and tested within IBIS to mitigate salinization, and identifies areas requiring further investigation.
Sodic soils / Drainage / Irrigation practices / Water quality / Irrigation management / River basins / Water table / Salinity control Record No:H039136
The risk of Giardia duodenalis (Giardia) infection in farmers using untreated wastewater in agriculture was investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, through a cross-sectional study. The study found a significantly increased risk of (asymptomatic) Giardia infection in wastewater farming households when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.4). Textile labourers who were employed in the city of Faisalabad but who lived in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a risk of Giardia infection in between that of wastewater and non-wastewater farming households (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1). This study suggests that exposure to wastewater with high Giardia concentrations carries an increased risk for (asymptomatic) Giardia infection.
Irrigation water / Public health / Diseases / Farmers / Risks / Wastewater Record No:H038183
History / Water resources development / Irrigation management / Costs / Maintenance / Operations / Water user associations / Participatory management / Water policy / Development aid / Water resource management / Institutional development Record No:H038174
The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3,132 water samples from WSP and irrigated areas yielded 606,053 Culex larvae of Þve species. In addition, 107,113 anophelines, representing eight species were collected. Anopheles subpictus (Grassi) and Culex mosquitoes, especially Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles), showed an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) were the dominant Anopheles species in wastewaterirrigated sites, with Anopheles culicifacies (Giles) recorded in low numbers. This was also the pattern in nearby sites, irrigated with river water. Among the Culex species, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was by far the most frequently recorded in both wastewater- and river water-irrigated sites with Cx. quinquefasciatus as the second most abundant species but restricted to wastewater-irrigated areas. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that presence of An. subpictus and Culex mosquitoes was signiÞcantly associated with emergent grass vegetation and low salinity. Regular removal of emergent grass along the margins of the anaerobic ponds and changes in the concrete design of the ponds are likely to reduce the mosquito production, especially of Culex species.
Water quality / Anopheles / Culex / Mosquitoes / Public health / Vectorborne diseases / Ponds / Waste treatment / Wastewater irrigation Record No:H044368
River basins / Land use / Coastal area / Cyclones / Flooding / Drought / Temperature / Rain / Surface drainage / Soil salinization / Waterlogging / Saline water / Water demand / Tube wells / Water availability / Water storage / Water quality / Groundwater table / Rural economy / Water use / Irrigated farming / Surface water / Water management / Water resources development / Climate change Record No:H047180
Over-exploitation of groundwater resources threatens the future of irrigated agriculture, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In order to reverse this trend, and to ensure future food security, the achievement of sustainable groundwater use is ranking high on the agenda of water policy makers. Spatio-temporally distributed information on net groundwater use— i.e. the difference between tubewell withdrawals for irrigation and net recharge—is often unknown at the river basin scale. Conventionally, groundwater use is estimated from tubewell inventories or phreatic surface fluctuations. There are shortcomings related to the application of these approaches. An alternative methodology for computing the various water balance components of the unsaturated zone by using geo-information techniques is provided in this paper. With this approach, groundwater recharge will not be quantified explicitly, but is part of net groundwater use, and the spatial variation can be quantitatively described. Records of routine climatic data, canal discharges at major offtakes, phreatic surface depth fluctuations, and simplified information on soil textural properties are required as input data into this new Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing tool. The Rechna Doab region (approximately 2.97 million ha), located in the Indus basin irrigation system of Pakistan, has been used as a case study. On an annual basis, an areal average net groundwater use of 82 mm year1 was estimated. The current result deviates 65% from the specific yield method. The deviation from estimates using tubewell withdrawal related data is even higher.
Sustainability / Irrigation management / Recharge / Water use / Water balance / GIS / Remote sensing / Estimation / Groundwater management Record No:H036136
Agricultural income occupies significant share of rural households’ income. Only ample and reliable supplies of surface irrigation water can guarantee its improvement. As poverty is inversely correlated with improvement in incomes, provided other factors remain the same, the policy makers can use irrigation as a tool in poverty reduction programs. The inequity in surface water distribution not only affects the rural households across different irrigations but also influences the distribution of income and poverty situation in different reaches of each irrigation system. Since long, it is asserted that households in the tail reach areas have relatively poor access to irrigation water as compared to those situated in the head and middle reach areas. It is evident that more distance from irrigation source brings more households in the poverty trap are located at the tail reach area. Here, the intensity of poverty would be higher than in the head and middle reach areas. This paper tests this hypothesis with results showing that poverty increases in the tail reach areas as compared to head and middle reach areas. This calls for the need to address current hurdles exercising equity and reliability in irrigation supplies in order to provide this vital input for increasing agricultural productivity of the tail end farm households.
Households / Irrigation systems / Irrigation canals / Indicators / Poverty Record No:H043759
The phenomenon of poverty is receiving the increasing attention of policy makers and institutions with an attempt to improve the living standards of the third world countries. Pakistan is no exemption to that. As the majority of third world population is concentrated in rural areas and dependent on agriculture sector for income, it becomes of special interest to dig into the root causes of poverty in these areas. A number of studies have shown that poverty is concentrated in the rural areas of Pakistan. However, a wide variation in estimates of poverty was experienced owing to various approaches and different poverty lines used by the researchers in estimating the incidence, depth, and severity of poverty. Recently, the Government of Pakistan addressed this issue by circulating the official poverty line. Poverty being a complex phenomenon, its determinants vary from time to time and across different areas. However, most of the studies indicate that poverty in Pakistan is concentrated in rural areas of Pakistan. Applying dollar a day poverty line shows that the poverty in Pakistan is higher as compared with many other Asian countries.
Income / Indicators / Rural poverty Record No:H043757
More than 12 million people added to the poor in Pakistan between 1993 and 1999. The rising poverty was the result of poor governance and slow economic growth (Asian Development Bank 2002). All available evidence on poverty trends in Pakistan suggests that the problem of poverty in the country worsened during the 1990s, and this was more so in rural areas than in urban areas. Rural economy of the country is caught up in a vicious circle of problems – rapidly increasing population resulting in decreasing per capita resource base, low literacy level, continued high level of inequity in resource distribution, slow growth in both farm and non-farm sectors, and more importantly, continued poor governance. All these factors adversely affected the efforts to reduce poverty. Agricultural economy, which forms the backbone of broader rural economy of the country, is presently facing three major inter-related problems: (1) increasing water scarcity coupled with continued poor performance of irrigation systems, (2) increasing degradation of land and water resources, and (3) farmers’ poor access to other key production inputs and services – all resulting in actual agricultural productivity levels continuing to be much below the achievable potential levels. Enhancing agricultural productivity through removing these constraints, especially for small farms, is one of the keys to address the problem of food and income poverty. This paper provides an overview of poverty trends in Pakistan. It highlights fundamental issues related to rural poverty and offers key approaches to enhancing agricultural productivity for food security and poverty alleviation in rural Pakistan.
Land ownership / Households / Productivity / Farmers / Indicators / Rural poverty Record No:H043756
Case studies / Drought / Water user associations / Water policy / Water quality / Water distribution / Water allocation / Environmental degradation / Water rights / Privatization / Irrigation management Record No:H036251
Due to inadequate rainfall, groundwater has acquired a vital role in the development of Pakistanapos;s agricultural economy. However, a lack of awareness concerning the use of groundwater, either by itself or combined with canal water, has added large amounts of salt to the soil. As a result, large tracts of irrigated lands are already salinized, while many others are under threat. This report presents the results of a modeling study carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of a different quality of irrigation water on root zone salinity. The simulations were performed for the Rechna Doab (sub basin of the Indus Basin) in Pakistan, by using 15 years of actual rainfall and climatic data.
Case studies / Water requirements / Water quality / Salinity / Crop production / Soil moisture / Calibration / Simulation models / Soil-water-plant relationships / Conjunctive use / Groundwater / Surface water Record No:H036138
The Pakistani Punjab experienced several devastating malaria epidemics during the twentieth century. Since the 1980s, however, malaria has been at a low ebb, while in other areas of Pakistan and neighbouring India malaria is on the increase. This raises the question of whether transmission in the Pakistani Punjab may have been in uenced by a change in vector species abundance or composition, possibly induced by environmental changes. To investigate this question, routinely-collected government entomological data for the period 1970 to 1999 for the district of Bahawalnagar, in the Indus Basin irrigation system in the southern Punjab, was analysed. Our ndings suggest that Anopheles stephensi has increased in prevalence and became more common than A. culicifacies during the 1980s. This shift in species dominance may be due to the large-scale ecological changes that have taken place in the Punjab, where irrigation-induced waterlogging of soil with related salinization has created an environment favourable for the more salt-tolerant A. stephensi. Some biotypes of A. stephensi are suspected of being less ef cient vectors and, therefore, the shift in species dominance might have played a role in the reduced transmission in the Punjab, although further research is needed to investigate the effect of other transmission-in uencing factors.
The case studies reported here highlight important concepts and information on the linkages between water and poverty that may not be available elsewhere. The overall objective of the studies is to draw generic lessons and identify interventions that can help policy makers, planners and other stakeholders to develop actions that are effective in water resources management for the poor. All case studies focus on poor in South Asia, but all with differing geographic contexts or thematic focci. The first two papers are based on field surveys supplemented by literature reviews. The first focusses on the impact of water on poverty in a mountainous region in Nepal, while the second focusses on the impact of drought on water availability, and hence poverty, in a district in Pakistanapos;s Baluchistan province. The final two papers both took Sri Lanka as their area of study. The first Sri Lanka paper explores the linkages between water, health and poverty and presents a conceptual framework which was used to analyze the results of previous studies. Sri Lankaapos;s dry zone is the geographic focus of the second paper, which focusses primarily on the linkages between irrigation and poverty.
Agricultural development / Environmental sustainability / Domestic water / Wells / Households / Women / Case studies / Drought / Soil degradation / Public health / Disease vectors / Waterborne diseases / Food security / Sanitation / Population / Irrigation water / Water potential / Hydroelectric schemes / Poverty / Water harvesting / Water resource management Record No:H034914
The management of water resources is being challenging day-by-day due to the growing demand of water. Therefore, attention has been diverted towards better management of resources and the role of community. The issue has become more severe for the developing countries, especially in the brackish water zone, the southern Punjab of Pakistan is one of such areas, where people rely completely on surface water for multiple purposes (irrigation, domestic and livestock uses). The reliance of the community on limited water resources for various purposes increases as well as the extensive demand and competition for getting access to and control over water resources. As the rural communities have been divided into different sects based on class, caste and gender, the powerful and influential people get more benefits of the resources, while the women and poor people in general are marginalized. Considering this situation, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has worked to enhance the role of community, especially the women, since they are using and managing water, particularly for domestic purposes and livestock. The objective was to manage water by maximizing the active participation of women at all levels after assessing their needs and roles to solve water problems locally and effectively. Nevertheless, lack of experience among the community for organizing collective actions was found as a major constraint for the resource management. Earlier efforts in Pakistan towards collective actions in cooperatives had resulted from complete to partial failure. The reason for this has been that only powerful and influential people dominated the organization and that the poor and medium farmers were not represented. The main cause of failure was the badly organized social mobilization process. At the same time, women were kept out of all such participatory projects. The main reasons found by IWMI and Gender Poverty and Water (GPamp;W) team were their restricted mobility, concept of Purdah (veiling), and dependency on male decisions that made it hard to establish women’s organization for water resource management. Therefore, a well-structured social mobilization methodology was adopted to create the awareness among the community members for their involvement in the resource management. The significance and relevance of community’s participation for resource management and needs of women’s role and contributions is the mainstay of this paper. The village 54/4R in the command area of Hakra 4R distributary in the southern Punjab Pakistan was taken as a case study to analyze whether a well-structured social mobilization approach can help the village community to set up a women organization. Women were organized with the help of male organization at this additional settlement and males played their role as allies of women. The analysis shows that carefully selected leaders representing all social groups in the community, promotion of collective thinking for res
Villages / Water supply / Community development / Gender / Leadership / Organizational development / Irrigated farming / Irrigation canals / Households / Women in development / Water resource management Record No:H033016
A nationwide assessment in Pakistan showed that the direct use of untreated wastewater for agriculture, particularly vegetable production, was common in most cities. The main reasons for this use were the absence of alternative water sources, the reliability of the wastewater supply, the nutrient value and the proximity to urban markets. It was estimated that 26% of the total domestic vegetable production of Pakistan was cultivated with wastewater. The importance of the wastewater was reflected in high water and land fees. Policy makers have to take the importance for local livelihoods and food security into account when making decisions regarding direct wastewater use
Risks / Public health / Food security / Wastewater / Vegetables / Assessment / Irrigated farming Record No:H035380
At IWMI, researching underlying economic and social trends helps us understand why people migrate. They also explain the impact of remittances and loss of agricultural labor, as well as consequences of migration on gender roles and food and water security. For instance, communities with higher levels of income inequality, or relative deprivation, may experience greater levels of out-migration compared to consistently low-income communities. In addition, migration changes intra-household gender-labor composition, which can change the access of smallholders to water resources, affecting the functioning of community-based institutions and consequently household and local food security. IWMI also focuses on circular economy, a strategy to recover and reuse waste, to boost food security and understand how interventions can encourage refugee and host communities to retain scarce resources.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Urban & rural transformation
As agricultural opportunities fluctuate in rural areas, migration, particularly to urban areas, is an adaptation technique to secure incomes and alternative livelihoods. Income generated by migrants is often sent back to family as remittances to support communities at home. At IWMI, we assess linkages between rural and urban areas, as well as the role of agricultural knowledge systems and food and water security. We recognize there are complex push and pull factors such as individual aspirations, economic opportunity, social norms, climate variability and government policies which drive migration and affect rural communities, particularly youth. Our work follows a ‘positive migration’ philosophy, framing migration as an adaptation technique and socio-economic choice (in many cases) rather than a problem to be solved, and focuses on establishing safer, more regular migration by supporting changes to migration governance in sending regions.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Covid-19 disruption & adaptation
Covid-19 has caused a rupture in migration logistics and exposed inequities in the migration system, yet drivers of movement remain. Government lockdowns and closed borders due to the pandemic curtailed movement for migrants, posing complex problems for migrant hosting and origin countries. There have been significant economic shocks, with a sharp decline in unemployment for migrants and an inability to send money home through remittances to support family. Some migrants face social stigma for returning home without an income, particularly if families relied on loans to support their journeys. Consequences have been severe for informal migrants who lack government protection in their host countries. Migrants, particularly those living in crowded, lower-income neighborhoods, have been experiencing stigmatization related to the spread of Covid-19. We look at the impacts of Covid-19 on migration governance and rural areas across seven countries,development planning in Ghana, migration challenges in Southeast Asia, and community-based disaster management and resilience building in South Africa.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Water, climate change and agrarian stress
Migration, water and climate stress are inextricably linked to rural development. Water stress and climate variability can act as a driver of fragility, intensifying pre-existing political, social, economic and environmental challenges. Initiatives designed to address migration-related challenges must tackle inequalities and the exclusion of women, youth and marginalized groups; governance opportunities to better manage water and natural resources and technology and innovations to help communities escape socio-ecological precarity and thrive despite climate challenges. IWMI intends to build climate resilience by implementing projects which tackle gender-power inequalities in the face of dynamic, economic-social-ecological challenges. Our work brings together affected communities, institutional stakeholders and social actors to manage water in response to climate variability and agrarian stress, striving to address complex physical and social variables.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender, intersectionality and social inclusion
It is critical to center gender and intersectional identities when unpacking migration phenomena. Gender as a social construct guides social norms and relations, including the decision-making processes and mechanisms leading to migration. We recognize that the intersections between race, age, class, sex, caste and region shape the migrant experience.
IWMI strives to offer transformative approaches and solutions for women, youth and marginalized groups, regarding them as equal partners in our work rather than passive end-users. For example, within communities that experience male out migration, socio-political systems are restructured to make women, youth and other groups active agents in their own agri-food transformation. Migration patterns contribute to the feminization of agriculture, and women may experience a greater burden of responsibility coupled with an increased ability to access and control resources and policies to build sustainable livelihoods. Acknowledging social complexities helps researchers and communities understand migration trends and address structural power imbalances to build a more equitable world.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Farmer-led irrigation development is about much more than installing a pump in a field. It requires access to financing, labor, energy, and input and output markets, so that investments in irrigation translate into sustainable returns. IWMI uses a systemic approach to understand the farming system as well as the factors in the enabling environment that prevent women, men and youth from engaging in and benefitting equitably from farmer-led irrigation. We partner with farmers and the public and private sectors to test contextually relevant innovation bundles that combine irrigation technology such as solar pumps with financing mechanisms like pay-as-you-own or pay-as-you-go, agricultural inputs and agronomic techniques. We also look at ways to improve on-farm water management and nutrient use efficiency and reduce evapotranspiration through digital advances and agricultural extension. We integrate the scaling of innovation bundles into agricultural value chains to enhance the impacts on farmers’ irrigation investments, incomes and livelihoods.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Gender and social inclusion
The barriers facing women and men in accessing irrigation technologies are not the same. Neither are the benefits. Social, cultural and religious norms influence inter- and intra-household power relations. These, in turn, affect access to resources such as land, credit, information and training. IWMI carries out cross-dimensional analysis of gender and social inclusion in policy, financing, livelihood assets and access, institutional approaches and interventions as well as gender-based technology preferences. For example, we work with farmers, financial institutions and the private sector to address gender-based constraints in credit scoring and enhance women’s purchasing power. But benefitting from farmer-led irrigation does not stop at accessing and adopting technologies; enabling women and resource-poor farmers to participate in input and output markets is equally important to ensure that investments in irrigation result in improved nutrition and economic empowerment. Other ways we enhance gender and social inclusion include tackling agency issues around financial management and literacy, livelihood diversity and social capital as well as access to infrastructure, extension services and market linkages.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Population pressure and increasing water competition in a changing climate require us to take stock of the availability and use of water across scales. Water availability not only influences farmers’ commercial prospects but also irrigation-related enterprises and agri-businesses. Greater water scarcity could jeopardize irrigation and agricultural markets while excessive water use can lead to declining ecosystems, water quality and soil health. IWMI advises development partners and the public and private sectors on all aspects of water resource availability and use through a variety of advanced modeling and remote-sensing products and tools, including Water Accounting+, solar irrigation mapping and internet of things. These are complemented by multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the potential of irrigation expansion, taking into consideration environmental flows. With our private sector partners, we are leveraging converging technologies, such as sensors on solar pumps that capture usage data, to encourage better resource management and governance.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
Adaptive scaling and partnerships
The ability of farmers to engage in or expand irrigation depends on the prevailing socioeconomic, ecological and political contexts, which are often complex, non-linear and changeable. Overcoming systemic barriers to farmer-led irrigation development while taking advantage of existing opportunities requires scaling processes to be adaptive. This means diverse actors feed off, adapt to, support, cooperate, compete and interact with each other, forming different multi-actor networks and engaging in collective action to undertake various functions in the scaling ecosystem. IWMI works with farmers and public and private sector partners to co-design and pilot contextually relevant innovation bundles and their scaling pathways or strategies, influence policies and accelerate the transition to scale of innovations with demonstrated early impact.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
A lack of affordable credit, particularly for women and resource-poor farmers, is one of the main barriers to expanding farmer-led irrigation in low- and middle-income countries. But credit alone is not enough. Financing for irrigation equipment must be embedded in a wider financing ecosystem that bundles credit with inputs and services, market information and access, and technology such as digital payment. In several countries, irrigation equipment suppliers are stepping in to provide financing directly to farmers. In doing so, they increase their own risk. To address this issue, IWMI works with farmers, private companies, finance institutions and development partners such as the World Bank Group to analyze whether credit-scoring tools are inclusive. We also help to identify gaps in the financing ecosystem and de-risk the private sector from testing innovative end-user financing mechanisms that take into account farming system typologies, financial and social capital and crop seasonality.
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas:
This focus area contributes to the following One CGIAR impact areas: