This report investigates best practices in food sustainability across the world. It uses the three pillars—sustainable agriculture, nutritional challenges, and food loss and waste—of the Food Sustainability Index (FSI) as a framework. Now in its third iteration, the FSI has been extended to 67 countries in 2018.

Changes to farming systems do not always come without trade-offs. For example, solar power can transform livelihoods for smallholder farmers by providing free electricity, which enables them to tap into groundwater for irrigation. “There’s been a huge expansion in solar irrigation, especially in India,” says Sri Lanka-based Soumya Balasubramanya, senior researcher in environmental and development economics at the International Water Management Institute. “But there’s a trade-off. In the longer term, you’re going to have a problem of groundwater depletion.”

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