15 November 2018: The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has published research results showing that water permit systems in Africa are criminalizing small farmers who are unable to obtain permits, thus limiting agricultural production and economic growth.

The study covers five African countries: Malawi, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The permit systems, introduced in colonial times, favored white settlers rather than the native populations, and since independence have continued to favor large-scale irrigated farms, mines and industries.

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