Reuse of Wastewater for Agriculture

The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture
14 November 2002, Hyderabad, India

  1. Rapid urbanization places immense pressure on the world's fragile and dwindling fresh water resources and over-burdened sanitation systems, leading to environmental degradation. We as water, health, environment, agriculture, and aquaculture researchers and practitioners from 27 international and national institutions, representing experiences in wastewater management from 18 countries, recognize that:

    1.1 Wastewater (raw, diluted or treated) is a resource of increasing global importance, particularly in urban and peri-urban agriculture
    1.2 With proper management, wastewater use contributes significantly to sustaining livelihoods, food security and the quality of the environment
    1.3 Without proper management, wastewater use poses serious risks to human health and the environment.

  2. We declare that in order to enhance the positive outcomes while minimizing the risks of wastewater use, there exist feasible and sound measures that need to be applied. These measures include:

    2.1 Cost-effective and appropriate treatment suited to the end use of wastewater, supplemented by guidelines and their application
    2.2 Where wastewater is insufficiently treated, until treatment becomes feasible:
    (a) Development and application of guidelines for untreated wastewater use that safeguard livelihoods, public health and the environment
    (b) Application of appropriate irrigation, agricultural, post-harvest, and public health practices that limit risks to farming communities, vendors, and consumers
    (c) Education and awareness programs for all stakeholders, including the public at large, to disseminate these measures
    2.3 Health, agriculture and environmental quality guidelines that are linked and implemented in a step-wise approach
    2.4 Reduction of toxic contaminants in wastewater, at source and by improved management.

  3. We also declare that:

    3.1 Knowledge needs should be addressed through research to support the measures outlined above
    3.2 Institutional coordination and integration together with increased financial allocations are required.

  4. Therefore, we strongly urge policy-makers and authorities in the fields of water, agriculture, aquaculture, health, environment and urban planning, as well as donors and the private sector to:

    Safeguard and strengthen livelihoods and food security, mitigate health and environmental risks and conserve water resources by confronting the realities of wastewater use in agriculture through the adoption of appropriate policies and the commitment of financial resources for policy implementation.

Background to The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture

The use of urban wastewater in agriculture is a centuries old practice that is receiving renewed attention with the increasing scarcity of fresh water resources in many arid and semi-arid regions. Driven by rapid urbanization and growing wastewater volumes, wastewater is widely used as a low-cost alternative to conventional irrigation water; it supports livelihoods and generates considerable value in urban and peri-urban agriculture despite the health and environmental risks associated with this practice. Though pervasive, this practice is largely unregulated in low-income countries, and the costs and benefits are poorly understood.

The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture is a result of a workshop entitled "Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities" held 11-14 November 2002 in Hyderabad, India and sponsored by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI, based in Colombo, Sri Lanka) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, based in Ottawa, Canada). The workshop had the following objectives:

  • To critically review experience worldwide in the use of wastewater for agriculture
  • To present lessons learned from specific field-based case studies, including the environmental and health impacts and risks of wastewater use in agriculture
  • To refine a methodology developed and applied by IWMI for selected countries that seeks to assess the global extent of wastewater use in agriculture
  • To evaluate the institutional arrangements, constraints, and policy implications for sustained livelihoods based on wastewater use in agriculture
  • To build a wastewater "community of practice" integrating a variety of research, implementation and policy institutions and partners.

In the 14 November 2002 plenary session of the workshop, The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture was adopted by the following:

Signatories to The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Christopher Scott
International Water Management Institute, India
Naser Faruqui
International Development Research Centre, Canada
Richard Carr
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Ursula Blumenthal
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK
Felix Amerasinghe
International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka
Mark Redwood
International Development Research Centre, Canada
Gayathri Ramachandran
Environment Protection Training Research Institute, India
Shihab Najib Al-Beiruti
Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management, Jordan
Gordon Prain
CGIAR Strategic Initiative on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture, Peru
M.G. Gopal
Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board, India
Liqa Raschid
International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka
Frans Huibers
Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Samson Agodzo
Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Ghana
Madhumita Mukherjee
Dept. of Fisheries, Govt. of West Bengal, India
Torben Madsen
DHI Water & Environment, Denmark
Gez Cornish
HR Wallingford Limited, United Kingdom
Paula Silva
Hydraulic Engineer - Irrigation & Drainage, Mexico
P.S. Minhas
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, India
Seydou Niang
Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (IFAN), Senegal
Nader Al Khatib
Water and Environmental Developmental Organization, Palestine
Boghas Ghougassian
Middle East Centre for the Transfer of Appropriate Technology, Lebanon
Pay Drechsel
International Water Management Institute, Ghana
Shobha Shetty
World Bank, India
Michael Blummel
International Livestock Research Institute, India
A.K. Sengupta
World Health Organization, India
Yutaka Matsuno
Kinki University, Japan
Rene van Veenhuizen
Urban Agriculture Programme, ETC, The Netherlands
Andy Hall
Natural Resources Institute, Univ. of Greenwich, India
Bernard Keraita
International Water Management Institute, Ghana
Rob Simmons
International Water Management Institute, Thailand
Moataz Shalabi
Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany
Hammond Murray-Rust
International Water Management Institute, India
Sue Hainsworth
Editorial & Publishing Services, India
Vithal Rajan
Thinksoft Consultants Private Limited, India
Stephanie Buechler
International Water Management Institute, India
Uma Maheshwar Reddy
Osmania University, India
Peter McCornick
International Water Management Institute, USA
Gayathri Devi
International Water Management Institute, India
Neeltje Kielen
HR Wallingford Limited, United Kingdom
Jeroen Ensink
International Water Management Institute, India
Rama Devi
International Water Management Institute, India
Wim van der Hoek
International Water Management Institute, The Netherlands
Nitai Kundu
Institute of Wetland Management and Ecological Design, India
Max Haan
International Water Management Institute, India
Sarath Abayawardana
International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka
P. Narayana
International Water Management Institute, India
Jetske Bouma
International Water Management Institute, India
 

 

 

 
Presentations

Wastewater Use in Cochabamba, Bolivia: A degrading environment
(Powerpoint: 6.29 MB)

CEMCA: Content Design for Multimedia
(Powerpoint: 262 kb)

Wastewater irrigation - hazard or lifeline?
(Powerpoint: 6.02 MB)

IWMI-RUAF e-conf AGRICULTURAL USE OF UNTREATED URBAN WASTEWATER IN LOW INCOME COUNTRIES (june 2002)
(Power Point: 74.5 kb)

International Water Management Institute
(Powerpoint: 5.97 MB)

Wastewater irrigation - the need for a typology
(Powerpoint: 4.18 MB)

Wastewater irrigation - hazard or lifeline?
(Powerpoint: 4.02 MB)

Wastewater use typology
(Powerpoint: 30.4 MB)

The Strategic Initiative on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture: overview and report on wastewater research
(Powerpoint: 3.25 MB)

Untreated direct wastewater use; a Pakistan case study
(Powerpoint: 730 kb)

Reuse of Appropriately Treated Domestic Wastewater in Irrigated Agriculture
(Powerpoint: 6.46 MB)

Wastewater guidelines session
(Powerpoint: 34.5 kb)

Direct use of wastewater in Mexico
(Powerpoint: 84 kb)

WASTEWATER USE IN TUNISIA: EXPERIENCE TO DATE AND CHALLENGES AHEAD
(Powerpoint: 91.5 kb)

Use of Sewage in Agriculture: Some Experiences
(Powerpoint: 12.6 MB)

WHAT ARE THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFECTS ON WASTEWATER IRRIGATION BENEFITS?
(Powerpoint: 10.5 MB)

Vietnam Case study and the
Pitfalls in conducting a national assessment on wastewater use in agriculture
(Powerpoint: 632 kb)

A LIVELIHOODS APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF WASTEWATER USERS IN HYDERABAD, INDIA
(Powerpoint: 2.44 MB)

Wastewater Reuse in Dakar, Senegal
(Powerpoint: 4.41 MB)

Wastewater guidelines session
(Powerpoint: 4.63 MB)

Wastewater irrigation - hazard or life line?
(MS Word: 391 kb)

FEMALE LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES IN PERI-URBAN KOLKATA: NATURE, CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES
(MS Word: 3.56 MB)

Experts Meeting on Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture:Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities
(MS Word: 58.5 kb)

Priority research fields as defined during the Hyderabad Workshop (11-14 Nov 02)
(MS Word: 33.5 kb)

Some Estimates of Wastewater Irrigation Potential in Urban Ghana
(MS Word: 441 kb)

Workshop on "Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities" - 11th to 14th November 2002 - Participants List
(MS Word: 71 kb)


benchmark basins - research reports software - library services - resource pages
RESEARCH THEMES: Water for Agriculture - Smallholder Livelihoods Groundwater Policy & Institutions Health & Environment