Paal: Water-retaining structure in the 400-600 mm rainfall zone to force runoff to infiltrate into the soil, increasing the amount of water available for cultivation and to recharge groundwater. As a result, farmers were able to take up crops such as onion, millet, mustard and wheat during winter and vegetables during summer, and women became more involved in watershed management.
5% technology: Runoff is harvested and stored in a pit about 5% of the size of the irrigated fields, which is particularly appropriate for upland agriculture and when rainfall is erratic. The technique helped reduce weather-related risks that affect upland paddy cultivation, and allowed vegetable cultivation and fish farming.
Integrated land and water management: Communities make arrangements for land use (grazing, forest products) and water use (domestic, irrigation, groundwater recharge) specific to different parts of the catchment. Gradual improvement in land quality was observed, leading to increased crop yields.
Oorani: Multiple-use tanks and ponds in small communities, for drinking water, aquaculture, irrigation and groundwater recharge. Restoration of these tanks provides a preferred source of drinking water, saving 365 hours or 45 working days per household that were spent on fetching water. Health is improved, and children attend school more regularly.
Wastewater: Use of wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in semiarid areas provides water and nutrients and can be very productive. Pollution of surface water and groundwater is a drawback. Using the wastewater for nonedible cash crops can reduce some health risks.
Drip irrigation: Small-scale drip irrigation for vegetables. Popular with women and good for food security. Utilizing this technology resulted in water savings of 50% and yield increases of 30 to 50%. Higher incomes have resulted in better nutrition.